File: overlapped.c

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/*
 * Support for overlapped IO
 *
 * Some code borrowed from Modules/_winapi.c of CPython
 */

/* XXX check overflow and DWORD <-> Py_ssize_t conversions
   Check itemsize */

#include "Python.h"
#include "structmember.h"

#define WINDOWS_LEAN_AND_MEAN
#include <winsock2.h>
#include <ws2tcpip.h>
#include <mswsock.h>

#if defined(MS_WIN32) && !defined(MS_WIN64)
#  define F_POINTER "k"
#  define T_POINTER T_ULONG
#else
#  define F_POINTER "K"
#  define T_POINTER T_ULONGLONG
#endif

#define F_HANDLE F_POINTER
#define F_ULONG_PTR F_POINTER
#define F_DWORD "k"
#define F_BOOL "i"
#define F_UINT "I"

#define T_HANDLE T_POINTER

#if PY_MAJOR_VERSION >= 3
#  define PYTHON3
#endif

#ifndef Py_MIN
#  define Py_MIN(X, Y) (((X) < (Y)) ? (X) : (Y))
#endif

#ifndef Py_MAX
#  define Py_MAX(X, Y) (((X) > (Y)) ? (X) : (Y))
#endif

enum {TYPE_NONE, TYPE_NOT_STARTED, TYPE_READ, TYPE_WRITE, TYPE_ACCEPT,
      TYPE_CONNECT, TYPE_DISCONNECT, TYPE_CONNECT_NAMED_PIPE,
      TYPE_WAIT_NAMED_PIPE_AND_CONNECT};

typedef struct {
    PyObject_HEAD
    OVERLAPPED overlapped;
    /* For convenience, we store the file handle too */
    HANDLE handle;
    /* Error returned by last method call */
    DWORD error;
    /* Type of operation */
    DWORD type;
    union {
        /* Buffer used for reading: TYPE_READ and TYPE_ACCEPT */
        PyObject *read_buffer;
        /* Buffer used for writing: TYPE_WRITE */
        Py_buffer write_buffer;
    };
} OverlappedObject;

/*
 * Map Windows error codes to subclasses of OSError
 */

static PyObject *
SetFromWindowsErr(DWORD err)
{
    PyObject *exception_type;

    if (err == 0)
        err = GetLastError();
#if (PY_MAJOR_VERSION == 3 && PY_MINOR_VERSION >= 3) || PY_MAJOR_VERSION > 3
    switch (err) {
        case ERROR_CONNECTION_REFUSED:
            exception_type = PyExc_ConnectionRefusedError;
            break;
        case ERROR_CONNECTION_ABORTED:
            exception_type = PyExc_ConnectionAbortedError;
            break;
        default:
            exception_type = PyExc_OSError;
    }
#else
    exception_type = PyExc_WindowsError;
#endif
    return PyErr_SetExcFromWindowsErr(exception_type, err);
}

/*
 * Some functions should be loaded at runtime
 */

static LPFN_ACCEPTEX Py_AcceptEx = NULL;
static LPFN_CONNECTEX Py_ConnectEx = NULL;
static LPFN_DISCONNECTEX Py_DisconnectEx = NULL;
static BOOL (CALLBACK *Py_CancelIoEx)(HANDLE, LPOVERLAPPED) = NULL;

#define GET_WSA_POINTER(s, x)                                           \
    (SOCKET_ERROR != WSAIoctl(s, SIO_GET_EXTENSION_FUNCTION_POINTER,    \
                              &Guid##x, sizeof(Guid##x), &Py_##x,       \
                              sizeof(Py_##x), &dwBytes, NULL, NULL))

static int
initialize_function_pointers(void)
{
    GUID GuidAcceptEx = WSAID_ACCEPTEX;
    GUID GuidConnectEx = WSAID_CONNECTEX;
    GUID GuidDisconnectEx = WSAID_DISCONNECTEX;
    HINSTANCE hKernel32;
    SOCKET s;
    DWORD dwBytes;

    s = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, IPPROTO_TCP);
    if (s == INVALID_SOCKET) {
        SetFromWindowsErr(WSAGetLastError());
        return -1;
    }

    if (!GET_WSA_POINTER(s, AcceptEx) ||
        !GET_WSA_POINTER(s, ConnectEx) ||
        !GET_WSA_POINTER(s, DisconnectEx))
    {
        closesocket(s);
        SetFromWindowsErr(WSAGetLastError());
        return -1;
    }

    closesocket(s);

    /* On WinXP we will have Py_CancelIoEx == NULL */
    hKernel32 = GetModuleHandle("KERNEL32");
    *(FARPROC *)&Py_CancelIoEx = GetProcAddress(hKernel32, "CancelIoEx");
    return 0;
}

/*
 * Completion port stuff
 */

PyDoc_STRVAR(
    CreateIoCompletionPort_doc,
    "CreateIoCompletionPort(handle, port, key, concurrency) -> port\n\n"
    "Create a completion port or register a handle with a port.");

static PyObject *
overlapped_CreateIoCompletionPort(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    HANDLE FileHandle;
    HANDLE ExistingCompletionPort;
    ULONG_PTR CompletionKey;
    DWORD NumberOfConcurrentThreads;
    HANDLE ret;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, F_HANDLE F_HANDLE F_ULONG_PTR F_DWORD,
                          &FileHandle, &ExistingCompletionPort, &CompletionKey,
                          &NumberOfConcurrentThreads))
        return NULL;

    Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS
    ret = CreateIoCompletionPort(FileHandle, ExistingCompletionPort,
                                 CompletionKey, NumberOfConcurrentThreads);
    Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS

    if (ret == NULL)
        return SetFromWindowsErr(0);
    return Py_BuildValue(F_HANDLE, ret);
}

PyDoc_STRVAR(
    GetQueuedCompletionStatus_doc,
    "GetQueuedCompletionStatus(port, msecs) -> (err, bytes, key, address)\n\n"
    "Get a message from completion port.  Wait for up to msecs milliseconds.");

static PyObject *
overlapped_GetQueuedCompletionStatus(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    HANDLE CompletionPort = NULL;
    DWORD NumberOfBytes = 0;
    ULONG_PTR CompletionKey = 0;
    OVERLAPPED *Overlapped = NULL;
    DWORD Milliseconds;
    DWORD err;
    BOOL ret;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, F_HANDLE F_DWORD,
                          &CompletionPort, &Milliseconds))
        return NULL;

    Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS
    ret = GetQueuedCompletionStatus(CompletionPort, &NumberOfBytes,
                                    &CompletionKey, &Overlapped, Milliseconds);
    Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS

    err = ret ? ERROR_SUCCESS : GetLastError();
    if (Overlapped == NULL) {
        if (err == WAIT_TIMEOUT)
            Py_RETURN_NONE;
        else
            return SetFromWindowsErr(err);
    }
    return Py_BuildValue(F_DWORD F_DWORD F_ULONG_PTR F_POINTER,
                         err, NumberOfBytes, CompletionKey, Overlapped);
}

PyDoc_STRVAR(
    PostQueuedCompletionStatus_doc,
    "PostQueuedCompletionStatus(port, bytes, key, address) -> None\n\n"
    "Post a message to completion port.");

static PyObject *
overlapped_PostQueuedCompletionStatus(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    HANDLE CompletionPort;
    DWORD NumberOfBytes;
    ULONG_PTR CompletionKey;
    OVERLAPPED *Overlapped;
    BOOL ret;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, F_HANDLE F_DWORD F_ULONG_PTR F_POINTER,
                          &CompletionPort, &NumberOfBytes, &CompletionKey,
                          &Overlapped))
        return NULL;

    Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS
    ret = PostQueuedCompletionStatus(CompletionPort, NumberOfBytes,
                                     CompletionKey, Overlapped);
    Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS

    if (!ret)
        return SetFromWindowsErr(0);
    Py_RETURN_NONE;
}

/*
 * Wait for a handle
 */

struct PostCallbackData {
    HANDLE CompletionPort;
    LPOVERLAPPED Overlapped;
};

static VOID CALLBACK
PostToQueueCallback(PVOID lpParameter, BOOL TimerOrWaitFired)
{
    struct PostCallbackData *p = (struct PostCallbackData*) lpParameter;

    PostQueuedCompletionStatus(p->CompletionPort, TimerOrWaitFired,
                               0, p->Overlapped);
    /* ignore possible error! */
    PyMem_Free(p);
}

PyDoc_STRVAR(
    RegisterWaitWithQueue_doc,
    "RegisterWaitWithQueue(Object, CompletionPort, Overlapped, Timeout)\n"
    "    -> WaitHandle\n\n"
    "Register wait for Object; when complete CompletionPort is notified.\n");

static PyObject *
overlapped_RegisterWaitWithQueue(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    HANDLE NewWaitObject;
    HANDLE Object;
    ULONG Milliseconds;
    struct PostCallbackData data, *pdata;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, F_HANDLE F_HANDLE F_POINTER F_DWORD,
                          &Object,
                          &data.CompletionPort,
                          &data.Overlapped,
                          &Milliseconds))
        return NULL;

    pdata = PyMem_Malloc(sizeof(struct PostCallbackData));
    if (pdata == NULL)
        return SetFromWindowsErr(0);

    *pdata = data;

    if (!RegisterWaitForSingleObject(
            &NewWaitObject, Object, (WAITORTIMERCALLBACK)PostToQueueCallback,
            pdata, Milliseconds,
            WT_EXECUTEINWAITTHREAD | WT_EXECUTEONLYONCE))
    {
        PyMem_Free(pdata);
        return SetFromWindowsErr(0);
    }

    return Py_BuildValue(F_HANDLE, NewWaitObject);
}

PyDoc_STRVAR(
    UnregisterWait_doc,
    "UnregisterWait(WaitHandle) -> None\n\n"
    "Unregister wait handle.\n");

static PyObject *
overlapped_UnregisterWait(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    HANDLE WaitHandle;
    BOOL ret;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, F_HANDLE, &WaitHandle))
        return NULL;

    Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS
    ret = UnregisterWait(WaitHandle);
    Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS

    if (!ret)
        return SetFromWindowsErr(0);
    Py_RETURN_NONE;
}

PyDoc_STRVAR(
    UnregisterWaitEx_doc,
    "UnregisterWaitEx(WaitHandle, Event) -> None\n\n"
    "Unregister wait handle.\n");

static PyObject *
overlapped_UnregisterWaitEx(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    HANDLE WaitHandle, Event;
    BOOL ret;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, F_HANDLE F_HANDLE, &WaitHandle, &Event))
        return NULL;

    Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS
    ret = UnregisterWaitEx(WaitHandle, Event);
    Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS

    if (!ret)
        return SetFromWindowsErr(0);
    Py_RETURN_NONE;
}

/*
 * Event functions -- currently only used by tests
 */

PyDoc_STRVAR(
    CreateEvent_doc,
    "CreateEvent(EventAttributes, ManualReset, InitialState, Name)"
    " -> Handle\n\n"
    "Create an event.  EventAttributes must be None.\n");

static PyObject *
overlapped_CreateEvent(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    PyObject *EventAttributes;
    BOOL ManualReset;
    BOOL InitialState;
    Py_UNICODE *Name;
    HANDLE Event;

