File: reflection.rb

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module ActiveRecord
  # = Active Record Reflection
  module Reflection # :nodoc:
    extend ActiveSupport::Concern

    included do
      class_attribute :_reflections, instance_writer: false
      class_attribute :aggregate_reflections, instance_writer: false
      self._reflections = {}
      self.aggregate_reflections = {}
    end

    def self.create(macro, name, scope, options, ar)
      case macro
      when :has_many, :belongs_to, :has_one
        klass = options[:through] ? ThroughReflection : AssociationReflection
      when :composed_of
        klass = AggregateReflection
      end

      klass.new(macro, name, scope, options, ar)
    end

    def self.add_reflection(ar, name, reflection)
      ar._reflections = ar._reflections.merge(name.to_sym => reflection)
    end

    def self.add_aggregate_reflection(ar, name, reflection)
      ar.aggregate_reflections = ar.aggregate_reflections.merge(name.to_sym => reflection)
    end

    # \Reflection enables to interrogate Active Record classes and objects
    # about their associations and aggregations. This information can,
    # for example, be used in a form builder that takes an Active Record object
    # and creates input fields for all of the attributes depending on their type
    # and displays the associations to other objects.
    #
    # MacroReflection class has info for AggregateReflection and AssociationReflection
    # classes.
    module ClassMethods
      # Returns an array of AggregateReflection objects for all the aggregations in the class.
      def reflect_on_all_aggregations
        aggregate_reflections.values
      end

      # Returns the AggregateReflection object for the named +aggregation+ (use the symbol).
      #
      #   Account.reflect_on_aggregation(:balance) # => the balance AggregateReflection
      #
      def reflect_on_aggregation(aggregation)
        aggregate_reflections[aggregation.to_sym]
      end

      # Returns a Hash of name of the reflection as the key and a AssociationReflection as the value.
      #
      #   Account.reflections # => {balance: AggregateReflection}
      #
      # @api public
      def reflections
        ref = {}
        _reflections.each do |name, reflection|
          parent_name, parent_reflection = reflection.parent_reflection
          if parent_name
            ref[parent_name] = parent_reflection
          else
            ref[name] = reflection
          end
        end
        ref
      end

      # Returns an array of AssociationReflection objects for all the
      # associations in the class. If you only want to reflect on a certain
      # association type, pass in the symbol (<tt>:has_many</tt>, <tt>:has_one</tt>,
      # <tt>:belongs_to</tt>) as the first parameter.
      #
      # Example:
      #
      #   Account.reflect_on_all_associations             # returns an array of all associations
      #   Account.reflect_on_all_associations(:has_many)  # returns an array of all has_many associations
      #
      #   @api public
      def reflect_on_all_associations(macro = nil)
        association_reflections = reflections.values
        macro ? association_reflections.select { |reflection| reflection.macro == macro } : association_reflections
      end

      # Returns the AssociationReflection object for the +association+ (use the symbol).
      #
      #   Account.reflect_on_association(:owner)             # returns the owner AssociationReflection
      #   Invoice.reflect_on_association(:line_items).macro  # returns :has_many
      #
      #   @api public
      def reflect_on_association(association)
        reflections[association.to_sym]
      end

      #   @api private
      def _reflect_on_association(association) #:nodoc:
        _reflections[association.to_sym]
      end

      # Returns an array of AssociationReflection objects for all associations which have <tt>:autosave</tt> enabled.
      #
      #   @api public
      def reflect_on_all_autosave_associations
        reflections.values.select { |reflection| reflection.options[:autosave] }
      end
    end

    # Base class for AggregateReflection and AssociationReflection. Objects of
    # AggregateReflection and AssociationReflection are returned by the Reflection::ClassMethods.
    #
    #   MacroReflection
    #     AggregateReflection
    #     AssociationReflection
    #       ThroughReflection
    class MacroReflection
      # Returns the name of the macro.
      #
      # <tt>composed_of :balance, class_name: 'Money'</tt> returns <tt>:balance</tt>
      # <tt>has_many :clients</tt> returns <tt>:clients</tt>
      attr_reader :name

