File: xml-sax-features-walkthrough.doc

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/****************************************************************************
**
** Documentation on the sax interface of the xml module
**
** Copyright (C) 2005-2008 Trolltech ASA.  All rights reserved.
**
** This file is part of the Qt GUI Toolkit.
**
** This file may be used under the terms of the GNU General
** Public License versions 2.0 or 3.0 as published by the Free
** Software Foundation and appearing in the files LICENSE.GPL2
** and LICENSE.GPL3 included in the packaging of this file.
** Alternatively you may (at your option) use any later version
** of the GNU General Public License if such license has been
** publicly approved by Trolltech ASA (or its successors, if any)
** and the KDE Free Qt Foundation.
**
** Please review the following information to ensure GNU General
** Public Licensing requirements will be met:
** http://trolltech.com/products/qt/licenses/licensing/opensource/.
** If you are unsure which license is appropriate for your use, please
** review the following information:
** http://trolltech.com/products/qt/licenses/licensing/licensingoverview
** or contact the sales department at sales@trolltech.com.
**
** This file may be used under the terms of the Q Public License as
** defined by Trolltech ASA and appearing in the file LICENSE.QPL
** included in the packaging of this file.  Licensees holding valid Qt
** Commercial licenses may use this file in accordance with the Qt
** Commercial License Agreement provided with the Software.
**
** This file is provided "AS IS" with NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
** INCLUDING THE WARRANTIES OF DESIGN, MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
** A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Trolltech reserves all rights not granted
** herein.
**
**********************************************************************/

/*! \page xml-sax-features-walkthrough.html

\ingroup step-by-step-examples

\title Walkthrough: Using SAX2 features with the Qt XML classes

This document assumes that you are familiar with \link xml.html#namespaces 
namespaces \endlink in XML and the concept of a \link xml.html#sax2 SAX2 
parser \endlink.
If features of SAX2 readers are new to you please read 
\link xml.html#sax2Features the feature section \endlink of the SAX2 document.

As a novice to the Qt XML classes it is advisable to have a look at the
\link xml-sax-walkthrough.html tiny SAX2 parser walkthrough \endlink before
reading on. 

This walkthrough covers two topics: First of all it shows how to
set SAX2 features and secondly how to integrate the Qt XML functionality 
into a Qt GUI application.

The resulting application allows you to compare the output of the reader
depending on how the two features 
\e http://xml.org/sax/features/namespace-prefixes
and \e http://xml.org/sax/features/namespaces are set. 
To do this it shows tree views of the read XML file 
listing the qualified names of elements and attributes and the respective 
namespace URIs.

<h3>Setting features</h3>

\quotefile xml/tagreader-with-features/tagreader.cpp

Let's begin with the main program of the application. First the boring 
part: we include all the classes we need:

\skipto include
\printline structureparser.h
\printuntil qlabel.h

\link #structureparser.h structureparser.h \endlink contains the API of 
the XML parser that we implement in \link #structureparser.cpp 
structureparser.cpp. \endlink

\printline main
\printuntil QApplication

As usual we then create a Qt application object and hand command line arguments
over to it.

\printline xmlFile(

If the user runs the program with one filename as
an argument we process this file, otherwise we use the \e fnord.xml file from
the example directory for demonstration purposes. 

\printline QXmlInputSource 

We use \e xmlFile as the XML Input Source...

\printline QXmlSimpleReader

... and instantiate a \e reader object. Later we will manipulate its features
and thus influence how the XML data are read.

\printline container

Now let's think about presenting the output: As described in the
\link xml.html#sax2Features Qt SAX2 documentation \endlink
there are three valid combinations of \e
http://xml.org/sax/features/namespace-prefixes
and \e http://xml.org/sax/features/namespaces: TRUE/TRUE, TRUE/FALSE and
FALSE/TRUE. To show the relevant output side by side of each other 
and mark them with three labels makes up for a grid layout consisting
of three columns (and thus two lines).

\printline nameSpace

The most natural way of presenting XML elements is in a tree. 
Thus we use a listview. Its name \e nameSpace indicates that this
one will be used to present the combination of  \e
http://xml.org/sax/features/namespaces being TRUE and 
\e http://xml.org/sax/features/namespace-prefixes
being FALSE -- the default configuration of a \l QXmlSimpleReader.

Being the first grid entry the \e nameSpace listview will
appear in the upper left corner of the virtual grid. 

\printline handler

Then we create a handler that deals with the XML data read by the reader.
As the provided handler class \l QXmlDefaultHandler simply does nothing
with the data from the reader,
we can't use it right away. Instead we have to subclass our 
own \link  #structureparser.cpp StructureParser \endlink from it.

\printline setContentHandler

The \e handler serves as content handler for the reader. Note that
for simplicity reasons we don't register e.g. an error handler. Thus 
our program will not complain about for example missing closing tags
in the parsed XML document.

\printline parse

Finally we parse the document with the  reader's default feature settings.

\printline namespacePrefix
\printline table_namespace_prefix

Now we prepare for the parsing of the same XML input source with 
different reader settings. The output will be presented in
a second \l QListView, \e namespacePrefix. As it is the second
member of the \e container grid it will appear in the middle of
the upper grid row.

\printline setListView

Then we ask the \e handler to present the data in the \e namespacePrefix
listview.

