File: btrie.c

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file content (2676 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 82,297 bytes parent folder | download | duplicates (3)
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/* Level-Compressed Tree Bitmap (LC-TBM) Trie implementation
 *
 * Contributed by Geoffrey T. Dairiki <dairiki@dairiki.org>
 *
 * This file is released under a "Three-clause BSD License".
 *
 * Copyright (c) 2013, Geoffrey T. Dairiki
 * All rights reserved.
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
 * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
 * are met:
 *
 *   * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
 *     notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
 *
 *   * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
 *     copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
 *     disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided
 *     with the distribution.
 *
 *   * Neither the name of Geoffrey T. Dairiki nor the names of other
 *     contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived
 *     from this software without specific prior written permission.
 *
 * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
 * "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
 * LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
 * FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL GEOFFREY
 * T. DAIRIKI BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
 * EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
 * PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR
 * PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY
 * OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
 * (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE
 * USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
 * DAMAGE.
 */

/*****************************************************************
 *
 * This code implements a routing table conceptually based on a binary
 * trie structure.  Internally, the trie is represented by two types
 * of compound nodes: "multibit nodes", which contain the top few
 * levels of an entire binary subtree; and "level compression" (LC)
 * nodes which represent a (potentially long) chain of out-degree one
 * (single child) binary nodes (possibly ending at a terminal node).
 *
 * The multibit nodes are represented using a "Tree Bitmap" structure
 * (more on this below), which is very efficient --- both in terms of
 * memory usage and lookup speed --- at representing densely branching
 * parts of the trie.  The LC nodes can efficiently represent long
 * non-branching chains of binary trie nodes.  Using both node types
 * together results in efficient representation of both the sparse and
 * dense parts of a binary trie.
 *
 * Graphically, here's the rough idea:
 *
 *                    ........
 *                    .LC  o .
 *                    .   /  .    LC nodes can
 *                    .  o   . <= represent long chains
 *                    .   \  .    of (non-branching) binary
 *                    .    o .    trie nodes
 *                    .   /  .
 *                    .  o   .
 *              ......../.....
 *              .TBM   o   .
 *              .     / \  .    TBM nodes can represent
 *              .    o   * . <= several levels of densely
 *              .   / \    .    branching binary trie nodes
 *              .  o   o   .
 *         ......./.....\.......
 *         .TBM  o    .. o   LC.
 *         .    / \   ..  \    .
 *         .   o   o  ..   o   .
 *         .  /   / \ ..    \  .
 *         . *   o   *..     o .
 *         ...../.......    /  .
 *           . o  LC.  .   o   .
 *           .  \   .  .....\......
 *           .   *  .   .    o TBM.
 *           ........   .   / \   .
 *                      .  o   o  .
 *                      . / \   \ .
 *                      .*   *   *.
 *                      ...........
 *
 * Terminology
 * -----------
 *
 * node
 *   Usually, in the comments below, "node" will be used to refer to
 *   a compound node: either a multibit (TBM) node or an LC node.
 *
 * "internal node" or "prefix"
 *   The terms "prefix" or "internal node" are used to refer to
 *   a node in the binary trie which is internal to a multibit (TBM)
 *   node.
 *
 * ----------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Internal Representation of the Nodes
 * ====================================
 *
 * Multibit (TBM) Nodes
 * ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 *
 * The multibit nodes are represented using a "Tree Bitmap" (TBM)
 * structure as described by Eatherton, Dittia and Varghese[1]. See
 * the paper referenced below for basic details.
 *
 * A multibit node, represents several levels of a binary trie.
 * For example, here is a multibit node of stride 2 (which represent
 * two levels of a binary trie.
 *
 *           +------- | ------+
 *           | multi  o       |
 *           | bit   / \      |
 *           | node /   \     |
 *           |     o     *    |
 *           +--- / \ - / \ --+
 *               O
 *
 * Note that, for a multibit node of stride S, there are 2^S - 1 internal
 * nodes, each of which may have data (or not) associated with them, and
 * 2^S "external paths" leading to other (possibly compound nodes).
 * (In the diagram above, one of three internal node (the one denoted by "*")
 * has data, and one of four extending paths leads to an external node
 * (denoted by the 'O').)
 *
 * The TBM structure can represent these bitmaps in a very memory-efficient
 * manner.
 *
 * Each TBM node consists of two bitmaps --- the "internal bitmap" and the
 * "extending paths bitmap" --- and a pointer which points to an array
 * which contains both the extending path ("child") nodes and any
 * internal prefix data for the TBM node.
 *
 *        +--------+--------+
 *   TBM  | ext bm | int bm |
 *   Node +--------+--------+
 *        |     pointer     |----+
 *        +-----------------+    |
 *                               |
 *                               |
 *        +-----------------+    |
 *        | extending path  |    |
 *        |    node[N-1]    |    |
 *        +-----------------+    |
 *        /       ...       /    |
 *        /       ...       /    |
 *        +-----------------+    |
 *        | extending path  |    |
 *        |    node[0]      |    |
 *        +-----------------+<---+
 *        | int. data[M-1]  |
 *        +-----------------+
 *        /       ...       /
 *        +-----------------+
 *        | int. data[0]    |
 *        +-----------------+
 *
 * The extending paths bitmap (or "ext bitmap") has one bit for each
 * possible "extending path" from the bottom of the multibit node. To
 * check if a particular extending path is present, one checks to see if
 * the corresponding bit is set in the ext bitmap. The index into the
 * array of children for that path can be found by counting the number
 * of set bits to the left of that bit.
 *
 * Similary, the internal bitmap has one bit for each binary node
 * which is internal to the multibit node. To determine whether there
 * is data stored for an internal prefix, one checks the corresponding
 * bit in the internal bitmap. As for extending paths, the index into
 * the array of internal data is found by counting the number of set
 * bits to the left of that bit.
 *
 * To save space in the node structure, the node data array is stored
 * contiguously with the node extending path array. The single
 * ("children") pointer in the TBM structure points to the beginning
 * of the array of extending path nodes and to (one past) the end of
 * the the internal data array.
 *
 * The multibit stride is chosen so that the entire TBM node structure fits
 * in the space of two pointers. On 32 bit machines this means the stride
 * is four (each of the two bitmaps is 16 bits); on 32 bit machines the
 * stride is five.
 *
 * Note that there are only 2^stride - 1 internal prefixes in a TBM
 * node. That means there is one unused bit in the internal bitmap.
 * We require that that bit must always be clear for a TBM node. (If
 * set, it indicates that the structure represents, instead, an LC
 * node. See below.)
 *
 * ----------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Level Compression (LC) Nodes
 * ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 *
 * LC nodes are used to represent a chain of out-degree-one (single
 * child) prefixes in the binary trie. The are represented by a bit
 * string (the "relative prefix") along with its length and a pointer
 * to the extending path (the next node past the LC node.)
 *
 *
 *   Non-Terminal LC Node:
 *
 *     +------------------+-------+
 *     | relative prefix  |1|0|len|
 *     +------------------+-------+
 *     |       ptr.child          |--+
 *     +--------------------------+  |
 *                                   |
 *                                   |
 *     +--------------------------+  |
 *     | Next node -              |  |
 *     |    either LC or TBM      |  |
 *     |                          |  |
 *     +--------------------------+<-+
 *
 * The Relative Prefix
 * -------------------
 *
 * The maximum relative prefix per LC node is selected so that (again)
 * the entire node structure fits in the space of two pointers. On 32 bit
 * machines, the maximum relative prefix is 24 bits; on 62 bit machines
 * the limit is 56 bits.
 *
 * In the LC node structure, the relative prefix is stored as an array
 * of bytes. To avoid some bit-shifting during tree searches, these
 * bytes are byte-aligned with the global prefix. In other words, in
 * general there are (pos % 8) "pad" bits at the beginning of the
 * relative prefix --- where pos "starting bit" (or depth in the
 * binary tree) of the LC node --- which really belong to the parent
 * node(s) of the LC node. For efficiency (so that we don't have to
 * mask them out when matching) we require that these pad bits be
 * correct --- they must match the path which leads to the LC node.
 *
 * The relative prefix length stored in the LC node structure does not
 * count the pad bits.
 *
 * Terminal Node Compression
 * -------------------------
 *
 * For memory efficiency, we also support "terminal LC" nodes. When
 * the extension path from an LC node consists a single terminal node,
 * we store that terminal nodes data directly in the parent LC node.
 *
 * Instead of this:
 *
 *      +------------------+-------+
 *      | relative prefix  |1|0|len|
 *      +------------------+-------+
 *      |       ptr.child          |--+
 *      +--------------------------+  |
 *                                    |
 *      +--------------------------+  |
 *      | Terminal Node (TBM node, |  |
 *      | empty except for the     |  |
 *   +--| root internal node.)     |  |
 *   |  +--------------------------+<-+
 *   |
 *   +->+--------------------------+
 *      |  terminal node data      |
 *      +--------------------------+
 *
 * We can do this:
 *
 *      +------------------+-------+
 *      | relative prefix  |1|1|len|
 *      +------------------+-------+
 *      |   terminal node data     |
 *      +--------------------------+
 *
 * Terminal LC nodes are differentiated from non-terminal LC nodes
 * by the setting of the is_terminal flag.
 *
 * Node Structure Packing Details
 * ------------------------------
 *
 * The LC and TBM node structures are carefully packed so that the
 * "is_lc" flag (which indicates that a node is an LC node)
 * corresponds to the one unused bit in the internal bitmap of the TBM
 * node structure (which we require to be zero for TBM nodes).
 *
 * ----------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * References
 * ==========
 *
 * [1] Will Eatherton, George Varghese, and Zubin Dittia. 2004. Tree
 *     bitmap: hardware/software IP lookups with incremental
 *     updates. SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 34, 2 (April 2004),
 *     97-122. DOI=10.1145/997150.997160
 *     http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/997150.997160
 *     http://comnet.kaist.ac.kr/yhlee/CN_2008_Spring/readings/Eath-04-tree_bitmap.pdf
 *
 ****************************************************************/

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <setjmp.h>
#if defined(TEST) && defined(NDEBUG)
# warning undefining NDEBUG for TEST build
# undef NDEBUG
#endif
#include <assert.h>

#include "btrie.h"
#include "mempool.h"

#if __SIZEOF_POINTER__ == 4
# define TBM_STRIDE      4
#elif __SIZEOF_POINTER__ == 8
# define TBM_STRIDE      5
#else
# error "Unsupported word size"
#endif

#ifndef NO_STDINT_H
# if TBM_STRIDE == 4
   typedef uint16_t tbm_bitmap_t;
# else
   typedef uint32_t tbm_bitmap_t;
# endif
#else /* NO_STDINT_H */
# if TBM_STRIDE == 4
#  if SIZEOF_SHORT == 2
    typedef short unsigned tbm_bitmap_t;
#  else
#   error "can not determine type for 16 bit unsigned int"
#  endif
# else /* TBM_STRIDE == 5 */
#  if SIZEOF_INT == 4
    typedef unsigned tbm_bitmap_t;
#  elif SIZEOF_LONG == 4
    typedef long unsigned tbm_bitmap_t;
#  else
#   error "can not determine type for 32 bit unsigned int"
#  endif
# endif
#endif

#define TBM_FANOUT         (1U << TBM_STRIDE)
#define LC_BYTES_PER_NODE  (__SIZEOF_POINTER__ - 1)


typedef union node_u node_t;