      # Returns the macro type.
      #
      # <tt>composed_of :balance, class_name: 'Money'</tt> returns <tt>:composed_of</tt>
      # <tt>has_many :clients</tt> returns <tt>:has_many</tt>
      attr_reader :macro

      attr_reader :scope

      # Returns the hash of options used for the macro.
      #
      # <tt>composed_of :balance, class_name: 'Money'</tt> returns <tt>{ class_name: "Money" }</tt>
      # <tt>has_many :clients</tt> returns <tt>{}</tt>
      attr_reader :options

      attr_reader :active_record

      attr_reader :plural_name # :nodoc:

      def initialize(macro, name, scope, options, active_record)
        @macro         = macro
        @name          = name
        @scope         = scope
        @options       = options
        @active_record = active_record
        @klass         = options[:class]
        @plural_name   = active_record.pluralize_table_names ?
                            name.to_s.pluralize : name.to_s
      end

      def autosave=(autosave)
        @automatic_inverse_of = false
        @options[:autosave] = autosave
        _, parent_reflection = self.parent_reflection
        if parent_reflection
          parent_reflection.autosave = autosave
        end
      end

      # Returns the class for the macro.
      #
      # <tt>composed_of :balance, class_name: 'Money'</tt> returns the Money class
      # <tt>has_many :clients</tt> returns the Client class
      def klass
        @klass ||= class_name.constantize
      end

      # Returns the class name for the macro.
      #
      # <tt>composed_of :balance, class_name: 'Money'</tt> returns <tt>'Money'</tt>
      # <tt>has_many :clients</tt> returns <tt>'Client'</tt>
      def class_name
        @class_name ||= (options[:class_name] || derive_class_name).to_s
      end

      # Returns +true+ if +self+ and +other_aggregation+ have the same +name+ attribute, +active_record+ attribute,
      # and +other_aggregation+ has an options hash assigned to it.
      def ==(other_aggregation)
        super ||
          other_aggregation.kind_of?(self.class) &&
          name == other_aggregation.name &&
          !other_aggregation.options.nil? &&
          active_record == other_aggregation.active_record
      end

      private
        def derive_class_name
          name.to_s.camelize
        end
    end


    # Holds all the meta-data about an aggregation as it was specified in the
    # Active Record class.
    class AggregateReflection < MacroReflection #:nodoc:
      def mapping
        mapping = options[:mapping] || [name, name]
        mapping.first.is_a?(Array) ? mapping : [mapping]
      end
    end

    # Holds all the meta-data about an association as it was specified in the
    # Active Record class.
    class AssociationReflection < MacroReflection #:nodoc:
      # Returns the target association's class.
      #
      #   class Author < ActiveRecord::Base
      #     has_many :books
      #   end
      #
      #   Author.reflect_on_association(:books).klass
      #   # => Book
      #
      # <b>Note:</b> Do not call +klass.new+ or +klass.create+ to instantiate
      # a new association object. Use +build_association+ or +create_association+
      # instead. This allows plugins to hook into association object creation.
      def klass
        @klass ||= active_record.send(:compute_type, class_name)
      end

      attr_reader :type, :foreign_type
      attr_accessor :parent_reflection # [:name, Reflection]

      def initialize(macro, name, scope, options, active_record)
        super
        @collection = [:has_many, :has_and_belongs_to_many].include?(macro)
        @automatic_inverse_of = nil
        @type         = options[:as] && "#{options[:as]}_type"
        @foreign_type = options[:foreign_type] || "#{name}_type"
        @constructable = calculate_constructable(macro, options)
      end

      # Returns a new, unsaved instance of the associated class. +attributes+ will
      # be passed to the class's constructor.
      def build_association(attributes, &block)
        klass.new(attributes, &block)
      end

      def constructable? # :nodoc:
        @constructable
      end

      def table_name
        klass.table_name
      end

      def quoted_table_name
        klass.quoted_table_name
      end

      def join_table
        @join_table ||= options[:join_table] || derive_join_table
      end

      def foreign_key
        @foreign_key ||= options[:foreign_key] || derive_foreign_key
      end

      def primary_key_column
        klass.columns_hash[klass.primary_key]
      end

      def association_foreign_key
        @association_foreign_key ||= options[:association_foreign_key] || class_name.foreign_key
      end