#ifdef PYTHON3
    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "O" F_BOOL F_BOOL "Z",
#else
    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "O" F_BOOL F_BOOL "z",
#endif
                          &EventAttributes, &ManualReset,
                          &InitialState, &Name))
        return NULL;

    if (EventAttributes != Py_None) {
        PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "EventAttributes must be None");
        return NULL;
    }

    Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS
    Event = CreateEventW(NULL, ManualReset, InitialState, Name);
    Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS

    if (Event == NULL)
        return SetFromWindowsErr(0);
    return Py_BuildValue(F_HANDLE, Event);
}

PyDoc_STRVAR(
    SetEvent_doc,
    "SetEvent(Handle) -> None\n\n"
    "Set event.\n");

static PyObject *
overlapped_SetEvent(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    HANDLE Handle;
    BOOL ret;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, F_HANDLE, &Handle))
        return NULL;

    Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS
    ret = SetEvent(Handle);
    Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS

    if (!ret)
        return SetFromWindowsErr(0);
    Py_RETURN_NONE;
}

PyDoc_STRVAR(
    ResetEvent_doc,
    "ResetEvent(Handle) -> None\n\n"
    "Reset event.\n");

static PyObject *
overlapped_ResetEvent(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    HANDLE Handle;
    BOOL ret;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, F_HANDLE, &Handle))
        return NULL;

    Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS
    ret = ResetEvent(Handle);
    Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS

    if (!ret)
        return SetFromWindowsErr(0);
    Py_RETURN_NONE;
}

/*
 * Bind socket handle to local port without doing slow getaddrinfo()
 */

PyDoc_STRVAR(
    BindLocal_doc,
    "BindLocal(handle, family) -> None\n\n"
    "Bind a socket handle to an arbitrary local port.\n"
    "family should AF_INET or AF_INET6.\n");

static PyObject *
overlapped_BindLocal(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    SOCKET Socket;
    int Family;
    BOOL ret;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, F_HANDLE "i", &Socket, &Family))
        return NULL;

    if (Family == AF_INET) {
        struct sockaddr_in addr;
        memset(&addr, 0, sizeof(addr));
        addr.sin_family = AF_INET;
        addr.sin_port = 0;
        addr.sin_addr.S_un.S_addr = INADDR_ANY;
        ret = bind(Socket, (SOCKADDR*)&addr, sizeof(addr)) != SOCKET_ERROR;
    } else if (Family == AF_INET6) {
        struct sockaddr_in6 addr;
        memset(&addr, 0, sizeof(addr));
        addr.sin6_family = AF_INET6;
        addr.sin6_port = 0;
        addr.sin6_addr = in6addr_any;
        ret = bind(Socket, (SOCKADDR*)&addr, sizeof(addr)) != SOCKET_ERROR;
    } else {
        PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "expected tuple of length 2 or 4");
        return NULL;
    }

    if (!ret)
        return SetFromWindowsErr(WSAGetLastError());
    Py_RETURN_NONE;
}

/*
 * Windows equivalent of os.strerror() -- compare _ctypes/callproc.c
 */

PyDoc_STRVAR(
    FormatMessage_doc,
    "FormatMessage(error_code) -> error_message\n\n"
    "Return error message for an error code.");

static PyObject *
overlapped_FormatMessage(PyObject *ignore, PyObject *args)
{
    DWORD code, n;
    WCHAR *lpMsgBuf;
    PyObject *res;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, F_DWORD, &code))
        return NULL;

    n = FormatMessageW(FORMAT_MESSAGE_ALLOCATE_BUFFER |
                       FORMAT_MESSAGE_FROM_SYSTEM,
                       NULL,
                       code,
                       MAKELANGID(LANG_NEUTRAL, SUBLANG_DEFAULT),
                       (LPWSTR) &lpMsgBuf,
                       0,
                       NULL);
    if (n) {
        while (iswspace(lpMsgBuf[n-1]))
            --n;
        lpMsgBuf[n] = L'\0';
        res = Py_BuildValue("u", lpMsgBuf);
    } else {
        res = PyUnicode_FromFormat("unknown error code %u", code);
    }
    LocalFree(lpMsgBuf);
    return res;
}


/*
 * Mark operation as completed - used when reading produces ERROR_BROKEN_PIPE
 */

static void
mark_as_completed(OVERLAPPED *ov)
{
    ov->Internal = 0;
    if (ov->hEvent != NULL)
        SetEvent(ov->hEvent);
}

/*
 * A Python object wrapping an OVERLAPPED structure and other useful data
 * for overlapped I/O
 */