/* The tbm_node and lc_node structs must be packed so that the the
 * high bit (LC_FLAGS_IS_LC) of lc_flags in the the lc_node struct
 * coincides with bit zero (the most significant bit) of tbm_node's
 * int_bm.  (This bit is how we differentiate between the two node
 * types.  It is always clear for a tbm_node and always set for an
 * lc_node.)
 */

struct tbm_node {
#ifdef WORDS_BIGENDIAN
  tbm_bitmap_t int_bm;        /* the internal bitmap */
  tbm_bitmap_t ext_bm;        /* extending path ("external") bitmap */
#else
  tbm_bitmap_t ext_bm;        /* extending path ("external") bitmap */
  tbm_bitmap_t int_bm;        /* the internal bitmap */
#endif
  union {
    node_t *children;         /* pointer to array of children */
    const void **data_end;    /* one past end of internal prefix data array */
  } ptr;
};

struct lc_node {
  /* lc_flags contains the LC prefix length and a couple of bit flags
   * (apparently char-sized bit fields are a gcc extension)
   */
# define LC_FLAGS_IS_LC       0x80
# define LC_FLAGS_IS_TERMINAL 0x40
# define LC_FLAGS_LEN_MASK    0x3f
#ifdef WORDS_BIGENDIAN
  btrie_oct_t      lc_flags;
  btrie_oct_t      prefix[LC_BYTES_PER_NODE];
#else
  btrie_oct_t      prefix[LC_BYTES_PER_NODE];
  btrie_oct_t      lc_flags;
#endif
  union {
    node_t *child;            /* pointer to child (if !is_terminal) */
    const void *data;         /* the prefix data (if is_terminal) */
  } ptr;
};

union node_u {
  struct tbm_node tbm_node;
  struct lc_node  lc_node;
};

struct free_hunk {
  struct free_hunk *next;
};

#define MAX_CHILD_ARRAY_LEN (TBM_FANOUT + TBM_FANOUT / 2)

struct btrie {
  node_t root;

  struct mempool *mp;
  struct free_hunk *free_list[MAX_CHILD_ARRAY_LEN];
  jmp_buf exception;
  /* mem mgmt stats */
  size_t alloc_total;         /* total bytes allocated from mempool */
  size_t alloc_data;  /* bytes allocated for TBM node int. prefix data */
  size_t alloc_waste; /* bytes wasted by rounding of data array size */
#ifdef BTRIE_DEBUG_ALLOC
  size_t alloc_hist[MAX_CHILD_ARRAY_LEN * 2]; /* histogram of alloc sizes */
#endif

  /* trie stats */
  size_t n_entries;        /* number of entries */
  size_t n_tbm_nodes;      /* total number of TBM nodes in tree */
  size_t n_lc_nodes;       /* total number of LC nodes in tree */
};


/****************************************************************
 *
 * Memory management
 *
 * We will need to frequently resize child/data arrays.  The current
 * mempool implementation does not support resizing/freeing, so here
 * we roll our own.
 */

static inline void
_free_hunk(struct btrie *btrie, void *buf, unsigned n_nodes)
{
  struct free_hunk *hunk = buf;

  hunk->next = btrie->free_list[n_nodes - 1];
  btrie->free_list[n_nodes - 1] = hunk;
}

static inline void *
_get_hunk(struct btrie *btrie, unsigned n_nodes)
{
  struct free_hunk *hunk = btrie->free_list[n_nodes - 1];

  if (hunk != NULL)
    btrie->free_list[n_nodes - 1] = hunk->next;
  return hunk;
}

/* Get pointer to uninitialized child/data array.
 *
 * Allocates memory for an array of NDATA (void *)s followed by an
 * array of NCHILDREN (node_t)s.  The returned pointer points to to
 * beginning of the children array (i.e. it points to (one past) the
 * end of the data array.)
 */
static node_t *
alloc_nodes(struct btrie *btrie, unsigned nchildren, unsigned ndata)
{
  size_t n_nodes = nchildren + (ndata + 1) / 2;
  node_t *hunk;

  assert(n_nodes > 0 && n_nodes <= MAX_CHILD_ARRAY_LEN);

  hunk = _get_hunk(btrie, n_nodes);
  if (hunk == NULL) {
    /* Do not have free hunk of exactly the requested size, look for a
     * larger hunk.  (The funny order in which we scan the buckets is
     * heuristically selected in an attempt to minimize unnecessary
     * creation of small fragments)
     */
    size_t n, skip = n_nodes > 4 ? 4 : n_nodes;
    for (n = n_nodes + skip; n <= MAX_CHILD_ARRAY_LEN; n++) {
      if ((hunk = _get_hunk(btrie, n)) != NULL) {
        _free_hunk(btrie, hunk + n_nodes, n - n_nodes);
        goto DONE;
      }
    }
    for (n = n_nodes + 1; n < n_nodes + skip && n <= MAX_CHILD_ARRAY_LEN; n++) {
      if ((hunk = _get_hunk(btrie, n)) != NULL) {
        _free_hunk(btrie, hunk + n_nodes, n - n_nodes);
        goto DONE;
      }
    }

    /* failed to find free hunk, allocate a fresh one */
    hunk = mp_alloc(btrie->mp, n_nodes * sizeof(node_t), 1);
    if (hunk == NULL)
      longjmp(btrie->exception, BTRIE_ALLOC_FAILED);
    btrie->alloc_total += n_nodes * sizeof(node_t);
  }

 DONE:
  btrie->alloc_data += ndata * sizeof(void *);
  btrie->alloc_waste += (ndata % 2) * sizeof(void *);
#ifdef BTRIE_DEBUG_ALLOC
  btrie->alloc_hist[2 * nchildren + ndata]++;
#endif

  /* adjust pointer to allow room for data array before child array */
  return hunk + (ndata + 1) / 2;
}

/* Free memory allocated by alloc_nodes */
static void
free_nodes(struct btrie *btrie, node_t *buf, unsigned nchildren, unsigned ndata)
{
  size_t n_nodes = nchildren + (ndata + 1) / 2;

  assert(n_nodes > 0 && n_nodes <= MAX_CHILD_ARRAY_LEN);

  _free_hunk(btrie, buf - (ndata + 1) / 2, n_nodes);

  btrie->alloc_data -= ndata * sizeof(void *);
  btrie->alloc_waste -= (ndata % 2) * sizeof(void *);
#ifdef BTRIE_DEBUG_ALLOC
  btrie->alloc_hist[2 * nchildren + ndata]--;
#endif
}

/* Debugging/development only: */
#ifdef BTRIE_DEBUG_ALLOC
static void
dump_alloc_hist(const struct btrie *btrie)
{
  unsigned bin;
  size_t total_alloc = 0;
  size_t total_free = 0;
  size_t total_bytes = 0;
  size_t total_waste = 0;
  size_t total_free_bytes = 0;

  puts("hunk  alloc   free    alloc   wasted     free");
  puts("size  hunks  hunks    bytes    bytes    bytes");
  puts("==== ====== ====== ======== ======== ========");

  for (bin = 1; bin < 2 * MAX_CHILD_ARRAY_LEN; bin++) {
    size_t n_alloc = btrie->alloc_hist[bin];
    size_t bytes = n_alloc * bin * sizeof(void *);
    size_t waste_bytes = (bin % 2) * n_alloc * sizeof(void *);
    size_t n_free = 0, free_bytes;
    if (bin % 2 == 0) {
      const struct free_hunk *hunk;
      for (hunk = btrie->free_list[bin / 2 - 1]; hunk; hunk = hunk->next)
        n_free++;
    }
    free_bytes = n_free * bin * sizeof(void *);

    printf("%3zu: %6zu %6zu %8zu %8zu %8zu\n", bin * sizeof(void *),
           n_alloc, n_free, bytes, waste_bytes, free_bytes);

    total_alloc += n_alloc;
    total_free += n_free;
    total_bytes += bytes;
    total_waste += waste_bytes;
    total_free_bytes += free_bytes;
  }
  puts("---- ------ ------ -------- -------- --------");
  printf("SUM: %6zu %6zu %8zu %8zu %8zu\n",
         total_alloc, total_free, total_bytes, total_waste, total_free_bytes);
}
#endif


/****************************************************************
 *
 * Bit twiddling
 *
 */

static inline tbm_bitmap_t
bit(unsigned b)
{
  return 1U << ((1 << TBM_STRIDE) - 1 - b);
}


/* count the number of set bits in bitmap
 *
 * algorithm from
 * http://graphics.stanford.edu/~seander/bithacks.html#CountBitsSetParallel
 */
static inline unsigned
count_bits(tbm_bitmap_t v)
{
  /* Count set bits in parallel. */
  /* v = (v & 0x5555...) + ((v >> 1) & 0x5555...); */
  v -= (v >> 1) & (tbm_bitmap_t)~0UL/3;
  /* v = (v & 0x3333...) + ((v >> 2) & 0x3333...); */
  v = (v & (tbm_bitmap_t)~0UL/5) + ((v >> 2) & (tbm_bitmap_t)~0UL/5);
  /* v = (v & 0x0f0f...) + ((v >> 4) & 0x0f0f...); */
  v = (v + (v >> 4)) & (tbm_bitmap_t)~0UL/17;
  /* v = v % 255; */
#if TBM_STRIDE == 4
  /* tbm_bitmap_t is uint16_t, avoid the multiply */
  return (v + (v >> 8)) & 0x0ff;
#else
  return (v * (tbm_bitmap_t)(~0UL/255)) >> ((sizeof(tbm_bitmap_t) - 1) * 8);
#endif
}

static inline unsigned
count_bits_before(tbm_bitmap_t bm, int b)
{
  return b ? count_bits(bm >> ((1 << TBM_STRIDE) - b)) : 0;
}

static inline unsigned
count_bits_from(tbm_bitmap_t bm, int b)
{
  return count_bits(bm << b);
}

/* extracts a few bits from bitstring, returning them as an integer */
static inline btrie_oct_t
extract_bits(const btrie_oct_t *prefix, unsigned pos, unsigned nbits)
{
  if (nbits == 0)
    return 0;
  else {
    unsigned v = (prefix[pos / 8] << 8) + prefix[pos / 8 + 1];
    return (v >> (16 - nbits - pos % 8)) & ((1U << nbits) - 1);
  }
}

static inline unsigned
extract_bit(const btrie_oct_t *prefix, int pos)
{
  return (prefix[pos / 8] >> (7 - pos % 8)) & 0x01;
}

/* get mask for high n bits of a byte */
static inline btrie_oct_t
high_bits(unsigned n)
{
  return (btrie_oct_t) -(1U << (8 - n));
}

/* determine whether two prefixes are equal */
static inline int
prefixes_equal(const btrie_oct_t *pfx1, const btrie_oct_t *pfx2, unsigned len)
{
  return (memcmp(pfx1, pfx2, len / 8) == 0
          && ((pfx1[len / 8] ^ pfx2[len / 8]) & high_bits(len % 8)) == 0);
}