      # klass option is necessary to support loading polymorphic associations
      def association_primary_key(klass = nil)
        options[:primary_key] || primary_key(klass || self.klass)
      end

      def active_record_primary_key
        @active_record_primary_key ||= options[:primary_key] || primary_key(active_record)
      end

      def counter_cache_column
        if options[:counter_cache] == true
          "#{active_record.name.demodulize.underscore.pluralize}_count"
        elsif options[:counter_cache]
          options[:counter_cache].to_s
        end
      end

      def check_validity!
        check_validity_of_inverse!
      end

      def check_validity_of_inverse!
        unless options[:polymorphic]
          if has_inverse? && inverse_of.nil?
            raise InverseOfAssociationNotFoundError.new(self)
          end
        end
      end

      def through_reflection
        nil
      end

      def source_reflection
        self
      end

      # A chain of reflections from this one back to the owner. For more see the explanation in
      # ThroughReflection.
      def chain
        [self]
      end

      def nested?
        false
      end

      # An array of arrays of scopes. Each item in the outside array corresponds to a reflection
      # in the #chain.
      def scope_chain
        scope ? [[scope]] : [[]]
      end

      alias :source_macro :macro

      def has_inverse?
        inverse_name
      end

      def inverse_of
        return unless inverse_name

        @inverse_of ||= klass._reflect_on_association inverse_name
      end

      def polymorphic_inverse_of(associated_class)
        if has_inverse?
          if inverse_relationship = associated_class._reflect_on_association(options[:inverse_of])
            inverse_relationship
          else
            raise InverseOfAssociationNotFoundError.new(self, associated_class)
          end
        end
      end

      # Returns whether or not this association reflection is for a collection
      # association. Returns +true+ if the +macro+ is either +has_many+ or
      # +has_and_belongs_to_many+, +false+ otherwise.
      def collection?
        @collection
      end

      # Returns whether or not the association should be validated as part of
      # the parent's validation.
      #
      # Unless you explicitly disable validation with
      # <tt>validate: false</tt>, validation will take place when:
      #
      # * you explicitly enable validation; <tt>validate: true</tt>
      # * you use autosave; <tt>autosave: true</tt>
      # * the association is a +has_many+ association
      def validate?
        !options[:validate].nil? ? options[:validate] : (options[:autosave] == true || macro == :has_many)
      end

      # Returns +true+ if +self+ is a +belongs_to+ reflection.
      def belongs_to?
        macro == :belongs_to
      end

      def association_class
        case macro
        when :belongs_to
          if options[:polymorphic]
            Associations::BelongsToPolymorphicAssociation
          else
            Associations::BelongsToAssociation
          end
        when :has_many
          if options[:through]
            Associations::HasManyThroughAssociation
          else
            Associations::HasManyAssociation
          end
        when :has_one
          if options[:through]
            Associations::HasOneThroughAssociation
          else
            Associations::HasOneAssociation
          end
        end
      end

      def polymorphic?
        options.key? :polymorphic
      end

      VALID_AUTOMATIC_INVERSE_MACROS = [:has_many, :has_one, :belongs_to]
      INVALID_AUTOMATIC_INVERSE_OPTIONS = [:conditions, :through, :polymorphic, :foreign_key]

      protected

        def actual_source_reflection # FIXME: this is a horrible name
          self
        end

      private

        def calculate_constructable(macro, options)
          case macro
          when :belongs_to
            !options[:polymorphic]
          when :has_one
            !options[:through]
          else
            true
          end
        end

        # Attempts to find the inverse association name automatically.
        # If it cannot find a suitable inverse association name, it returns
        # nil.
        def inverse_name
          options.fetch(:inverse_of) do
            if @automatic_inverse_of == false
              nil
            else
              @automatic_inverse_of ||= automatic_inverse_of
            end
          end
        end

        # returns either nil or the inverse association name that it finds.
        def automatic_inverse_of
          if can_find_inverse_of_automatically?(self)
            inverse_name = ActiveSupport::Inflector.underscore(options[:as] || active_record.name).to_sym

            begin
              reflection = klass._reflect_on_association(inverse_name)
            rescue NameError
              # Give up: we couldn't compute the klass type so we won't be able
              # to find any associations either.
              reflection = false
            end

            if valid_inverse_reflection?(reflection)
              return inverse_name
            end
          end

          false
        end

        # Checks if the inverse reflection that is returned from the
        # +automatic_inverse_of+ method is a valid reflection. We must
        # make sure that the reflection's active_record name matches up
        # with the current reflection's klass name.
        #
        # Note: klass will always be valid because when there's a NameError
        # from calling +klass+, +reflection+ will already be set to false.
        def valid_inverse_reflection?(reflection)
          reflection &&
            klass.name == reflection.active_record.name &&
            can_find_inverse_of_automatically?(reflection)
        end