PyDoc_STRVAR(
    Overlapped_doc,
    "Overlapped object");

static PyObject *
Overlapped_new(PyTypeObject *type, PyObject *args, PyObject *kwds)
{
    OverlappedObject *self;
    HANDLE event = INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE;
    static char *kwlist[] = {"event", NULL};

    if (!PyArg_ParseTupleAndKeywords(args, kwds, "|" F_HANDLE, kwlist, &event))
        return NULL;

    if (event == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE) {
        event = CreateEvent(NULL, TRUE, FALSE, NULL);
        if (event == NULL)
            return SetFromWindowsErr(0);
    }

    self = PyObject_New(OverlappedObject, type);
    if (self == NULL) {
        if (event != NULL)
            CloseHandle(event);
        return NULL;
    }

    self->handle = NULL;
    self->error = 0;
    self->type = TYPE_NONE;
    self->read_buffer = NULL;
    memset(&self->overlapped, 0, sizeof(OVERLAPPED));
    memset(&self->write_buffer, 0, sizeof(Py_buffer));
    if (event)
        self->overlapped.hEvent = event;
    return (PyObject *)self;
}

static void
Overlapped_dealloc(OverlappedObject *self)
{
    DWORD bytes;
    DWORD olderr = GetLastError();
    BOOL wait = FALSE;
    BOOL ret;

    if (!HasOverlappedIoCompleted(&self->overlapped) &&
        self->type != TYPE_NOT_STARTED)
    {
        if (Py_CancelIoEx && Py_CancelIoEx(self->handle, &self->overlapped))
            wait = TRUE;

        Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS
        ret = GetOverlappedResult(self->handle, &self->overlapped,
                                  &bytes, wait);
        Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS

        switch (ret ? ERROR_SUCCESS : GetLastError()) {
            case ERROR_SUCCESS:
            case ERROR_NOT_FOUND:
            case ERROR_OPERATION_ABORTED:
                break;
            default:
                PyErr_Format(
                    PyExc_RuntimeError,
                    "%R still has pending operation at "
                    "deallocation, the process may crash", self);
                PyErr_WriteUnraisable(NULL);
        }
    }

    if (self->overlapped.hEvent != NULL)
        CloseHandle(self->overlapped.hEvent);

    switch (self->type) {
    case TYPE_READ:
    case TYPE_ACCEPT:
        Py_CLEAR(self->read_buffer);
        break;
    case TYPE_WRITE:
        if (self->write_buffer.obj)
            PyBuffer_Release(&self->write_buffer);
        break;
    }
    PyObject_Del(self);
    SetLastError(olderr);
}

PyDoc_STRVAR(
    Overlapped_cancel_doc,
    "cancel() -> None\n\n"
    "Cancel overlapped operation");

static PyObject *
Overlapped_cancel(OverlappedObject *self)
{
    BOOL ret = TRUE;

    if (self->type == TYPE_NOT_STARTED
        || self->type == TYPE_WAIT_NAMED_PIPE_AND_CONNECT)
        Py_RETURN_NONE;

    if (!HasOverlappedIoCompleted(&self->overlapped)) {
        Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS
        if (Py_CancelIoEx)
            ret = Py_CancelIoEx(self->handle, &self->overlapped);
        else
            ret = CancelIo(self->handle);
        Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS
    }

    /* CancelIoEx returns ERROR_NOT_FOUND if the I/O completed in-between */
    if (!ret && GetLastError() != ERROR_NOT_FOUND)
        return SetFromWindowsErr(0);
    Py_RETURN_NONE;
}

PyDoc_STRVAR(
    Overlapped_getresult_doc,
    "getresult(wait=False) -> result\n\n"
    "Retrieve result of operation.  If wait is true then it blocks\n"
    "until the operation is finished.  If wait is false and the\n"
    "operation is still pending then an error is raised.");

static PyObject *
Overlapped_getresult(OverlappedObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    BOOL wait = FALSE;
    DWORD transferred = 0;
    BOOL ret;
    DWORD err;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "|" F_BOOL, &wait))
        return NULL;

    if (self->type == TYPE_NONE) {
        PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "operation not yet attempted");
        return NULL;
    }

    if (self->type == TYPE_NOT_STARTED) {
        PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "operation failed to start");
        return NULL;
    }

    Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS
    ret = GetOverlappedResult(self->handle, &self->overlapped, &transferred,
                              wait);
    Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS

    self->error = err = ret ? ERROR_SUCCESS : GetLastError();
    switch (err) {
        case ERROR_SUCCESS:
        case ERROR_MORE_DATA:
            break;
        case ERROR_BROKEN_PIPE:
            if ((self->type == TYPE_READ || self->type == TYPE_ACCEPT) && self->read_buffer != NULL)
                break;
            /* fall through */
        default:
            return SetFromWindowsErr(err);
    }

    switch (self->type) {
        case TYPE_READ:
            assert(PyBytes_CheckExact(self->read_buffer));
            if (transferred != PyBytes_GET_SIZE(self->read_buffer) &&
                _PyBytes_Resize(&self->read_buffer, transferred))
                return NULL;
            Py_INCREF(self->read_buffer);
            return self->read_buffer;
        default:
            return PyLong_FromUnsignedLong((unsigned long) transferred);
    }
}

PyDoc_STRVAR(
    Overlapped_ReadFile_doc,
    "ReadFile(handle, size) -> Overlapped[message]\n\n"
    "Start overlapped read");

static PyObject *
Overlapped_ReadFile(OverlappedObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    HANDLE handle;
    DWORD size;
    DWORD nread;
    PyObject *buf;
    BOOL ret;
    DWORD err;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, F_HANDLE F_DWORD, &handle, &size))
        return NULL;

    if (self->type != TYPE_NONE) {
        PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "operation already attempted");
        return NULL;
    }

#if SIZEOF_SIZE_T <= SIZEOF_LONG
    size = Py_MIN(size, (DWORD)PY_SSIZE_T_MAX);
#endif
    buf = PyBytes_FromStringAndSize(NULL, Py_MAX(size, 1));
    if (buf == NULL)
        return NULL;

    self->type = TYPE_READ;
    self->handle = handle;
    self->read_buffer = buf;

    Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS
    ret = ReadFile(handle, PyBytes_AS_STRING(buf), size, &nread,
                   &self->overlapped);
    Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS

    self->error = err = ret ? ERROR_SUCCESS : GetLastError();
    switch (err) {
        case ERROR_BROKEN_PIPE:
            mark_as_completed(&self->overlapped);
            return SetFromWindowsErr(err);
        case ERROR_SUCCESS:
        case ERROR_MORE_DATA:
        case ERROR_IO_PENDING:
            Py_RETURN_NONE;
        default:
            self->type = TYPE_NOT_STARTED;
            return SetFromWindowsErr(err);
    }
}

PyDoc_STRVAR(
    Overlapped_WSARecv_doc,
    "RecvFile(handle, size, flags) -> Overlapped[message]\n\n"
    "Start overlapped receive");

static PyObject *
Overlapped_WSARecv(OverlappedObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    HANDLE handle;
    DWORD size;
    DWORD flags = 0;
    DWORD nread;
    PyObject *buf;
    WSABUF wsabuf;
    int ret;
    DWORD err;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, F_HANDLE F_DWORD "|" F_DWORD,
                          &handle, &size, &flags))
        return NULL;

    if (self->type != TYPE_NONE) {
        PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "operation already attempted");
        return NULL;
    }

#if SIZEOF_SIZE_T <= SIZEOF_LONG
    size = Py_MIN(size, (DWORD)PY_SSIZE_T_MAX);
#endif
    buf = PyBytes_FromStringAndSize(NULL, Py_MAX(size, 1));
    if (buf == NULL)
        return NULL;

    self->type = TYPE_READ;
    self->handle = handle;
    self->read_buffer = buf;
    wsabuf.len = size;
    wsabuf.buf = PyBytes_AS_STRING(buf);

    Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS
    ret = WSARecv((SOCKET)handle, &wsabuf, 1, &nread, &flags,
                  &self->overlapped, NULL);
    Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS

    self->error = err = (ret < 0 ? WSAGetLastError() : ERROR_SUCCESS);
    switch (err) {
        case ERROR_BROKEN_PIPE:
            mark_as_completed(&self->overlapped);
            return SetFromWindowsErr(err);
        case ERROR_SUCCESS:
        case ERROR_MORE_DATA:
        case ERROR_IO_PENDING:
            Py_RETURN_NONE;
        default:
            self->type = TYPE_NOT_STARTED;
            return SetFromWindowsErr(err);
    }
}

PyDoc_STRVAR(
    Overlapped_WriteFile_doc,
    "WriteFile(handle, buf) -> Overlapped[bytes_transferred]\n\n"
    "Start overlapped write");

static PyObject *
Overlapped_WriteFile(OverlappedObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    HANDLE handle;
    PyObject *bufobj;
    DWORD written;
    BOOL ret;
    DWORD err;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, F_HANDLE "O", &handle, &bufobj))
        return NULL;

    if (self->type != TYPE_NONE) {
        PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "operation already attempted");
        return NULL;
    }

#ifdef PYTHON3
    if (!PyArg_Parse(bufobj, "y*", &self->write_buffer))
#else
    if (!PyArg_Parse(bufobj, "s*", &self->write_buffer))
#endif
        return NULL;

#if SIZEOF_SIZE_T > SIZEOF_LONG
    if (self->write_buffer.len > (Py_ssize_t)ULONG_MAX) {
        PyBuffer_Release(&self->write_buffer);
        PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "buffer to large");
        return NULL;
    }
#endif

    self->type = TYPE_WRITE;
    self->handle = handle;

    Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS
    ret = WriteFile(handle, self->write_buffer.buf,
                    (DWORD)self->write_buffer.len,
                    &written, &self->overlapped);
    Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS

    self->error = err = ret ? ERROR_SUCCESS : GetLastError();
    switch (err) {
        case ERROR_SUCCESS:
        case ERROR_IO_PENDING:
            Py_RETURN_NONE;
        default:
            self->type = TYPE_NOT_STARTED;
            return SetFromWindowsErr(err);
    }
}

PyDoc_STRVAR(
    Overlapped_WSASend_doc,
    "WSASend(handle, buf, flags) -> Overlapped[bytes_transferred]\n\n"
    "Start overlapped send");

static PyObject *
Overlapped_WSASend(OverlappedObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    HANDLE handle;
    PyObject *bufobj;
    DWORD flags;
    DWORD written;
    WSABUF wsabuf;
    int ret;
    DWORD err;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, F_HANDLE "O" F_DWORD,
                          &handle, &bufobj, &flags))
        return NULL;

    if (self->type != TYPE_NONE) {
        PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "operation already attempted");
        return NULL;
    }

#ifdef PYTHON3
    if (!PyArg_Parse(bufobj, "y*", &self->write_buffer))
#else
    if (!PyArg_Parse(bufobj, "s*", &self->write_buffer))
#endif
        return NULL;

#if SIZEOF_SIZE_T > SIZEOF_LONG
    if (self->write_buffer.len > (Py_ssize_t)ULONG_MAX) {
        PyBuffer_Release(&self->write_buffer);
        PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "buffer to large");
        return NULL;
    }
#endif

    self->type = TYPE_WRITE;
    self->handle = handle;
    wsabuf.len = (DWORD)self->write_buffer.len;
    wsabuf.buf = self->write_buffer.buf;

    Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS
    ret = WSASend((SOCKET)handle, &wsabuf, 1, &written, flags,
                  &self->overlapped, NULL);
    Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS

    self->error = err = (ret < 0 ? WSAGetLastError() : ERROR_SUCCESS);
    switch (err) {
        case ERROR_SUCCESS:
        case ERROR_IO_PENDING:
            Py_RETURN_NONE;
        default:
            self->type = TYPE_NOT_STARTED;
            return SetFromWindowsErr(err);
    }
}

PyDoc_STRVAR(
    Overlapped_AcceptEx_doc,
    "AcceptEx(listen_handle, accept_handle) -> Overlapped[address_as_bytes]\n\n"
    "Start overlapped wait for client to connect");

static PyObject *
Overlapped_AcceptEx(OverlappedObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    SOCKET ListenSocket;
    SOCKET AcceptSocket;
    DWORD BytesReceived;
    DWORD size;
    PyObject *buf;
    BOOL ret;
    DWORD err;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, F_HANDLE F_HANDLE,
                          &ListenSocket, &AcceptSocket))
        return NULL;

    if (self->type != TYPE_NONE) {
        PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "operation already attempted");
        return NULL;
    }

    size = sizeof(struct sockaddr_in6) + 16;
    buf = PyBytes_FromStringAndSize(NULL, size*2);
    if (!buf)
        return NULL;

    self->type = TYPE_ACCEPT;
    self->handle = (HANDLE)ListenSocket;
    self->read_buffer = buf;

    Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS
    ret = Py_AcceptEx(ListenSocket, AcceptSocket, PyBytes_AS_STRING(buf),
                      0, size, size, &BytesReceived, &self->overlapped);
    Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS

    self->error = err = ret ? ERROR_SUCCESS : WSAGetLastError();
    switch (err) {
        case ERROR_SUCCESS:
        case ERROR_IO_PENDING:
            Py_RETURN_NONE;
        default:
            self->type = TYPE_NOT_STARTED;
            return SetFromWindowsErr(err);
    }
}


static int
parse_address(PyObject *obj, SOCKADDR *Address, int Length)
{
    char *Host;
    unsigned short Port;
    unsigned long FlowInfo;
    unsigned long ScopeId;

    memset(Address, 0, Length);

    if (PyArg_ParseTuple(obj, "sH", &Host, &Port))
    {
        Address->sa_family = AF_INET;
        if (WSAStringToAddressA(Host, AF_INET, NULL, Address, &Length) < 0) {
            SetFromWindowsErr(WSAGetLastError());
            return -1;
        }
        ((SOCKADDR_IN*)Address)->sin_port = htons(Port);
        return Length;
    }
    else if (PyArg_ParseTuple(obj, "sHkk", &Host, &Port, &FlowInfo, &ScopeId))
    {
        PyErr_Clear();
        Address->sa_family = AF_INET6;
        if (WSAStringToAddressA(Host, AF_INET6, NULL, Address, &Length) < 0) {
            SetFromWindowsErr(WSAGetLastError());
            return -1;
        }
        ((SOCKADDR_IN6*)Address)->sin6_port = htons(Port);
        ((SOCKADDR_IN6*)Address)->sin6_flowinfo = FlowInfo;
        ((SOCKADDR_IN6*)Address)->sin6_scope_id = ScopeId;
        return Length;
    }

    return -1;
}


PyDoc_STRVAR(
    Overlapped_ConnectEx_doc,
    "ConnectEx(client_handle, address_as_bytes) -> Overlapped[None]\n\n"
    "Start overlapped connect.  client_handle should be unbound.");

static PyObject *
Overlapped_ConnectEx(OverlappedObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    SOCKET ConnectSocket;
    PyObject *AddressObj;
    char AddressBuf[sizeof(struct sockaddr_in6)];
    SOCKADDR *Address = (SOCKADDR*)AddressBuf;
    int Length;
    BOOL ret;
    DWORD err;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, F_HANDLE "O", &ConnectSocket, &AddressObj))
        return NULL;

    if (self->type != TYPE_NONE) {
        PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "operation already attempted");
        return NULL;
    }

    Length = sizeof(AddressBuf);
    Length = parse_address(AddressObj, Address, Length);
    if (Length < 0)
        return NULL;

    self->type = TYPE_CONNECT;
    self->handle = (HANDLE)ConnectSocket;

    Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS
    ret = Py_ConnectEx(ConnectSocket, Address, Length,
                       NULL, 0, NULL, &self->overlapped);
    Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS

    self->error = err = ret ? ERROR_SUCCESS : WSAGetLastError();
    switch (err) {
        case ERROR_SUCCESS:
        case ERROR_IO_PENDING:
            Py_RETURN_NONE;
        default:
            self->type = TYPE_NOT_STARTED;
            return SetFromWindowsErr(err);
    }
}

PyDoc_STRVAR(
    Overlapped_DisconnectEx_doc,
    "DisconnectEx(handle, flags) -> Overlapped[None]\n\n"
    "Start overlapped connect.  client_handle should be unbound.");

static PyObject *
Overlapped_DisconnectEx(OverlappedObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    SOCKET Socket;
    DWORD flags;
    BOOL ret;
    DWORD err;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, F_HANDLE F_DWORD, &Socket, &flags))
        return NULL;

    if (self->type != TYPE_NONE) {
        PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "operation already attempted");
        return NULL;
    }

    self->type = TYPE_DISCONNECT;
    self->handle = (HANDLE)Socket;

    Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS
    ret = Py_DisconnectEx(Socket, &self->overlapped, flags, 0);
    Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS

    self->error = err = ret ? ERROR_SUCCESS : WSAGetLastError();
    switch (err) {
        case ERROR_SUCCESS:
        case ERROR_IO_PENDING:
            Py_RETURN_NONE;
        default:
            self->type = TYPE_NOT_STARTED;
            return SetFromWindowsErr(err);
    }
}

PyDoc_STRVAR(
    Overlapped_ConnectNamedPipe_doc,
    "ConnectNamedPipe(handle) -> Overlapped[None]\n\n"
    "Start overlapped wait for a client to connect.");

static PyObject *
Overlapped_ConnectNamedPipe(OverlappedObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    HANDLE Pipe;
    BOOL ret;
    DWORD err;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, F_HANDLE, &Pipe))
        return NULL;

    if (self->type != TYPE_NONE) {
        PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "operation already attempted");
        return NULL;
    }

    self->type = TYPE_CONNECT_NAMED_PIPE;
    self->handle = Pipe;

    Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS
    ret = ConnectNamedPipe(Pipe, &self->overlapped);
    Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS

    self->error = err = ret ? ERROR_SUCCESS : GetLastError();
    switch (err) {
        case ERROR_PIPE_CONNECTED:
            mark_as_completed(&self->overlapped);
            Py_RETURN_TRUE;
        case ERROR_SUCCESS:
        case ERROR_IO_PENDING:
            Py_RETURN_FALSE;
        default:
            self->type = TYPE_NOT_STARTED;
            return SetFromWindowsErr(err);
    }
}

PyDoc_STRVAR(
    ConnectPipe_doc,
    "ConnectPipe(addr) -> pipe_handle\n\n"
    "Connect to the pipe for asynchronous I/O (overlapped).");

static PyObject *
ConnectPipe(OverlappedObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    PyObject *AddressObj;
    HANDLE PipeHandle;
#ifdef PYTHON3
    wchar_t *Address;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "U",  &AddressObj))
        return NULL;

    Address = PyUnicode_AsWideCharString(AddressObj, NULL);
    if (Address == NULL)
        return NULL;

#   define CREATE_FILE CreateFileW
#else
    char *Address;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "s",  &Address))
        return NULL;

#   define CREATE_FILE CreateFileA
#endif

    Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS
    PipeHandle = CREATE_FILE(Address,
                             GENERIC_READ | GENERIC_WRITE,
                             0, NULL, OPEN_EXISTING,
                             FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED, NULL);
    Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS

#ifdef PYTHON3
    PyMem_Free(Address);
#endif
    if (PipeHandle == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)
        return SetFromWindowsErr(0);
    return Py_BuildValue(F_HANDLE, PipeHandle);
}

static PyObject*
Overlapped_getaddress(OverlappedObject *self)
{
    return PyLong_FromVoidPtr(&self->overlapped);
}

static PyObject*
Overlapped_getpending(OverlappedObject *self)
{
    return PyBool_FromLong(!HasOverlappedIoCompleted(&self->overlapped) &&
                           self->type != TYPE_NOT_STARTED);
}

static PyMethodDef Overlapped_methods[] = {
    {"getresult", (PyCFunction) Overlapped_getresult,
     METH_VARARGS, Overlapped_getresult_doc},
    {"cancel", (PyCFunction) Overlapped_cancel,
     METH_NOARGS, Overlapped_cancel_doc},
    {"ReadFile", (PyCFunction) Overlapped_ReadFile,
     METH_VARARGS, Overlapped_ReadFile_doc},
    {"WSARecv", (PyCFunction) Overlapped_WSARecv,
     METH_VARARGS, Overlapped_WSARecv_doc},
    {"WriteFile", (PyCFunction) Overlapped_WriteFile,
     METH_VARARGS, Overlapped_WriteFile_doc},
    {"WSASend", (PyCFunction) Overlapped_WSASend,
     METH_VARARGS, Overlapped_WSASend_doc},
    {"AcceptEx", (PyCFunction) Overlapped_AcceptEx,
     METH_VARARGS, Overlapped_AcceptEx_doc},
    {"ConnectEx", (PyCFunction) Overlapped_ConnectEx,
     METH_VARARGS, Overlapped_ConnectEx_doc},
    {"DisconnectEx", (PyCFunction) Overlapped_DisconnectEx,
     METH_VARARGS, Overlapped_DisconnectEx_doc},
    {"ConnectNamedPipe", (PyCFunction) Overlapped_ConnectNamedPipe,
     METH_VARARGS, Overlapped_ConnectNamedPipe_doc},
    {NULL}
};

static PyMemberDef Overlapped_members[] = {
    {"error", T_ULONG,
     offsetof(OverlappedObject, error),
     READONLY, "Error from last operation"},
    {"event", T_HANDLE,
     offsetof(OverlappedObject, overlapped) + offsetof(OVERLAPPED, hEvent),
     READONLY, "Overlapped event handle"},
    {NULL}
};

static PyGetSetDef Overlapped_getsets[] = {
    {"address", (getter)Overlapped_getaddress, NULL,
     "Address of overlapped structure"},
    {"pending", (getter)Overlapped_getpending, NULL,
     "Whether the operation is pending"},
    {NULL},
};