/* determine length of longest common subprefix */
static inline unsigned
common_prefix(const btrie_oct_t *pfx1, const btrie_oct_t *pfx2, unsigned len)
{
  /* algorithm adapted from
   * http://graphics.stanford.edu/~seander/bithacks.html#IntegerLogLookup
   */
  static btrie_oct_t leading_zeros[] = {
    8, 7, 6, 6, 5, 5, 5, 5, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4,
    3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3,
    2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2,
    2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2,
    1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
    1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
    1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
    1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
    0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
    0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
    0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
    0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
    0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
    0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
    0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
    0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
  };
  unsigned nb;

  for (nb = 0; nb < len / 8; nb++) {
    unsigned diff = *pfx1++ ^ *pfx2++;
    if (diff != 0)
      return 8 * nb + leading_zeros[diff];
  }
  if (len % 8) {
    unsigned n = leading_zeros[*pfx1 ^ *pfx2];
    if (n < len % 8)
      return 8 * nb + n;
  }
  return len;
}

/****************************************************************
 */

static inline int
is_empty_node(const node_t *node)
{
  return node->tbm_node.ext_bm == 0 && node->tbm_node.int_bm == 0;
}

static inline int
is_lc_node(const node_t *node)
{
  return (node->lc_node.lc_flags & LC_FLAGS_IS_LC) != 0;
}

static inline int
is_tbm_node(const node_t *node)
{
  return !is_lc_node(node);
}

/* is node a TBM node with internal data? */
static inline int
has_data(const node_t *node)
{
  return is_tbm_node(node) && node->tbm_node.int_bm != 0;
}

static inline unsigned
base_index(unsigned pfx, unsigned plen)
{
  assert(plen < TBM_STRIDE);
  assert(pfx < (1U << plen));
  return pfx | (1U << plen);
}

/* initialize node to an empty TBM node */
static inline void
init_empty_node(struct btrie *btrie, node_t *node)
{
  memset(node, 0, sizeof(*node));
  btrie->n_tbm_nodes++;
}

/* get pointer to TBM internal prefix data */
static inline const void **
tbm_data_p(const struct tbm_node *node, unsigned pfx, unsigned plen)
{
  unsigned bi = base_index(pfx, plen);

  if ((node->int_bm & bit(bi)) == 0)
    return NULL;                /* no data */
  else {
    return &node->ptr.data_end[ -(int)count_bits_from(node->int_bm, bi) ];
  }
}

/* add an element to the internal data array */
static void
tbm_insert_data(struct btrie *btrie, struct tbm_node *node,
                unsigned pfx, unsigned plen, const void *data)
{
  /* XXX: don't realloc if already big enough? */
  unsigned bi = base_index(pfx, plen);
  unsigned nchildren = count_bits(node->ext_bm);
  int ndata = count_bits(node->int_bm);
  unsigned di = count_bits_before(node->int_bm, bi);
  node_t *old_children = node->ptr.children;
  const void **old_data_beg = node->ptr.data_end - ndata;
  const void **data_beg;

  assert((node->int_bm & bit(bi)) == 0);

  node->ptr.children = alloc_nodes(btrie, nchildren, ndata + 1);
  data_beg = node->ptr.data_end - (ndata + 1);
  data_beg[di] = data;
  node->int_bm |= bit(bi);

  if (nchildren != 0 || ndata != 0) {
    memcpy(data_beg, old_data_beg, di * sizeof(data_beg[0]));
    memcpy(&data_beg[di + 1], &old_data_beg[di],
           (ndata - di) * sizeof(data_beg[0]) + nchildren * sizeof(node_t));
    free_nodes(btrie, old_children, nchildren, ndata);
  }
}

/* determine whether TBM has internal prefix data for pfx/plen or ancestors */
static inline int
has_internal_data(const struct tbm_node *node, unsigned pfx, unsigned plen)
{
# define BIT(n) (1U << ((1 << TBM_STRIDE) - 1 - (n)))
# define B0() BIT(1)            /* the bit for 0/0 */
# define B1(n) (BIT((n) + 2) | B0()) /* the bits for n/1 and its ancestors */
# define B2(n) (BIT((n) + 4) | B1(n >> 1)) /* the bits for n/2 and ancestors */
# define B3(n) (BIT((n) + 8) | B2(n >> 1)) /* the bits for n/3 and ancestors */
# define B4(n) (BIT((n) + 16) | B3(n >> 1)) /* the bits for n/4 and ancestors */

  static tbm_bitmap_t ancestors[] = {
    0, B0(),
    B1(0), B1(1),
    B2(0), B2(1), B2(2), B2(3),
    B3(0), B3(1), B3(2), B3(3), B3(4), B3(5), B3(6), B3(7),
# if TBM_STRIDE == 5
    B4(0), B4(1), B4(2), B4(3), B4(4), B4(5), B4(6), B4(7),
    B4(8), B4(9), B4(10), B4(11), B4(12), B4(13), B4(14), B4(15),
# elif TBM_STRIDE != 4
#   error "unsupported TBM_STRIDE"
# endif
  };
# undef B4
# undef B3
# undef B2
# undef B1
# undef B0
# undef BIT

  return (node->int_bm & ancestors[base_index(pfx, plen)]) != 0;
}

/* get pointer to TBM extending path */
static inline node_t *
tbm_ext_path(const struct tbm_node *node, unsigned pfx)
{
  if ((node->ext_bm & bit(pfx)) == 0)
    return NULL;
  else
    return &node->ptr.children[count_bits_before(node->ext_bm, pfx)];
}

/* resize TBM node child array to make space for new child node */
static node_t *
tbm_insert_ext_path(struct btrie *btrie, struct tbm_node *node, unsigned pfx)
{
  unsigned nchildren = count_bits(node->ext_bm);
  unsigned ci = count_bits_before(node->ext_bm, pfx);
  int ndata = count_bits(node->int_bm);
  node_t *old_children = node->ptr.children;
  const void **old_data_beg = node->ptr.data_end - ndata;

  assert ((node->ext_bm & bit(pfx)) == 0);

  node->ptr.children = alloc_nodes(btrie, nchildren + 1, ndata);
  init_empty_node(btrie, &node->ptr.children[ci]);
  node->ext_bm |= bit(pfx);

  if (nchildren != 0 || ndata != 0) {
    const void **data_beg = node->ptr.data_end - ndata;
    memcpy(data_beg, old_data_beg,
           ndata * sizeof(data_beg[0]) + ci * sizeof(node_t));
    memcpy(&node->ptr.children[ci + 1], &old_children[ci],
           (nchildren - ci) * sizeof(old_children[0]));
    free_nodes(btrie, old_children, nchildren, ndata);
  }

  return &node->ptr.children[ci];
}



static inline int
lc_is_terminal(const struct lc_node *node)
{
  return (node->lc_flags & LC_FLAGS_IS_TERMINAL) != 0;
}

static inline unsigned
lc_len(const struct lc_node *node)
{
  return node->lc_flags & LC_FLAGS_LEN_MASK;
}

static inline void
lc_init_flags(struct lc_node *node, int is_terminal, unsigned len)
{
  assert((len & ~LC_FLAGS_LEN_MASK) == 0);
  node->lc_flags = LC_FLAGS_IS_LC | len;
  if (is_terminal)
    node->lc_flags |= LC_FLAGS_IS_TERMINAL;
}

static inline void
lc_add_to_len(struct lc_node *node, int increment)
{
  unsigned new_len = lc_len(node) + increment;
  assert((new_len & ~LC_FLAGS_LEN_MASK) == 0);
  node->lc_flags = (node->lc_flags & ~LC_FLAGS_LEN_MASK) | new_len;
}

static inline unsigned
lc_shift(unsigned pos)
{
  return pos / 8;
}

static inline unsigned
lc_base(unsigned pos)
{
  return 8 * lc_shift(pos);
}

static inline unsigned
lc_bits(const struct lc_node *node, unsigned pos)
{
  return pos % 8 + lc_len(node);
}

static inline unsigned
lc_bytes(const struct lc_node *node, unsigned pos)
{
  return (lc_bits(node, pos) + 7) / 8;
}

static inline unsigned
lc_leading_bits(const struct lc_node *node, unsigned pos, unsigned nbits)
{
  return extract_bits(node->prefix, pos % 8, nbits);
}




/* Initialize a new terminal LC node
 *
 * If prefix is too long to fit in a single LC node, then a chain
 * of LC nodes will be created.
 */
static void
init_terminal_node(struct btrie *btrie, node_t *dst, unsigned pos,
                   const btrie_oct_t *prefix, unsigned len, const void *data)
{
  struct lc_node *node = &dst->lc_node;
  unsigned nbytes = (len + 7) / 8;

  while (nbytes - lc_shift(pos) > LC_BYTES_PER_NODE) {
    memcpy(node->prefix, prefix + lc_shift(pos), LC_BYTES_PER_NODE);
    lc_init_flags(node, 0, 8 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE - pos % 8);
    node->ptr.child = alloc_nodes(btrie, 1, 0);
    pos += lc_len(node);
    node = &node->ptr.child->lc_node;
    btrie->n_lc_nodes++;
  }

  memcpy(node->prefix, prefix + lc_shift(pos), nbytes - lc_shift(pos));
  lc_init_flags(node, 1, len - pos);
  node->ptr.data = data;
  btrie->n_lc_nodes++;
}

/* merge chains of multiple LC nodes into a single LC node, if possible.
 *
 * also ensure that the leading nodes in the LC chain have maximum length.
 */
static void
coalesce_lc_node(struct btrie *btrie, struct lc_node *node, unsigned pos)
{
  while (! lc_is_terminal(node)
         && lc_bits(node, pos) < 8 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE
         && is_lc_node(node->ptr.child)) {
    struct lc_node *child = &node->ptr.child->lc_node;
    unsigned spare_bits = 8 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE - lc_bits(node, pos);
    unsigned end = pos + lc_len(node);
    unsigned shift = lc_shift(end) - lc_shift(pos);
    if (lc_len(child) <= spare_bits) {
      /* node plus child will fit in single node - merge */
      memcpy(node->prefix + shift, child->prefix,
             lc_bytes(child, end));
      lc_init_flags(node, lc_is_terminal(child), lc_len(node) + lc_len(child));
      node->ptr = child->ptr;
      free_nodes(btrie, (node_t *)child, 1, 0);
      btrie->n_lc_nodes--;
    }
    else {
      /* can't merge, but can take some of childs bits */
      unsigned cshift = lc_shift(end + spare_bits) - lc_shift(end);

      memcpy(node->prefix + shift, child->prefix, LC_BYTES_PER_NODE - shift);
      lc_add_to_len(node, spare_bits);
      if (cshift)
        memmove(child->prefix, child->prefix + cshift,
                lc_bytes(child, end) - cshift);
      assert(lc_len(child) > spare_bits);
      lc_add_to_len(child, -spare_bits);

      pos += lc_len(node);
      node = child;
    }
  }
}


static void init_tbm_node(struct btrie *btrie, node_t *node, unsigned pos,
                          const btrie_oct_t pbyte,
                          const void **root_data_p,
                          node_t *left, node_t *right);

/* given an LC node at orig_pos, create a new (shorter) node at pos */
static void
shorten_lc_node(struct btrie *btrie, node_t *dst, unsigned pos,
                struct lc_node *src, unsigned orig_pos)
{
  assert(orig_pos < pos);
  assert(lc_len(src) >= pos - orig_pos);
  assert(dst != (node_t *)src);

  if (lc_len(src) == pos - orig_pos && !lc_is_terminal(src)) {
    /* just steal the child */
    node_t *child = src->ptr.child;
    *dst = *child;
    free_nodes(btrie, child, 1, 0);
    btrie->n_lc_nodes--;
  }
  else {
    struct lc_node *node = &dst->lc_node;
    unsigned shift = lc_shift(pos) - lc_shift(orig_pos);
    if (shift) {
      memmove(node->prefix, src->prefix + shift,
              lc_bytes(src, orig_pos) - shift);
      node->lc_flags = src->lc_flags;
      node->ptr = src->ptr;
    }
    else {
      *node = *src;
    }
    lc_add_to_len(node, -(pos - orig_pos));
    coalesce_lc_node(btrie, node, pos);
  }
}

