File: Grammar

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# Grammar for Python

# Note:  Changing the grammar specified in this file will most likely
#        require corresponding changes in the parser module
#        (../Modules/parsermodule.c).  If you can't make the changes to
#        that module yourself, please co-ordinate the required changes
#        with someone who can; ask around on python-dev for help.  Fred
#        Drake <fdrake@acm.org> will probably be listening there.

# NOTE WELL: You should also follow all the steps listed in PEP 306,
# "How to Change Python's Grammar"

# Start symbols for the grammar:
#       single_input is a single interactive statement;
#       file_input is a module or sequence of commands read from an input file;
#       eval_input is the input for the eval() and input() functions.
# NB: compound_stmt in single_input is followed by extra NEWLINE!
single_input: NEWLINE | simple_stmt | compound_stmt NEWLINE
file_input: (NEWLINE | stmt)* ENDMARKER
eval_input: testlist NEWLINE* ENDMARKER

decorator: '@' dotted_name [ '(' [arglist] ')' ] NEWLINE
decorators: decorator+
decorated: decorators (classdef | funcdef)
funcdef: 'def' NAME parameters ':' suite
parameters: '(' [varargslist] ')'
varargslist: ((fpdef ['=' test] ',')*
              ('*' NAME [',' '**' NAME] | '**' NAME) |
              fpdef ['=' test] (',' fpdef ['=' test])* [','])
fpdef: NAME | '(' fplist ')'
fplist: fpdef (',' fpdef)* [',']

stmt: simple_stmt | compound_stmt
simple_stmt: small_stmt (';' small_stmt)* [';'] NEWLINE
small_stmt: (expr_stmt | print_stmt  | del_stmt | pass_stmt | flow_stmt |
             import_stmt | global_stmt | exec_stmt | assert_stmt)
expr_stmt: testlist (augassign (yield_expr|testlist) |
                     ('=' (yield_expr|testlist))*)
augassign: ('+=' | '-=' | '*=' | '/=' | '%=' | '&=' | '|=' | '^=' |
            '<<=' | '>>=' | '**=' | '//=')
# For normal assignments, additional restrictions enforced by the interpreter
print_stmt: 'print' ( [ test (',' test)* [','] ] |
                      '>>' test [ (',' test)+ [','] ] )
del_stmt: 'del' exprlist
pass_stmt: 'pass'
flow_stmt: break_stmt | continue_stmt | return_stmt | raise_stmt | yield_stmt
break_stmt: 'break'
continue_stmt: 'continue'
return_stmt: 'return' [testlist]
yield_stmt: yield_expr
raise_stmt: 'raise' [test [',' test [',' test]]]
import_stmt: import_name | import_from
import_name: 'import' dotted_as_names
import_from: ('from' ('.'* dotted_name | '.'+)
              'import' ('*' | '(' import_as_names ')' | import_as_names))
import_as_name: NAME ['as' NAME]
dotted_as_name: dotted_name ['as' NAME]
import_as_names: import_as_name (',' import_as_name)* [',']
dotted_as_names: dotted_as_name (',' dotted_as_name)*
dotted_name: NAME ('.' NAME)*
global_stmt: 'global' NAME (',' NAME)*
exec_stmt: 'exec' expr ['in' test [',' test]]
assert_stmt: 'assert' test [',' test]

compound_stmt: if_stmt | while_stmt | for_stmt | try_stmt | with_stmt | funcdef | classdef | decorated
if_stmt: 'if' test ':' suite ('elif' test ':' suite)* ['else' ':' suite]
while_stmt: 'while' test ':' suite ['else' ':' suite]
for_stmt: 'for' exprlist 'in' testlist ':' suite ['else' ':' suite]
try_stmt: ('try' ':' suite
           ((except_clause ':' suite)+
            ['else' ':' suite]
            ['finally' ':' suite] |
           'finally' ':' suite))
with_stmt: 'with' with_item (',' with_item)*  ':' suite
with_item: test ['as' expr]
# NB compile.c makes sure that the default except clause is last
except_clause: 'except' [test [('as' | ',') test]]
suite: simple_stmt | NEWLINE INDENT stmt+ DEDENT

# Backward compatibility cruft to support:
# [ x for x in lambda: True, lambda: False if x() ]
# even while also allowing:
# lambda x: 5 if x else 2
# (But not a mix of the two)
testlist_safe: old_test [(',' old_test)+ [',']]
old_test: or_test | old_lambdef
old_lambdef: 'lambda' [varargslist] ':' old_test

test: or_test ['if' or_test 'else' test] | lambdef
or_test: and_test ('or' and_test)*
and_test: not_test ('and' not_test)*
not_test: 'not' not_test | comparison
comparison: expr (comp_op expr)*
comp_op: '<'|'>'|'=='|'>='|'<='|'<>'|'!='|'in'|'not' 'in'|'is'|'is' 'not'
expr: xor_expr ('|' xor_expr)*
xor_expr: and_expr ('^' and_expr)*
and_expr: shift_expr ('&' shift_expr)*
shift_expr: arith_expr (('<<'|'>>') arith_expr)*
arith_expr: term (('+'|'-') term)*
term: factor (('*'|'/'|'%'|'//') factor)*
factor: ('+'|'-'|'~') factor | power
power: atom trailer* ['**' factor]
atom: ('(' [yield_expr|testlist_comp] ')' |
       '[' [listmaker] ']' |
       '{' [dictorsetmaker] '}' |
       '`' testlist1 '`' |
       NAME | NUMBER | STRING+)
listmaker: test ( list_for | (',' test)* [','] )
testlist_comp: test ( comp_for | (',' test)* [','] )
lambdef: 'lambda' [varargslist] ':' test
trailer: '(' [arglist] ')' | '[' subscriptlist ']' | '.' NAME
subscriptlist: subscript (',' subscript)* [',']
subscript: '.' '.' '.' | test | [test] ':' [test] [sliceop]
sliceop: ':' [test]
exprlist: expr (',' expr)* [',']
testlist: test (',' test)* [',']
dictorsetmaker: ( (test ':' test (comp_for | (',' test ':' test)* [','])) |
                  (test (comp_for | (',' test)* [','])) )

classdef: 'class' NAME ['(' [testlist] ')'] ':' suite

arglist: (argument ',')* (argument [',']
                         |'*' test (',' argument)* [',' '**' test] 
                         |'**' test)
# The reason that keywords are test nodes instead of NAME is that using NAME
# results in an ambiguity. ast.c makes sure it's a NAME.
argument: test [comp_for] | test '=' test

list_iter: list_for | list_if
list_for: 'for' exprlist 'in' testlist_safe [list_iter]
list_if: 'if' old_test [list_iter]

comp_iter: comp_for | comp_if
comp_for: 'for' exprlist 'in' or_test [comp_iter]
comp_if: 'if' old_test [comp_iter]

testlist1: test (',' test)*

# not used in grammar, but may appear in "node" passed from Parser to Compiler
encoding_decl: NAME

yield_expr: 'yield' [testlist]