PyTypeObject OverlappedType = {
    PyVarObject_HEAD_INIT(NULL, 0)
    /* tp_name           */ "_overlapped.Overlapped",
    /* tp_basicsize      */ sizeof(OverlappedObject),
    /* tp_itemsize       */ 0,
    /* tp_dealloc        */ (destructor) Overlapped_dealloc,
    /* tp_print          */ 0,
    /* tp_getattr        */ 0,
    /* tp_setattr        */ 0,
    /* tp_reserved       */ 0,
    /* tp_repr           */ 0,
    /* tp_as_number      */ 0,
    /* tp_as_sequence    */ 0,
    /* tp_as_mapping     */ 0,
    /* tp_hash           */ 0,
    /* tp_call           */ 0,
    /* tp_str            */ 0,
    /* tp_getattro       */ 0,
    /* tp_setattro       */ 0,
    /* tp_as_buffer      */ 0,
    /* tp_flags          */ Py_TPFLAGS_DEFAULT,
    /* tp_doc            */ "OVERLAPPED structure wrapper",
    /* tp_traverse       */ 0,
    /* tp_clear          */ 0,
    /* tp_richcompare    */ 0,
    /* tp_weaklistoffset */ 0,
    /* tp_iter           */ 0,
    /* tp_iternext       */ 0,
    /* tp_methods        */ Overlapped_methods,
    /* tp_members        */ Overlapped_members,
    /* tp_getset         */ Overlapped_getsets,
    /* tp_base           */ 0,
    /* tp_dict           */ 0,
    /* tp_descr_get      */ 0,
    /* tp_descr_set      */ 0,
    /* tp_dictoffset     */ 0,
    /* tp_init           */ 0,
    /* tp_alloc          */ 0,
    /* tp_new            */ Overlapped_new,
};

static PyMethodDef overlapped_functions[] = {
    {"CreateIoCompletionPort", overlapped_CreateIoCompletionPort,
     METH_VARARGS, CreateIoCompletionPort_doc},
    {"GetQueuedCompletionStatus", overlapped_GetQueuedCompletionStatus,
     METH_VARARGS, GetQueuedCompletionStatus_doc},
    {"PostQueuedCompletionStatus", overlapped_PostQueuedCompletionStatus,
     METH_VARARGS, PostQueuedCompletionStatus_doc},
    {"FormatMessage", overlapped_FormatMessage,
     METH_VARARGS, FormatMessage_doc},
    {"BindLocal", overlapped_BindLocal,
     METH_VARARGS, BindLocal_doc},
    {"RegisterWaitWithQueue", overlapped_RegisterWaitWithQueue,
     METH_VARARGS, RegisterWaitWithQueue_doc},
    {"UnregisterWait", overlapped_UnregisterWait,
     METH_VARARGS, UnregisterWait_doc},
    {"UnregisterWaitEx", overlapped_UnregisterWaitEx,
     METH_VARARGS, UnregisterWaitEx_doc},
    {"CreateEvent", overlapped_CreateEvent,
     METH_VARARGS, CreateEvent_doc},
    {"SetEvent", overlapped_SetEvent,
     METH_VARARGS, SetEvent_doc},
    {"ResetEvent", overlapped_ResetEvent,
     METH_VARARGS, ResetEvent_doc},
    {"ConnectPipe",
     (PyCFunction) ConnectPipe,
     METH_VARARGS, ConnectPipe_doc},
    {NULL}
};

#ifdef PYTHON3
static struct PyModuleDef overlapped_module = {
    PyModuleDef_HEAD_INIT,
    "_overlapped",
    NULL,
    -1,
    overlapped_functions,
    NULL,
    NULL,
    NULL,
    NULL
};
#endif

#define WINAPI_CONSTANT(fmt, con) \
    PyDict_SetItemString(d, #con, Py_BuildValue(fmt, con))

PyObject*
_init_overlapped(void)
{
    PyObject *m, *d;

    /* Ensure WSAStartup() called before initializing function pointers */
    m = PyImport_ImportModule("_socket");
    if (!m)
        return NULL;
    Py_DECREF(m);

    if (initialize_function_pointers() < 0)
        return NULL;

    if (PyType_Ready(&OverlappedType) < 0)
        return NULL;

#ifdef PYTHON3
    m = PyModule_Create(&overlapped_module);
#else
    m = Py_InitModule("_overlapped", overlapped_functions);
#endif
    if (PyModule_AddObject(m, "Overlapped", (PyObject *)&OverlappedType) < 0)
        return NULL;

    d = PyModule_GetDict(m);

    WINAPI_CONSTANT(F_DWORD,  ERROR_IO_PENDING);
    WINAPI_CONSTANT(F_DWORD,  ERROR_NETNAME_DELETED);
    WINAPI_CONSTANT(F_DWORD,  ERROR_SEM_TIMEOUT);
    WINAPI_CONSTANT(F_DWORD,  ERROR_PIPE_BUSY);
    WINAPI_CONSTANT(F_DWORD,  INFINITE);
    WINAPI_CONSTANT(F_HANDLE, INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE);
    WINAPI_CONSTANT(F_HANDLE, NULL);
    WINAPI_CONSTANT(F_DWORD,  SO_UPDATE_ACCEPT_CONTEXT);
    WINAPI_CONSTANT(F_DWORD,  SO_UPDATE_CONNECT_CONTEXT);
    WINAPI_CONSTANT(F_DWORD,  TF_REUSE_SOCKET);
    WINAPI_CONSTANT(F_DWORD,  ERROR_CONNECTION_REFUSED);
    WINAPI_CONSTANT(F_DWORD,  ERROR_CONNECTION_ABORTED);

    return m;
}

#ifdef PYTHON3
PyMODINIT_FUNC
PyInit__overlapped(void)
{
    return _init_overlapped();
}
#else
PyMODINIT_FUNC
init_overlapped(void)
{
    _init_overlapped();
}
#endif