/* convert LC node to non-terminal LC node of length len *in place*
 *
 * on entry, node must have length at least len
 */
static void
split_lc_node(struct btrie *btrie, struct lc_node *node, unsigned pos, unsigned len)
{
  node_t *child = alloc_nodes(btrie, 1, 0);

  assert(lc_len(node) >= len);
  shorten_lc_node(btrie, child, pos + len, node, pos);

  lc_init_flags(node, 0, len);
  node->ptr.child = child;
  btrie->n_lc_nodes++;
}

/* convert non-terminal LC node of length one to a TBM node *in place* */
static void
convert_lc_node_1(struct btrie *btrie, struct lc_node *node, unsigned pos)
{
  btrie_oct_t pbyte = node->prefix[0];
  node_t *child = node->ptr.child;
  node_t *left, *right;

  assert(lc_len(node) == 1);
  assert(!lc_is_terminal(node));

  if (extract_bit(node->prefix, pos % 8))
    left = NULL, right = child;
  else
    left = child, right = NULL;
  init_tbm_node(btrie, (node_t *)node, pos, pbyte, NULL, left, right);
  free_nodes(btrie, child, 1, 0);
  btrie->n_lc_nodes--;
}

/* convert an LC node to TBM node *in place* */
static void
convert_lc_node(struct btrie *btrie, struct lc_node *node, unsigned pos)
{
  unsigned len = lc_len(node);

  if (len >= TBM_STRIDE) {
    unsigned pfx = lc_leading_bits(node, pos, TBM_STRIDE);
    struct tbm_node *result = (struct tbm_node *)node;

    /* split to LC of len TBM_STRIDE followed by child (extending path) */
    split_lc_node(btrie, node, pos, TBM_STRIDE);
    /* then convert leading LC node to TBM node */
    result->int_bm = 0;
    result->ext_bm = bit(pfx);
    btrie->n_lc_nodes--;
    btrie->n_tbm_nodes++;
  }
  else if (lc_is_terminal(node)) {
    /* convert short terminal LC to TBM (with internal data) */
    unsigned pfx = lc_leading_bits(node, pos, len);
    const void *data = node->ptr.data;
    node_t *result = (node_t *)node;

    init_empty_node(btrie, result);
    tbm_insert_data(btrie, &result->tbm_node, pfx, len, data);

    btrie->n_lc_nodes--;
  }
  else {
    assert(len > 0);
    for (; len > 1; len--) {
      split_lc_node(btrie, node, pos, len - 1);
      convert_lc_node_1(btrie, &node->ptr.child->lc_node, pos + len - 1);
    }
    convert_lc_node_1(btrie, node, pos);
  }
}


static void
insert_lc_node(struct btrie *btrie, node_t *dst, unsigned pos,
               btrie_oct_t pbyte, unsigned last_bit, node_t *tail)
{
  struct lc_node *node = &dst->lc_node;
  btrie_oct_t mask = 1 << (7 - (pos % 8));
  btrie_oct_t bit = last_bit ? mask : 0;

  if (mask != 0x01 && is_lc_node(tail)) {
    /* optimization: LC tail has room for the extra bit (without shifting) */
    assert((tail->lc_node.prefix[0] & mask) == bit);
    *node = tail->lc_node;
    lc_add_to_len(node, 1);
    return;
  }

  /* add new leading LC node of len 1 */
  node->prefix[0] = pbyte | bit;
  lc_init_flags(node, 0, 1);
  node->ptr.child = alloc_nodes(btrie, 1, 0);
  node->ptr.child[0] = *tail;
  btrie->n_lc_nodes++;

  if (is_lc_node(tail))
    coalesce_lc_node(btrie, node, pos);
}

/* given:
 *  pbyte: the bits in the prefix between lc_base(pos) and pos
 *  pfx: the next TBM_STRIDE bits in the prefix starting at pos
 * returns:
 *  the bits in the prefix between lc_base(pos + plen) and pos + plen
 */
static inline btrie_oct_t
next_pbyte(btrie_oct_t pbyte, unsigned pos, unsigned pfx)
{
  unsigned end = pos + TBM_STRIDE;

  if (end % 8 != 0) {
    btrie_oct_t nbyte = (btrie_oct_t)pfx << (8 - end % 8);
    if (end % 8 > TBM_STRIDE)
      nbyte |= pbyte & high_bits(pos % 8);
    return nbyte;
  }
  return 0;
}

/* construct a new TBM node, given the data and children of the
 * root prefix of the new node.
 */
static void
init_tbm_node(struct btrie *btrie, node_t *dst, unsigned pos,
              const btrie_oct_t pbyte,
              const void **root_data_p, node_t *left, node_t *right)
{
  struct tbm_node *node = &dst->tbm_node;
  unsigned nchildren = 0;
  unsigned ndata = 0;
  node_t children[TBM_FANOUT];
  const void *data[TBM_FANOUT - 1];
  tbm_bitmap_t ext_bm = 0;
  tbm_bitmap_t int_bm = 0;
  unsigned i, d, pfx_base;

  if (left && is_lc_node(left) && lc_len(&left->lc_node) < TBM_STRIDE)
    convert_lc_node(btrie, &left->lc_node, pos + 1);
  if (right && is_lc_node(right) && lc_len(&right->lc_node) < TBM_STRIDE)
    convert_lc_node(btrie, &right->lc_node, pos + 1);

  /* set internal data for root prefix */
  if (root_data_p) {
    data[ndata++] = *root_data_p;
    int_bm |= bit(base_index(0, 0));
  }
  /* copy internal data from children */
  for (d = 0; d < TBM_STRIDE - 1; d++) {
    if (left && has_data(left)) {
      for (i = 0; i < 1U << d; i++) {
        const void **data_p = tbm_data_p(&left->tbm_node, i, d);
        if (data_p) {
          data[ndata++] = *data_p;
          int_bm |= bit(base_index(i, d + 1));
        }
      }
    }
    if (right && has_data(right)) {
      for (i = 0; i < 1U << d; i++) {
        const void **data_p = tbm_data_p(&right->tbm_node, i, d);
        if (data_p) {
          data[ndata++] = *data_p;
          int_bm |= bit(base_index(i + (1 << d), d + 1));
        }
      }
    }
  }

  /* copy extending paths */
  for (pfx_base = 0; pfx_base < TBM_FANOUT; pfx_base += TBM_FANOUT / 2) {
    node_t *child = pfx_base ? right : left;
    if (child == NULL) {
      continue;
    }
    else if (is_lc_node(child)) {
      unsigned pfx = pfx_base + lc_leading_bits(&child->lc_node, pos + 1,
                                                TBM_STRIDE - 1);
      /* child is LC node, just shorten it by TBM_STRIDE - 1 */
      shorten_lc_node(btrie, &children[nchildren++], pos + TBM_STRIDE,
                      &child->lc_node, pos + 1);
      ext_bm |= bit(pfx);
    }
    else if (!is_empty_node(child)) {
      /* convert deepest internal prefixes of child to extending paths
       * of the new node
       */
      for (i = 0; i < TBM_FANOUT / 2; i++) {
        const void **data_p = tbm_data_p(&child->tbm_node, i, TBM_STRIDE - 1);
        node_t *left_ext = tbm_ext_path(&child->tbm_node, 2 * i);
        node_t *right_ext = tbm_ext_path(&child->tbm_node, 2 * i + 1);
        if (data_p || left_ext || right_ext) {
          node_t *ext_path = &children[nchildren++];
          unsigned pfx = pfx_base + i;
          btrie_oct_t npbyte = next_pbyte(pbyte, pos, pfx);

          ext_bm |= bit(pfx);
          if (left_ext == NULL && right_ext == NULL) {
            /* only have data - set ext_path to zero-length terminal LC node */
            lc_init_flags(&ext_path->lc_node, 1, 0);
            ext_path->lc_node.prefix[0] = npbyte;
            ext_path->lc_node.ptr.data = *data_p;
            btrie->n_lc_nodes++;
          }
          else if (data_p || (left_ext && right_ext)) {
            /* have at least two of data, left_ext, right_ext
             * ext_path must be a full TBM node */
            init_tbm_node(btrie, ext_path, pos + TBM_STRIDE,
                          npbyte, data_p, left_ext, right_ext);
          }
          else if (left_ext) {
            /* have only left_ext, insert length-one LC node */
            insert_lc_node(btrie, ext_path, pos + TBM_STRIDE,
                           npbyte, 0, left_ext);
          }
          else {
            /* have only right_ext, insert length-one LC node */
            insert_lc_node(btrie, ext_path, pos + TBM_STRIDE,
                           npbyte, 1, right_ext);
          }
        }
      }
      btrie->n_tbm_nodes--;
      free_nodes(btrie, child->tbm_node.ptr.children,
                 count_bits(child->tbm_node.ext_bm),
                 count_bits(child->tbm_node.int_bm));
    }
  }

  assert(count_bits(int_bm) == ndata);
  assert(count_bits(ext_bm) == nchildren);

  node->ptr.children = alloc_nodes(btrie, nchildren, ndata);
  memcpy(node->ptr.data_end - (int)ndata, data, ndata * sizeof(data[0]));
  memcpy(node->ptr.children, children, nchildren * sizeof(children[0]));
  node->ext_bm = ext_bm;
  node->int_bm = int_bm;
  btrie->n_tbm_nodes++;
}


static enum btrie_result
add_to_trie(struct btrie *btrie, node_t *node, unsigned pos,
            const btrie_oct_t *prefix, unsigned len, const void *data)
{
  for (;;) {
    if (is_lc_node(node)) {
      struct lc_node *lc_node = &node->lc_node;
      unsigned end = pos + lc_len(lc_node);
      unsigned cbits = common_prefix(prefix + lc_shift(pos), lc_node->prefix,
                                     (len < end ? len : end) - lc_base(pos));
      unsigned clen = lc_base(pos) + cbits; /* position of first mismatch */

      if (clen == end && !lc_is_terminal(lc_node)) {
        /* matched entire prefix of LC node, proceed to child */
        assert(lc_len(lc_node) > 0);
        node = lc_node->ptr.child;
        pos = end;
      }
      else if (clen == end && len == end && lc_is_terminal(lc_node)) {
        /* exact match for terminal node - already have data for prefix */
        return BTRIE_DUPLICATE_PREFIX;
      }
      else {
        assert(clen < end || (lc_is_terminal(lc_node) && len > end));
        /* Need to insert new TBM node at clen */
        if (clen > pos) {
          split_lc_node(btrie, lc_node, pos, clen - pos);
          node = lc_node->ptr.child;
          assert(is_lc_node(node));
          pos = clen;
        }
        convert_lc_node(btrie, &node->lc_node, pos);
      }
    }
    else if (is_empty_node(node)) {
      /* at empty TBM node - just replace with terminal LC node */
      init_terminal_node(btrie, node, pos, prefix, len, data);
      btrie->n_entries++;
      btrie->n_tbm_nodes--;
      return BTRIE_OKAY;
    }
    else {
      struct tbm_node *tbm_node = &node->tbm_node;
      unsigned end = pos + TBM_STRIDE;

      if (len < end) {
        unsigned plen = len - pos;
        unsigned pfx = extract_bits(prefix, pos, plen);

        if (tbm_data_p(tbm_node, pfx, plen) != NULL)
          return BTRIE_DUPLICATE_PREFIX; /* prefix already has data */
        else {
          tbm_insert_data(btrie, tbm_node, pfx, plen, data);
          btrie->n_entries++;
          return BTRIE_OKAY;
        }
      }
      else {
        unsigned pfx = extract_bits(prefix, pos, TBM_STRIDE);