\printline namespace-prefixes
\printline TRUE

Now we modify the behaviour of the \e reader and change 
\e http://xml.org/sax/features/namespace-prefixes from the default FALSE
to TRUE. The \e http://xml.org/sax/features/namespaces feature has
still its default setting TRUE.

\printline reset

We have to reset the input source to make the new parsing start from the
beginning of the document again.

\printline parse

Finally we parse the XML file a second time with the changed reader 
settings (TRUE/TRUE).

\printline prefix
\printuntil parse

Next we prepare and use the upper right listview to show the reader results
with the feature setting \e http://xml.org/sax/features/namespaces
FALSE and \e http://xml.org/sax/features/namespace-prefixes TRUE.

\printline namespace label
\printuntil namespace prefix label
\printuntil prefix label
\printuntil container

The second row of the \e container grid is filled with three labels
denoting the reader settings that belong to the above listview.

\printline app.setMainWidget
\printuntil }

Same procedure as with every Qt GUI program: the grid serves as the
main widget of our application and is shown. After that we enter
the GUI's event loop.


<h3><a name="structureparser.h">The handler API</a></h3>

Let's have a brief look at the API of our handler class
\e StructureParser:

\quotefile xml/tagreader-with-features/structureparser.h
\skipto include
\printuntil QString

\printline StructureParser
\printuntil {

We derive it from the \l QXmlDefaultHandler class that 
implements a handler that simply does nothing. 

\printuntil QListView

This makes it easy for us to implement only the functionality
we in fact need. In our case this is the constructor that
takes a \l QListView as an argument,

\printline startElement
\printuntil QXmlAttributes 

the function to execute at the occurrence of element start tags
(inherited from \l QXmlContentHandler), and

\printline endElement

the code to run when an end tag occurs.

All we have to implement so far is content handling.

\printline setListView

In addition we have a function that selects a listview
for the output.

\printuntil QPtrStack

Keep in mind that we write a SAX2 parser that doesn't
have an object model to keep all elements and attributes
in memory. To display the elements and attributes in a tree like 
structure we must however keep track of all elements
that haven't been closed yet. 

To do this we use a LIFO stack 
of QListItems. An element will be added to the stack when
its start tag appears and removed 
as soon as its end tag is parsed.

\printline table
\printline };

Apart from this we define a member variable that contains
the currently used listview.

<h3><a name="structureparser.cpp">The handler itself</a></h3>

Now that we defined the API we have to implement the 
relevant functions.

\quotefile xml/tagreader-with-features/structureparser.cpp   
\skipto include
\printuntil qlistview.h

\printline StructureParser
\printuntil { 

First we have the constructor that takes a listview pointer as
its argument.

\printline setListView
\printuntil }

All we have to do here is to prepare the argument \l QListView
before usage. This we do with the \link #setListView() 
setListView() \endlink function.

<a name="setListView()"></a> 
\printline setListView
\printuntil table

First we store the argument away.

\printline setSorting

We want the elements to be listed as they appear in the
document -- and not for example sorted alphabetically. That's
why we switch off sorting at all.

\printline addColumn
\printuntil }

The listview now consists of two columns: one for the
element's or attribute's qualified names and one for
their namespace URIs. Columns are added from left to right
and with the title as an argument.

Now let's deal with XML content handling.

\printline startElement
\printuntil { 

When we come across the start tag of an element the handler does 
the real work. Although \e startElement is called with four
arguments we keep track of only three: the namespace URI
of the element, its qualified name and its attributes.
If an element has no namespace assigned or if the feature
settings of the reader don't provide the handler with
namespace URIs at all \e namespaceURI contains an empty
string.

Note that we don't assign a variable to the second argument --
we're simply not interested in the local name of the element.

\printline element

Whenever an element occurs we want to show it in the listview.
Therefore we define a \l QListViewItem variable.

\printline stack.isEmpty()
\printline stack.top()

As long as the element \e stack isn't empty the current element
is a child of the topmost (last unclosed) element on the stack. Thus we
create a new \l QListViewItem as a child of QPtrStack::stack.top() with 
the new element's qualified name in the first column and the according
namespace URI (or nothing) in the second one.

The QListViewItem is usally inserted as the first child. This means that we
would get the elements in reverse order. So we first search for the last
child of the QPtrStack::stack.top() element and insert it after this
element.

In a valid XML document this applies to all elements except
the document root.

\printuntil table
\printline }

The root element we have to handle separately because it is
the first element to go onto the \l QListViewItem stack.
Its listview item is therefore a direct child of the
\e table listview itself.

\printline stack.push

Now we put the element's listview item on top of the stack.

\printline setOpen

By default a QListView presents all of its nodes closed.
The user may then click on the \e + icon to see the child
entries.

We however want to see the entire element tree 
at once when we run the program.
Therefore we open each listview item manually.

\printline attributes.length

What do we do if an element has attributes?

\printuntil }
\printline }

For each of them we create a new listview item to present the attribute's
qualified name and the relevant namespace URI (or nothing). 
Obviously \e attribute is a child of
the current \e element.


\printline TRUE
\printline }

To prevent the reader from throwing an error we have to
return TRUE when we successfully dealt with an
element's start tag.

\printline endElement
\printuntil stack.pop

Whenever we come across an element's closing tag we
have to remove its listview item from the stack as
it can't have children any longer.

\printuntil }

And so we're done.

*/