        # Checks to see if the reflection doesn't have any options that prevent
        # us from being able to guess the inverse automatically. First, the
        # <tt>inverse_of</tt> option cannot be set to false. Second, we must
        # have <tt>has_many</tt>, <tt>has_one</tt>, <tt>belongs_to</tt> associations.
        # Third, we must not have options such as <tt>:polymorphic</tt> or
        # <tt>:foreign_key</tt> which prevent us from correctly guessing the
        # inverse association.
        #
        # Anything with a scope can additionally ruin our attempt at finding an
        # inverse, so we exclude reflections with scopes.
        def can_find_inverse_of_automatically?(reflection)
          reflection.options[:inverse_of] != false &&
            VALID_AUTOMATIC_INVERSE_MACROS.include?(reflection.macro) &&
            !INVALID_AUTOMATIC_INVERSE_OPTIONS.any? { |opt| reflection.options[opt] } &&
            !reflection.scope
        end

        def derive_class_name
          class_name = name.to_s
          class_name = class_name.singularize if collection?
          class_name.camelize
        end

        def derive_foreign_key
          if belongs_to?
            "#{name}_id"
          elsif options[:as]
            "#{options[:as]}_id"
          else
            active_record.name.foreign_key
          end
        end

        def derive_join_table
          [active_record.table_name, klass.table_name].sort.join("\0").gsub(/^(.*_)(.+)\0\1(.+)/, '\1\2_\3').gsub("\0", "_")
        end

        def primary_key(klass)
          klass.primary_key || raise(UnknownPrimaryKey.new(klass))
        end
    end

    # Holds all the meta-data about a :through association as it was specified
    # in the Active Record class.
    class ThroughReflection < AssociationReflection #:nodoc:
      delegate :foreign_key, :foreign_type, :association_foreign_key,
               :active_record_primary_key, :type, :to => :source_reflection

      def initialize(macro, name, scope, options, active_record)
        super
        @source_reflection_name = options[:source]
      end

      # Returns the source of the through reflection. It checks both a singularized
      # and pluralized form for <tt>:belongs_to</tt> or <tt>:has_many</tt>.
      #
      #   class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
      #     has_many :taggings
      #     has_many :tags, through: :taggings
      #   end
      #
      #   class Tagging < ActiveRecord::Base
      #     belongs_to :post
      #     belongs_to :tag
      #   end
      #
      #   tags_reflection = Post.reflect_on_association(:tags)
      #   tags_reflection.source_reflection
      #   # => <ActiveRecord::Reflection::AssociationReflection: @macro=:belongs_to, @name=:tag, @active_record=Tagging, @plural_name="tags">
      #
      def source_reflection
        through_reflection.klass._reflect_on_association(source_reflection_name)
      end

      # Returns the AssociationReflection object specified in the <tt>:through</tt> option
      # of a HasManyThrough or HasOneThrough association.
      #
      #   class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
      #     has_many :taggings
      #     has_many :tags, through: :taggings
      #   end
      #
      #   tags_reflection = Post.reflect_on_association(:tags)
      #   tags_reflection.through_reflection
      #   # => <ActiveRecord::Reflection::AssociationReflection: @macro=:has_many, @name=:taggings, @active_record=Post, @plural_name="taggings">
      #
      def through_reflection
        active_record._reflect_on_association(options[:through])
      end

      # Returns an array of reflections which are involved in this association. Each item in the
      # array corresponds to a table which will be part of the query for this association.
      #
      # The chain is built by recursively calling #chain on the source reflection and the through
      # reflection. The base case for the recursion is a normal association, which just returns
      # [self] as its #chain.
      #
      #   class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
      #     has_many :taggings
      #     has_many :tags, through: :taggings
      #   end
      #
      #   tags_reflection = Post.reflect_on_association(:tags)
      #   tags_reflection.chain
      #   # => [<ActiveRecord::Reflection::ThroughReflection: @macro=:has_many, @name=:tags, @options={:through=>:taggings}, @active_record=Post>,
      #         <ActiveRecord::Reflection::AssociationReflection: @macro=:has_many, @name=:taggings, @options={}, @active_record=Post>]
      #
      def chain
        @chain ||= begin
          a = source_reflection.chain
          b = through_reflection.chain
          chain = a + b
          chain[0] = self # Use self so we don't lose the information from :source_type
          chain
        end
      end