        /* follow extending path */
        node = tbm_ext_path(tbm_node, pfx);
        if (node == NULL)
          node = tbm_insert_ext_path(btrie, tbm_node, pfx);
        pos = end;
      }
    }
  }
}

static const void *
search_trie(const node_t *node, unsigned pos,
            const btrie_oct_t *prefix, unsigned len)
{
  /* remember last TBM node seen with internal data */
  const struct tbm_node *int_node = 0;
  unsigned int_pfx = 0, int_plen = 0;

  while (node) {
    if (is_lc_node(node)) {
      const struct lc_node *lc_node = &node->lc_node;
      unsigned end = pos + lc_len(lc_node);
      if (len < end)
        break;
      if (!prefixes_equal(prefix + lc_shift(pos), lc_node->prefix,
                          end - lc_base(pos)))
        break;

      if (lc_is_terminal(lc_node))
        return lc_node->ptr.data; /* found terminal node */

      pos = end;
      node = lc_node->ptr.child;
    }
    else {
      const struct tbm_node *tbm_node = &node->tbm_node;
      unsigned end = pos + TBM_STRIDE;
      if (len < end) {
        unsigned plen = len - pos;
        unsigned pfx = extract_bits(prefix, pos, plen);
        if (has_internal_data(tbm_node, pfx, plen)) {
          int_node = tbm_node;
          int_pfx = pfx;
          int_plen = plen;
        }
        break;
      }
      else {
        unsigned pfx = extract_bits(prefix, pos, TBM_STRIDE);
        if (has_internal_data(tbm_node, pfx >> 1, TBM_STRIDE - 1)) {
          int_node = tbm_node;
          int_pfx = pfx >> 1;
          int_plen = TBM_STRIDE - 1;
        }
        pos = end;
        node = tbm_ext_path(tbm_node, pfx);
      }
    }
  }

  if (int_node) {
    const void **data_p = tbm_data_p(int_node, int_pfx, int_plen);
    while (data_p == NULL) {
      assert(int_plen > 0);
      int_pfx >>= 1;
      int_plen--;
      data_p = tbm_data_p(int_node, int_pfx, int_plen);
    }
    return *data_p;
  }

  return NULL;
}

struct btrie *
btrie_init(struct mempool *mp)
{
  struct btrie *btrie;

  if (!(btrie = mp_alloc(mp, sizeof(*btrie), 1)))
    return NULL;
  memset(btrie, 0, sizeof(*btrie));
  btrie->mp = mp;
  btrie->alloc_total = sizeof(*btrie);

  /* count the empty root node */
  btrie->n_tbm_nodes = 1;

  return btrie;
}

enum btrie_result
btrie_add_prefix(struct btrie *btrie,
                 const btrie_oct_t *prefix, unsigned len, const void *data)
{
  enum btrie_result rv;
  if ((rv = setjmp(btrie->exception)) != 0)
    return rv;                  /* out of memory */

  return add_to_trie(btrie, &btrie->root, 0, prefix, len, data);
}

const void *
btrie_lookup(const struct btrie *btrie, const btrie_oct_t *prefix, unsigned len)
{
  return search_trie(&btrie->root, 0, prefix, len);
}

/****************************************************************
 *
 * btrie_stats() - statistics reporting
 */

#ifdef BTRIE_EXTENDED_STATS

/* Define BTRIE_EXTENDED_STATS to get extra statistics (including
 * trie depth).  This statistics require a traversal of the entire trie
 * to compute, and so are disabled by default.
 */

struct stats {
  size_t max_depth;
  size_t total_depth;
#ifndef NDEBUG
  size_t n_lc_nodes;
  size_t n_tbm_nodes;
  size_t n_entries;
  size_t alloc_data;
  size_t alloc_waste;
#endif
};

static void
node_stats(const node_t *node, size_t depth, struct stats *stats)
{
  if (depth > stats->max_depth)
    stats->max_depth = depth;
  stats->total_depth += depth;

  if (is_lc_node(node)) {
#ifndef NDEBUG
    stats->n_lc_nodes++;
#endif
    if (!lc_is_terminal(&node->lc_node))
      node_stats(node->lc_node.ptr.child, depth + 1, stats);
#ifndef NDEBUG
    else
      stats->n_entries++;
#endif
  }
  else {
    unsigned i;
    unsigned nchildren = count_bits(node->tbm_node.ext_bm);
#ifndef NDEBUG
    unsigned ndata = count_bits(node->tbm_node.int_bm);

    stats->n_tbm_nodes++;
    stats->n_entries += ndata;
    stats->alloc_data += ndata * sizeof(void *);
    stats->alloc_waste += (ndata % 2) * sizeof(void *);
#endif
    for (i = 0; i < nchildren; i++)
      node_stats(&node->tbm_node.ptr.children[i], depth + 1, stats);
  }
}
#endif /* BTRIE_EXTENDED_STATS */

#ifndef NDEBUG
static size_t
count_free(const struct btrie *btrie)
{
  size_t total = 0;
  unsigned sz;
  for (sz = 1; sz <= MAX_CHILD_ARRAY_LEN; sz++) {
    const struct free_hunk *free = btrie->free_list[sz - 1];
    size_t n;
    for (n = 0; free; n++)
      free = free->next;
    total += sz * n;
  }
  return total * sizeof(node_t);
}
#endif /* not NDEBUG */


const char *
btrie_stats(const struct btrie *btrie)
{
  static char buf[128];
  size_t n_nodes = btrie->n_lc_nodes + btrie->n_tbm_nodes;
  size_t alloc_free = (btrie->alloc_total
                       + sizeof(node_t) /* do not double-count the root node */
                       - n_nodes * sizeof(node_t)
                       - btrie->alloc_data
                       - btrie->alloc_waste
                       - sizeof(*btrie));
#ifdef BTRIE_EXTENDED_STATS
  struct stats stats;
  double average_depth;

  memset(&stats, 0, sizeof(stats));
  node_stats(&btrie->root, 0, &stats);
  average_depth = (double)stats.total_depth / n_nodes;

#ifndef NDEBUG
  /* check the node counts */
  assert(stats.n_lc_nodes == btrie->n_lc_nodes);
  assert(stats.n_tbm_nodes == btrie->n_tbm_nodes);
  assert(stats.n_entries == btrie->n_entries);
  assert(stats.alloc_data == btrie->alloc_data);
  assert(stats.alloc_waste == btrie->alloc_waste);
#endif /* not NDEBUG */
#endif /* BTRIE_EXTENDED_STATS */

#ifndef NDEBUG
  /* check that we haven't lost any memory */
  assert(alloc_free == count_free(btrie));
#endif

#ifdef BTRIE_DEBUG_ALLOC
  dump_alloc_hist(btrie);
#endif

  snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf),
           "ents=%lu tbm=%lu lc=%lu mem=%.0fk free=%lu waste=%lu"
#ifdef BTRIE_EXTENDED_STATS
           " depth=%.1f/%lu"
#endif
           ,
           (long unsigned)btrie->n_entries,
           (long unsigned)btrie->n_tbm_nodes,
           (long unsigned)btrie->n_lc_nodes,
           (double)btrie->alloc_total / 1024,
           (long unsigned)alloc_free,
           (long unsigned)btrie->alloc_waste
#ifdef BTRIE_EXTENDED_STATS
           , average_depth, (long unsigned)stats.max_depth
#endif
           );

  buf[sizeof(buf) - 1] = '\0';
  return buf;
}


/****************************************************************/


#ifndef NO_MASTER_DUMP

struct walk_context {
  btrie_walk_cb_t *callback;
  void *user_data;

  btrie_oct_t prefix[(BTRIE_MAX_PREFIX + 7) / 8];
};

static void
walk_node(const node_t *node, unsigned pos, struct walk_context *ctx);

static void
walk_tbm_node(const struct tbm_node *node, unsigned pos,
              unsigned pfx, unsigned plen,
              struct walk_context *ctx)
{
  btrie_oct_t *prefix = ctx->prefix;
  int pbyte = pos / 8;
  btrie_oct_t pbit = 0x80 >> (pos % 8);
  const void **data_p = tbm_data_p(node, pfx, plen);

  if (pos >= BTRIE_MAX_PREFIX) {
    /* This can/should not happen, but don't overwrite buffers if it does. */
    return;
  }

  if (data_p)
    ctx->callback(prefix, pos, *data_p, 0, ctx->user_data);

  /* walk children */
  if (plen < TBM_STRIDE - 1) {
    /* children are internal prefixes in same node */
    walk_tbm_node(node, pos + 1, pfx << 1, plen + 1, ctx);
    prefix[pbyte] |= pbit;
    walk_tbm_node(node, pos + 1, (pfx << 1) + 1, plen + 1, ctx);
    prefix[pbyte] &= ~pbit;
  }
  else {
    /* children are extending paths */
    const node_t *ext_path;
    if ((ext_path = tbm_ext_path(node, pfx << 1)) != NULL)
      walk_node(ext_path, pos + 1, ctx);
    if ((ext_path = tbm_ext_path(node, (pfx << 1) + 1)) != NULL) {
      prefix[pbyte] |= pbit;
      walk_node(ext_path, pos + 1, ctx);
      prefix[pbyte] &= ~pbit;
    }
  }

  if (data_p)
    ctx->callback(prefix, pos, *data_p, 1, ctx->user_data);
}

static void
walk_lc_node(const struct lc_node *node, unsigned pos,
             struct walk_context *ctx)
{
  btrie_oct_t *prefix = ctx->prefix;
  unsigned end = pos + lc_len(node);
  btrie_oct_t save_prefix = prefix[lc_shift(pos)];

  if (end > BTRIE_MAX_PREFIX) {
    /* This can/should not happen, but don't overwrite buffers if it does. */
    return;
  }

  /* construct full prefix to node */
  memcpy(&prefix[lc_shift(pos)], node->prefix, lc_bytes(node, pos));
  if (end % 8)
    prefix[end / 8] &= high_bits(end % 8);

  if (lc_is_terminal(node)) {
    ctx->callback(prefix, end, node->ptr.data, 0, ctx->user_data);
    ctx->callback(prefix, end, node->ptr.data, 1, ctx->user_data);
  }
  else
    walk_node(node->ptr.child, end, ctx);

  prefix[lc_shift(pos)] = save_prefix; /* restore parents prefix */
  if (lc_bytes(node, pos) > 1)
    memset(&prefix[lc_shift(pos) + 1], 0, lc_bytes(node, pos) - 1);
}

static void
walk_node(const node_t *node, unsigned pos, struct walk_context *ctx)
{
  if (is_lc_node(node))
    walk_lc_node(&node->lc_node, pos, ctx);
  else
    walk_tbm_node(&node->tbm_node, pos, 0, 0, ctx);
}

/* walk trie in lexicographical order
 *
 * calls callback twice (once preorder, once postorder) at each prefix
 */
void
btrie_walk(const struct btrie *btrie,
           btrie_walk_cb_t *callback, void *user_data)
{
  struct walk_context ctx;

  memset(&ctx, 0, sizeof(ctx));
  ctx.callback = callback;
  ctx.user_data = user_data;

  walk_node(&btrie->root, 0, &ctx);
}


#endif /* not NO_MASTER_DUMP */


#ifdef TEST
/*****************************************************************
 *
 * Unit tests
 *
 */
#include <stdio.h>

#ifndef UNUSED
# define UNUSED __attribute__((unused))
#endif

/* bogus replacements mp_alloc for running self-tests */
void *
mp_alloc(UNUSED struct mempool *mp, unsigned sz, UNUSED int align)
{
  return malloc(sz);
}


#if 0
# define PASS(name) puts("OK " name)
#else
# define PASS(name) fputs(".", stdout); fflush(stdout)
#endif

const char * pgm_name = "???";

static void
test_struct_node_packing()
{
  node_t node;

  assert(sizeof(struct tbm_node) == 2 * sizeof(void *));
  assert(sizeof(struct lc_node) == 2 * sizeof(void *));
  assert(sizeof(node_t) == 2 * sizeof(void *));

  /* The lc_node bit must be an alias for bit zero of int_bm, since
   * that is the only unused bit in the TBM node structure.
   */
  memset(&node, 0, sizeof(node));
  assert(node.tbm_node.int_bm == 0);
  lc_init_flags(&node.lc_node, 0, 0);
  assert(node.tbm_node.int_bm == bit(0));

  PASS("test_struct_node_packing");
}

static void
test_bit()
{
  tbm_bitmap_t ones = ~(tbm_bitmap_t)0;
  tbm_bitmap_t high_bit = ones ^ (ones >> 1);

  assert(bit(0) == high_bit);
  assert(bit(1) == high_bit >> 1);
  assert(bit(8 * sizeof(tbm_bitmap_t) - 1) == 1);
  PASS("test_bit");
}

static void
test_count_bits()
{
  unsigned max_bits = sizeof(tbm_bitmap_t) * 8;
  tbm_bitmap_t ones = ~(tbm_bitmap_t)0;

  assert(count_bits(0) == 0);
  assert(count_bits(1) == 1);
  assert(count_bits(2) == 1);
  assert(count_bits(3) == 2);
  assert(count_bits(ones) == max_bits);
  assert(count_bits(~1) == max_bits - 1);

  /* count_bits(0x5555....) */
  assert(count_bits(ones / 3) == max_bits / 2);
  /* count_bits(0x3333...) */
  assert(count_bits(ones / 5) == max_bits / 2);
  /* count_bits(0x0f0f...) */
  assert(count_bits(ones / 17) == max_bits / 2);
  /* count_bits(0x1010...) */
  assert(count_bits(ones / 255) == max_bits / 8);

  PASS("test_count_bits");
}

static void
test_count_bits_before()
{
  unsigned max_bits = sizeof(tbm_bitmap_t) * 8;
  tbm_bitmap_t ones = ~(tbm_bitmap_t)0;
  unsigned i;

  for (i = 0; i < max_bits; i++) {
    assert(count_bits_before(0, i) == 0);
    assert(count_bits_before(ones, i) == i);
  }

  PASS("test_count_bits_before");
}

static void
test_count_bits_from()
{
  unsigned max_bits = sizeof(tbm_bitmap_t) * 8;
  tbm_bitmap_t ones = ~(tbm_bitmap_t)0;
  unsigned i;

  for (i = 0; i < max_bits; i++) {
    assert(count_bits_from(0, i) == 0);
    assert(count_bits_from(ones, i) == max_bits - i);
  }

  PASS("test_count_bits_from");
}

static void
test_extract_bits()
{
  static btrie_oct_t prefix[] = { 0xff, 0x55, 0xaa, 0x00 };
  unsigned i;

  for (i = 0; i < 32; i++)
    assert(extract_bits(prefix, i, 0) == 0);

  for (i = 0; i < 8; i++)
    assert(extract_bits(prefix, i, 1) == 1);
  for (i = 8; i < 16; i++)
    assert(extract_bits(prefix, i, 1) == i % 2);
  for (i = 16; i < 24; i++)
    assert(extract_bits(prefix, i, 1) == (i + 1) % 2);
  for (i = 24; i < 32; i++)
    assert(extract_bits(prefix, i, 1) == 0);


  assert(extract_bits(prefix, 2, 6) == 0x3f);
  assert(extract_bits(prefix, 3, 6) == 0x3e);
  assert(extract_bits(prefix, 4, 6) == 0x3d);
  assert(extract_bits(prefix, 5, 6) == 0x3a);
  assert(extract_bits(prefix, 6, 6) == 0x35);
  assert(extract_bits(prefix, 7, 6) == 0x2a);
  assert(extract_bits(prefix, 8, 6) == 0x15);

  PASS("test_extract_bits");
}

static void
test_high_bits()
{
  assert(high_bits(0) == 0x00);
  assert(high_bits(1) == 0x80);
  assert(high_bits(2) == 0xc0);
  assert(high_bits(3) == 0xe0);
  assert(high_bits(4) == 0xf0);
  assert(high_bits(5) == 0xf8);
  assert(high_bits(6) == 0xfc);
  assert(high_bits(7) == 0xfe);
  assert(high_bits(8) == 0xff);
  PASS("test_high_bits");
}

static void
test_prefixes_equal()
{
  btrie_oct_t prefix1[LC_BYTES_PER_NODE];
  btrie_oct_t prefix2[LC_BYTES_PER_NODE];
  unsigned i;
  memset(prefix1, 0xaa, LC_BYTES_PER_NODE);
  memset(prefix2, 0xaa, LC_BYTES_PER_NODE);

  for (i = 0; i < 8 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE; i++) {
    assert(prefixes_equal(prefix1, prefix2, i));
    prefix1[i / 8] ^= 1 << (7 - i % 8);
    assert(!prefixes_equal(prefix1, prefix2, 8 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE));
    assert(prefixes_equal(prefix1, prefix2, i));
    if (i + 1 < 8 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE)
      assert(!prefixes_equal(prefix1, prefix2, i + 1));
    prefix1[i / 8] ^= 1 << (7 - i % 8);
  }
  PASS("test_prefixes_equal");
}

static void
test_common_prefix()
{
  btrie_oct_t prefix1[LC_BYTES_PER_NODE];
  btrie_oct_t prefix2[LC_BYTES_PER_NODE];
  unsigned i;
  memset(prefix1, 0x55, LC_BYTES_PER_NODE);
  memset(prefix2, 0x55, LC_BYTES_PER_NODE);

  for (i = 0; i < 8 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE; i++) {
    assert(common_prefix(prefix1, prefix2, i) == i);
    prefix1[i / 8] ^= 1 << (7 - i % 8);
    assert(common_prefix(prefix1, prefix2, 8 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE) == i);
    if (i + 1 < 8 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE)
      assert(common_prefix(prefix1, prefix2, i+1) == i);
    prefix1[i / 8] ^= 1 << (7 - i % 8);
  }
  PASS("test_common_prefix");
}


static void
test_base_index()
{
  assert(base_index(0,0) == 1);
  assert(base_index(0,1) == 2);
  assert(base_index(1,1) == 3);
  assert(base_index(0,2) == 4);
  assert(base_index(1,2) == 5);
  assert(base_index(2,2) == 6);
  assert(base_index(3,2) == 7);
  PASS("test_base_index");
}

static void
test_has_internal_data()
{
  struct tbm_node node;
  unsigned plen, pfx, bi;
  for (plen = 0; plen < TBM_STRIDE; plen++) {
    for (pfx = 0; pfx < 1U << plen; pfx++) {
      tbm_bitmap_t ancestor_mask = 0;
      for (bi = base_index(pfx, plen); bi; bi >>= 1) {
        node.int_bm = bit(bi);
        ancestor_mask |= bit(bi);
        assert(has_internal_data(&node, pfx, plen));
      }
      node.int_bm = ~ancestor_mask;
      assert(!has_internal_data(&node, pfx, plen));
    }
  }
  PASS("test_has_internal_data");
}

/****************************************************************/
static const btrie_oct_t numbered_bytes[] = {
  0x00, 0x01, 0x02, 0x03, 0x04, 0x05, 0x06, 0x07,
  0x08, 0x09, 0x0a, 0x0b, 0x0c, 0x0d, 0x0e, 0x0f,
  0x10, 0x11, 0x12, 0x13, 0x14, 0x15, 0x16, 0x17,
  0x18, 0x19, 0x1a, 0x1b, 0x1c, 0x1d, 0x1e, 0x1f,
  0x20, 0x21, 0x22, 0x23, 0x24, 0x25, 0x26, 0x27,
  0x28, 0x29, 0x2a, 0x2b, 0x2c, 0x2d, 0x2e, 0x2f,
  0x30, 0x31, 0x32, 0x33, 0x34, 0x35, 0x36, 0x37,
  0x38, 0x39, 0x3a, 0x3b, 0x3c, 0x3d, 0x3e, 0x3f,
};

static void
check_non_terminal_lc_node(struct lc_node *node, unsigned len)
{
  assert(is_lc_node((node_t *)node));
  assert(!lc_is_terminal(node));
  assert(lc_len(node) == len);
}

static void
check_terminal_lc_node(struct lc_node *node, unsigned len, const void *data)
{
  assert(is_lc_node((node_t *)node));
  assert(lc_is_terminal(node));
  assert(lc_len(node) == len);
  assert(node->ptr.data == data);
}

static void
test_init_terminal_node()
{
  struct btrie *btrie = btrie_init(NULL);
  const void *data = (void *)0xdeadbeef;
  node_t node;
  struct lc_node *head = &node.lc_node;

  init_terminal_node(btrie, &node, 0,
                     numbered_bytes, 8 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE, data);
  check_terminal_lc_node(head, 8 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE, data);
  assert(memcmp(head->prefix, numbered_bytes, LC_BYTES_PER_NODE) == 0);

  init_terminal_node(btrie, &node, 7,
                     numbered_bytes, 8 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE, data);
  check_terminal_lc_node(head, 8 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE - 7, data);
  assert(memcmp(head->prefix, numbered_bytes, LC_BYTES_PER_NODE) == 0);

  init_terminal_node(btrie, &node, 0,
                     numbered_bytes, 2 * 8 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE, data);
  check_non_terminal_lc_node(head, 8 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE);
  assert(memcmp(head->prefix, numbered_bytes, LC_BYTES_PER_NODE) == 0);
  {
    struct lc_node *child = &head->ptr.child->lc_node;
    check_terminal_lc_node(child, 8 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE, data);
    assert(memcmp(child->prefix, &numbered_bytes[LC_BYTES_PER_NODE],
                  LC_BYTES_PER_NODE) == 0);
  }

  init_terminal_node(btrie, &node, 15,
                     numbered_bytes, 8 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE + 15, data);
  check_non_terminal_lc_node(head, 8 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE - 7);
  assert(memcmp(head->prefix, &numbered_bytes[1], LC_BYTES_PER_NODE) == 0);
  {
    struct lc_node *child = &head->ptr.child->lc_node;
    check_terminal_lc_node(child, 7, data);
    assert(child->prefix[0] == numbered_bytes[LC_BYTES_PER_NODE + 1]);
  }