      # Consider the following example:
      #
      #   class Person
      #     has_many :articles
      #     has_many :comment_tags, through: :articles
      #   end
      #
      #   class Article
      #     has_many :comments
      #     has_many :comment_tags, through: :comments, source: :tags
      #   end
      #
      #   class Comment
      #     has_many :tags
      #   end
      #
      # There may be scopes on Person.comment_tags, Article.comment_tags and/or Comment.tags,
      # but only Comment.tags will be represented in the #chain. So this method creates an array
      # of scopes corresponding to the chain.
      def scope_chain
        @scope_chain ||= begin
          scope_chain = source_reflection.scope_chain.map(&:dup)

          # Add to it the scope from this reflection (if any)
          scope_chain.first << scope if scope

          through_scope_chain = through_reflection.scope_chain.map(&:dup)

          if options[:source_type]
            through_scope_chain.first <<
              through_reflection.klass.where(foreign_type => options[:source_type])
          end

          # Recursively fill out the rest of the array from the through reflection
          scope_chain + through_scope_chain
        end
      end

      # The macro used by the source association
      def source_macro
        source_reflection.source_macro
      end

      # A through association is nested if there would be more than one join table
      def nested?
        chain.length > 2
      end

      # We want to use the klass from this reflection, rather than just delegate straight to
      # the source_reflection, because the source_reflection may be polymorphic. We still
      # need to respect the source_reflection's :primary_key option, though.
      def association_primary_key(klass = nil)
        # Get the "actual" source reflection if the immediate source reflection has a
        # source reflection itself
        actual_source_reflection.options[:primary_key] || primary_key(klass || self.klass)
      end

      # Gets an array of possible <tt>:through</tt> source reflection names in both singular and plural form.
      #
      #   class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
      #     has_many :taggings
      #     has_many :tags, through: :taggings
      #   end
      #
      #   tags_reflection = Post.reflect_on_association(:tags)
      #   tags_reflection.source_reflection_names
      #   # => [:tag, :tags]
      #
      def source_reflection_names
        (options[:source] ? [options[:source]] : [name.to_s.singularize, name]).collect { |n| n.to_sym }.uniq
      end

      def source_reflection_name # :nodoc:
        return @source_reflection_name.to_sym if @source_reflection_name

        names = [name.to_s.singularize, name].collect { |n| n.to_sym }.uniq
        names = names.find_all { |n|
          through_reflection.klass._reflect_on_association(n)
        }

        if names.length > 1
          example_options = options.dup
          example_options[:source] = source_reflection_names.first
          ActiveSupport::Deprecation.warn <<-eowarn
Ambiguous source reflection for through association.  Please specify a :source
directive on your declaration like:

  class #{active_record.name} < ActiveRecord::Base
    #{macro} :#{name}, #{example_options}
  end

          eowarn
        end

        @source_reflection_name = names.first
      end

      def source_options
        source_reflection.options
      end

      def through_options
        through_reflection.options
      end

      def check_validity!
        if through_reflection.nil?
          raise HasManyThroughAssociationNotFoundError.new(active_record.name, self)
        end

        if through_reflection.options[:polymorphic]
          raise HasManyThroughAssociationPolymorphicThroughError.new(active_record.name, self)
        end

        if source_reflection.nil?
          raise HasManyThroughSourceAssociationNotFoundError.new(self)
        end

        if options[:source_type] && source_reflection.options[:polymorphic].nil?
          raise HasManyThroughAssociationPointlessSourceTypeError.new(active_record.name, self, source_reflection)
        end

        if source_reflection.options[:polymorphic] && options[:source_type].nil?
          raise HasManyThroughAssociationPolymorphicSourceError.new(active_record.name, self, source_reflection)
        end

        if macro == :has_one && through_reflection.collection?
          raise HasOneThroughCantAssociateThroughCollection.new(active_record.name, self, through_reflection)
        end

        check_validity_of_inverse!
      end

      protected

      def actual_source_reflection # FIXME: this is a horrible name
        source_reflection.actual_source_reflection
      end

      private
        def derive_class_name
          # get the class_name of the belongs_to association of the through reflection
          options[:source_type] || source_reflection.class_name
        end
    end
  end
end