  PASS("test_init_terminal_node");
}

static void
test_coalesce_lc_node()
{
  struct btrie *btrie = btrie_init(NULL);
  const void *data = (void *)0xdeadbeef;
  node_t node;
  struct lc_node *head = &node.lc_node;

  /* test merging */
  init_terminal_node(btrie, &node, 0,
                     numbered_bytes, 8 * (LC_BYTES_PER_NODE + 1), data);
  check_non_terminal_lc_node(head, LC_BYTES_PER_NODE * 8);
  lc_add_to_len(head, -8);
  coalesce_lc_node(btrie, head, 8);
  check_terminal_lc_node(head, LC_BYTES_PER_NODE * 8, data);
  assert(head->prefix[LC_BYTES_PER_NODE - 1]
         == numbered_bytes[LC_BYTES_PER_NODE]);

  /* test bit stealing */
  init_terminal_node(btrie, &node, 0,
                     numbered_bytes, 8 * (2 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE), data);
  check_non_terminal_lc_node(head, LC_BYTES_PER_NODE * 8);
  lc_add_to_len(head, -15);
  coalesce_lc_node(btrie, head, 15);
  check_non_terminal_lc_node(head, LC_BYTES_PER_NODE * 8 - 7);
  assert(memcmp(head->prefix, numbered_bytes, LC_BYTES_PER_NODE - 1) == 0);
  assert(head->prefix[LC_BYTES_PER_NODE - 1]
         == numbered_bytes[LC_BYTES_PER_NODE]);
  {
    struct lc_node *child = &head->ptr.child->lc_node;
    check_terminal_lc_node(child, 8 * (LC_BYTES_PER_NODE - 1), data);
    assert(memcmp(child->prefix, &numbered_bytes[LC_BYTES_PER_NODE + 1],
                  LC_BYTES_PER_NODE - 1) == 0);
  }

  PASS("test_coalesce_lc_node");
}

static void
test_shorten_lc_node()
{
  struct btrie *btrie = btrie_init(NULL);
  const void *data = (void *)0xdeadbeef;
  node_t node, shorter;

  /* test shorten without shift */
  init_terminal_node(btrie, &node, 0,
                     numbered_bytes, 8 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE, data);
  memset(shorter.lc_node.prefix, 0xff, LC_BYTES_PER_NODE);
  shorten_lc_node(btrie, &shorter, 7, &node.lc_node, 0);
  check_terminal_lc_node(&shorter.lc_node, LC_BYTES_PER_NODE * 8 - 7, data);
  assert(memcmp(shorter.lc_node.prefix, numbered_bytes, LC_BYTES_PER_NODE)
         == 0);

  /* test shorten with shift */
  init_terminal_node(btrie, &node, 7,
                     numbered_bytes, 8 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE, data);
  memset(shorter.lc_node.prefix, 0xff, LC_BYTES_PER_NODE);
  shorten_lc_node(btrie, &shorter, 9, &node.lc_node, 7);
  check_terminal_lc_node(&shorter.lc_node, LC_BYTES_PER_NODE * 8 - 9, data);
  assert(memcmp(shorter.lc_node.prefix, &numbered_bytes[1],
                LC_BYTES_PER_NODE - 1) == 0);

  {
    /* test child stealing */
    struct lc_node head;
    node_t tail, shorter;

    lc_init_flags(&head, 0, 7);
    head.ptr.child = &tail;
    init_empty_node(btrie, &tail);

    shorten_lc_node(btrie, &shorter, 7, &head, 0);
    assert(is_empty_node(&shorter));
  }

  PASS("test_shorten_lc_node");
}

static void
test_split_lc_node()
{
  struct btrie *btrie = btrie_init(NULL);
  const void *data = (void *)0xdeadbeef;
  struct lc_node node;

  init_terminal_node(btrie, (node_t *)&node, 1, numbered_bytes, 25, data);
  split_lc_node(btrie, &node, 1, 8);
  check_non_terminal_lc_node(&node, 8);
  check_terminal_lc_node(&node.ptr.child->lc_node, 16, data);

  /* test conversion of terminal to non-terminal */
  init_terminal_node(btrie, (node_t *)&node, 7, numbered_bytes, 10, data);
  split_lc_node(btrie, &node, 7, 3);
  check_non_terminal_lc_node(&node, 3);
  check_terminal_lc_node(&node.ptr.child->lc_node, 0, data);

  PASS("test_split_lc_node");
}

static void
test_convert_lc_node_1()
{
  struct btrie *btrie = btrie_init(NULL);
  const void *data = (void *)0xdeadbeef;
  struct lc_node head;

  /* test tail is left */
  lc_init_flags(&head, 0, 1);
  head.prefix[0] = 0;
  head.ptr.child = alloc_nodes(btrie, 1, 0);
  init_terminal_node(btrie, head.ptr.child, 1, numbered_bytes, 1, data);
  convert_lc_node_1(btrie, &head, 0);
  {
    node_t *result = (node_t *)&head;
    assert(is_tbm_node(result));
    assert(result->tbm_node.ext_bm == 0);
    assert(result->tbm_node.int_bm == bit(base_index(0, 1)));
    assert(*tbm_data_p(&result->tbm_node, 0, 1) == data);
  }

  /* test tail is right */
  lc_init_flags(&head, 0, 1);
  head.prefix[0] = 1;
  head.ptr.child = alloc_nodes(btrie, 1, 0);
  init_terminal_node(btrie, head.ptr.child, 8, numbered_bytes, 10, data);
  convert_lc_node_1(btrie, &head, 7);
  {
    node_t *result = (node_t *)&head;
    assert(is_tbm_node(result));
    assert(result->tbm_node.ext_bm == 0);
    assert(result->tbm_node.int_bm == bit(base_index(4, 3)));
    assert(*tbm_data_p(&result->tbm_node, 4, 3) == data);
  }

  PASS("test_convert_lc_node_1");
}

static void
test_convert_lc_node()
{
  struct btrie *btrie = btrie_init(NULL);
  const void *data = (void *)0xdeadbeef;
  node_t node;

  /* if (len >= TBM_STRIDE) */
  init_terminal_node(btrie, &node, 7, numbered_bytes, TBM_STRIDE + 7, data);
  convert_lc_node(btrie, &node.lc_node, 7);
  assert(is_tbm_node(&node));
  assert(node.tbm_node.ext_bm == bit(0));
  assert(node.tbm_node.int_bm == 0);
  check_terminal_lc_node(&tbm_ext_path(&node.tbm_node, 0)->lc_node, 0, data);

  /* if (lc_is_terminal(node)) */
  init_terminal_node(btrie, &node, 0, numbered_bytes, 0, data);
  convert_lc_node(btrie, &node.lc_node, 0);
  assert(is_tbm_node(&node));
  assert(node.tbm_node.ext_bm == 0);
  assert(node.tbm_node.int_bm == bit(base_index(0, 0)));
  assert(*tbm_data_p(&node.tbm_node, 0, 0) == data);

  /* else */
  lc_init_flags(&node.lc_node, 0, TBM_STRIDE - 1);
  node.lc_node.prefix[0] = 0;
  node.lc_node.ptr.child = alloc_nodes(btrie, 1, 0);
  init_empty_node(btrie, node.lc_node.ptr.child);
  tbm_insert_data(btrie, &node.lc_node.ptr.child->tbm_node, 0, 0, data);

  convert_lc_node(btrie, &node.lc_node, 0);
  assert(is_tbm_node(&node));
  assert(node.tbm_node.ext_bm == 0);
  assert(node.tbm_node.int_bm == bit(base_index(0, TBM_STRIDE - 1)));
  assert(*tbm_data_p(&node.tbm_node, 0, TBM_STRIDE - 1) == data);

  PASS("test_convert_lc_node");
}

static void
test_insert_lc_node()
{
  struct btrie *btrie = btrie_init(NULL);
  const void *data = (void *)0xdeadbeef;
  node_t node, tail;

  /* test optimized case, last_bit == 0 */
  init_terminal_node(btrie, &tail, 9, numbered_bytes, 17, data);
  insert_lc_node(btrie, &node, 8, 0, 0, &tail);
  check_terminal_lc_node(&node.lc_node, 9, data);
  assert(memcmp(node.lc_node.prefix, &numbered_bytes[1], 2) == 0);

  /* test optimized case, last_bit == 1 */
  init_terminal_node(btrie, &tail, 7, &numbered_bytes[0x12], 15, data);
  insert_lc_node(btrie, &node, 6, 0x10, 1, &tail);
  check_terminal_lc_node(&node.lc_node, 9, data);
  assert(node.lc_node.prefix[0] == 0x12);
  assert(node.lc_node.prefix[1] == 0x13);

  /* test with shift */
  init_terminal_node(btrie, &tail, 0, numbered_bytes, 8, data);
  insert_lc_node(btrie, &node, 7, 0x40, 1, &tail);
  check_terminal_lc_node(&node.lc_node, 9, data);
  assert(node.lc_node.prefix[0] == 0x41);
  assert(node.lc_node.prefix[1] == numbered_bytes[0]);

  /* test with TBM node */
  init_empty_node(btrie, &tail);
  insert_lc_node(btrie, &node, 6, 0x40, 0, &tail);
  check_non_terminal_lc_node(&node.lc_node, 1);
  assert(is_tbm_node(node.lc_node.ptr.child));

  PASS("test_insert_lc_node");
}

static void
test_next_pbyte()
{
  assert(next_pbyte(0xff, 0, 1) == 0x80 >> (TBM_STRIDE - 1));
  assert(next_pbyte(0xff, 1, 1) == (0x80 | (0x80 >> TBM_STRIDE)));
  assert(next_pbyte(0xff, 2, 1) == (0xc0 | (0x80 >> (TBM_STRIDE + 1))));
  assert(next_pbyte(0xff, 8 - TBM_STRIDE, 1) == 0);
  assert(next_pbyte(0xff, 9 - TBM_STRIDE, 1) == 0x80);

  PASS("test_next_pbyte");
}

static void
test_init_tbm_node()
{
  struct btrie *btrie = btrie_init(NULL);
  const void *data = (void *)0xdeadbeef;
  unsigned lr;
  node_t node;

  /* test root data */
  init_tbm_node(btrie, &node, 0, 0, &data, NULL, NULL);
  assert(is_tbm_node(&node));
  assert(node.tbm_node.ext_bm == 0);
  assert(node.tbm_node.int_bm == bit(base_index(0, 0)));
  assert(*tbm_data_p(&node.tbm_node, 0, 0) == data);

  for (lr = 0; lr < 2; lr++) {
    node_t child;
    node_t *left = lr ? NULL : &child;
    node_t *right = lr ? &child : NULL;
    unsigned base = lr ? (1U << (TBM_STRIDE - 1)) : 0;
    unsigned pfx;

    /* test with long LC node child */
    init_terminal_node(btrie, &child, 1, numbered_bytes, TBM_STRIDE + 1, data);
    init_tbm_node(btrie, &node, 0, 0, NULL, left, right);
    assert(is_tbm_node(&node));
    assert(node.tbm_node.ext_bm == bit(base));
    assert(node.tbm_node.int_bm == 0);
    check_terminal_lc_node(&tbm_ext_path(&node.tbm_node, base)->lc_node,
                            1, data);

    /* test with short LC node children */
    init_terminal_node(btrie, &child, 1, numbered_bytes, TBM_STRIDE - 1, data);
    init_tbm_node(btrie, &node, 0, 0, NULL, left, right);
    assert(is_tbm_node(&node));
    assert(node.tbm_node.ext_bm == 0);
    assert(node.tbm_node.int_bm == bit(base_index(base >> 1, TBM_STRIDE-1)));
    assert(*tbm_data_p(&node.tbm_node, base >> 1, TBM_STRIDE-1) == data);

    /* construct TBM node with all eight combinations of having data,
     * left_ext and/or right_ext in its extending paths */
    init_empty_node(btrie, &child);
    for (pfx = 0; pfx < 8; pfx++) {
      if (pfx & 1)
        tbm_insert_data(btrie, &child.tbm_node, pfx, TBM_STRIDE - 1, data);
      if (pfx & 2) {
        btrie_oct_t prefix0 = 0;
        init_terminal_node(btrie,
                           tbm_insert_ext_path(btrie, &child.tbm_node, 2*pfx),
                           TBM_STRIDE + 1,
                           &prefix0, TBM_STRIDE + 2, data);
      }
      if (pfx & 4) {
        btrie_oct_t prefix0 = 0x80 >> TBM_STRIDE;
        init_terminal_node(btrie,
                           tbm_insert_ext_path(btrie, &child.tbm_node, 2*pfx+1),
                           TBM_STRIDE + 1,
                           &prefix0, TBM_STRIDE + 3, data);
      }
    }
    init_tbm_node(btrie, &node, 0, 0, NULL, left, right);
    for (pfx = 0; pfx < 8; pfx++) {
      unsigned base = lr ? (1U << (TBM_STRIDE - 1)) : 0;
      node_t *ext_path = tbm_ext_path(&node.tbm_node, base + pfx);
      if (pfx == 0)
        assert(ext_path == NULL);
      else if (pfx == 1)
        check_terminal_lc_node(&ext_path->lc_node, 0, data);
      else if (pfx == 2) {
        check_terminal_lc_node(&ext_path->lc_node, 2, data);
        assert(ext_path->lc_node.prefix[0] == 0);
      }
      else if (pfx == 4) {
        check_terminal_lc_node(&ext_path->lc_node, 3, data);
        assert(ext_path->lc_node.prefix[0] == (0x80 >> TBM_STRIDE));
      }
      else {
        tbm_bitmap_t int_bm = 0;
        assert(is_tbm_node(ext_path));
        if (pfx & 1) {
          int_bm |= bit(base_index(0, 0));
          assert(*tbm_data_p(&ext_path->tbm_node, 0, 0) == data);
        }
        if (pfx & 2) {
          int_bm |= bit(base_index(0, 2));
          assert(*tbm_data_p(&ext_path->tbm_node, 0, 2) == data);
        }
        if (pfx & 4) {
          int_bm |= bit(base_index(4, 3));
          assert(*tbm_data_p(&ext_path->tbm_node, 4, 3) == data);
        }
        assert(ext_path->tbm_node.int_bm == int_bm);
      }
    }
  }

  PASS("test_init_tbm_node");
}

static void
test_add_to_trie()
{
  struct btrie *btrie = btrie_init(NULL);
  const void *data = (void *)0xdeadbeef;
  enum btrie_result result;
  unsigned pfx, plen;
  node_t root;

  /* test initial insertion */
  init_empty_node(btrie, &root);
  result = add_to_trie(btrie, &root, 0,
                       numbered_bytes, 8 * 2 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE, data);
  assert(result == BTRIE_OKAY);
  check_non_terminal_lc_node(&root.lc_node, 8 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE);
  check_terminal_lc_node(&root.lc_node.ptr.child->lc_node,
                          8 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE, data);

  /* test can follow LC node to tail, and then detect duplicate prefix */
  result = add_to_trie(btrie, &root, 0,
                       numbered_bytes, 8 * 2 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE, data);
  assert(result == BTRIE_DUPLICATE_PREFIX);

  /* test can insert new TBM node within existing LC node */
  result = add_to_trie(btrie, &root, 0,
                       &numbered_bytes[1], 16, data);
  assert(result == BTRIE_OKAY);
  check_non_terminal_lc_node(&root.lc_node, 7);
  assert(is_tbm_node(root.lc_node.ptr.child));

  /* test can convert terminal LC node to TBM node */
  init_terminal_node(btrie, &root, 0, numbered_bytes, 12, data);
  result = add_to_trie(btrie, &root, 0, numbered_bytes, 24, data);
  assert(result == BTRIE_OKAY);
  check_non_terminal_lc_node(&root.lc_node, 12);
  assert(is_tbm_node(root.lc_node.ptr.child));

  /* test can insert internal prefix data in TBM node */
  for (plen = 0; plen < TBM_STRIDE; plen++) {
    for (pfx = 0; pfx < (1U << plen); pfx++) {
      btrie_oct_t prefix0 = plen ? pfx << (8 - plen) : 0;
      init_empty_node(btrie, &root);
      init_terminal_node(btrie, tbm_insert_ext_path(btrie, &root.tbm_node, 0),
                         TBM_STRIDE,
                         numbered_bytes, 8, data);
      result = add_to_trie(btrie, &root, 0, &prefix0, plen, data);
      assert(result == BTRIE_OKAY);
      assert(is_tbm_node(&root));
      assert(root.tbm_node.ext_bm == bit(0));
      assert(root.tbm_node.int_bm == bit(base_index(pfx, plen)));
      assert(*tbm_data_p(&root.tbm_node, pfx, plen) == data);

      result = add_to_trie(btrie, &root, 0, &prefix0, plen, data);
      assert(result == BTRIE_DUPLICATE_PREFIX);
    }
  }

  /* test can add extending paths to TBM node */
  for (pfx = 0; pfx < (1U << TBM_STRIDE); pfx++) {
    btrie_oct_t prefix0 = pfx << (8 - TBM_STRIDE);
    init_empty_node(btrie, &root);
    tbm_insert_data(btrie, &root.tbm_node, 0, 0, data);
    result = add_to_trie(btrie, &root, 0, &prefix0, 8, data);
    assert(result == BTRIE_OKAY);
    assert(is_tbm_node(&root));
    assert(root.tbm_node.ext_bm == bit(pfx));
    assert(root.tbm_node.int_bm == bit(base_index(0, 0)));
    check_terminal_lc_node(&tbm_ext_path(&root.tbm_node, pfx)->lc_node,
                            8 - TBM_STRIDE, data);

    result = add_to_trie(btrie, &root, 0, &prefix0, 8, data);
    assert(result == BTRIE_DUPLICATE_PREFIX);
  }

  /* test can follow extending path */
  init_empty_node(btrie, &root);
  init_terminal_node(btrie,
                     tbm_insert_ext_path(btrie, &root.tbm_node, 0), TBM_STRIDE,
                     numbered_bytes, 8, data);
  result = add_to_trie(btrie, &root, 0, numbered_bytes, 7, data);
  assert(result == BTRIE_OKAY);
  assert(root.tbm_node.ext_bm == bit(0));
  assert(root.tbm_node.int_bm == 0);
  check_non_terminal_lc_node(&root.tbm_node.ptr.children[0].lc_node,
                              7 - TBM_STRIDE);

  PASS("test_add_to_trie");
}

static void
test_search_trie()
{
  struct btrie *btrie = btrie_init(NULL);
  const void *data01 = (void *)0xdead0001;
  const void *data11 = (void *)0xdead0101;
  const void *data = (void *)0xdeadbeef;
  unsigned plen, pfx;
  node_t root;

  /* test can follow chain of LC nodes to an exact match */
  init_empty_node(btrie, &root);
  add_to_trie(btrie, &root, 0,
              numbered_bytes, 8 * 2 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE, data);

  assert(search_trie(&root, 0, numbered_bytes, 8 * 2 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE)
         == data);
  assert(search_trie(&root, 0, numbered_bytes, 8 * 2 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE + 1)
         == data);
  assert(search_trie(&root, 0, numbered_bytes, 8 * 2 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE - 1)
         == NULL);
  assert(search_trie(&root, 0, &numbered_bytes[1], 8 * 2 * LC_BYTES_PER_NODE)
         == NULL);

  /* test can follow extending path to an exact match */
  for (pfx = 0; pfx < (1U << TBM_STRIDE); pfx++) {
    btrie_oct_t prefix0 = pfx << (8 - TBM_STRIDE);
    init_empty_node(btrie, &root);
    tbm_insert_data(btrie, &root.tbm_node, 0, 1, data01);
    tbm_insert_data(btrie, &root.tbm_node, 1, 1, data11);
    add_to_trie(btrie, &root, 0, &prefix0, 8, data);
    assert(search_trie(&root, 0, &prefix0, 8) == data);
    /* test that last matching TBM internal prefix gets picked up */
    if (prefix0 & 0x80)
      assert(search_trie(&root, 0, &prefix0, 7) == data11);
    else
      assert(search_trie(&root, 0, &prefix0, 7) == data01);
    prefix0 ^= 1 << (8 - TBM_STRIDE);
    if (prefix0 & 0x80)
      assert(search_trie(&root, 0, &prefix0, 8) == data11);
    else
      assert(search_trie(&root, 0, &prefix0, 8) == data01);
  }

  /* test finding of TBM internal prefixes */
  init_empty_node(btrie, &root);
  tbm_insert_data(btrie, &root.tbm_node, 0, 1, data01);
  tbm_insert_data(btrie, &root.tbm_node, 1, 1, data11);

  assert(search_trie(&root, 0, numbered_bytes, 0) == NULL);
  for (plen = 1; plen < TBM_STRIDE; plen++) {
    for (pfx = 0; pfx < (1U << TBM_STRIDE); pfx++) {
      btrie_oct_t prefix0 = pfx << (8 - plen);
      if (prefix0 & 0x80)
        assert(search_trie(&root, 0, &prefix0, plen) == data11);
      else
        assert(search_trie(&root, 0, &prefix0, plen) == data01);
    }
  }

  PASS("test_search_trie");
}

static int
unit_tests()
{
  test_struct_node_packing();
  test_bit();
  test_count_bits();
  test_count_bits_before();
  test_count_bits_from();
  test_extract_bits();
  test_high_bits();
  test_prefixes_equal();
  test_common_prefix();
  test_base_index();
  test_has_internal_data();

  test_init_terminal_node();
  test_coalesce_lc_node();
  test_shorten_lc_node();
  test_split_lc_node();
  test_convert_lc_node_1();
  test_convert_lc_node();
  test_insert_lc_node();
  test_next_pbyte();
  test_init_tbm_node();
  test_add_to_trie();
  test_search_trie();

  puts("\nOK");
  return 0;
}

/*****************************************************************
 *
 * btrie_dump: print out the trie structure (for testing)
 *
 */
#define INDENT_FILL "....:....|....:....|....:....|....:....|"

static void dump_node(const node_t *node, unsigned pos, btrie_oct_t *prefix,
                      int indent);

static void
dump_prefix(btrie_oct_t *prefix, unsigned len, int indent, const char *tail)
{
  unsigned i;

  printf("%*.*s0x", indent, indent, INDENT_FILL);
  for (i = 0; i < len / 8; i++)
    printf("%02x", prefix[i]);
  if (len % 8)
    printf("%02x", prefix[len / 8] & high_bits(len % 8));
  printf("/%u%s", len, tail);
}

/* the opposite of extract_bits, sets a short string of bits from integer */
static void
insert_bits(btrie_oct_t *prefix, unsigned pos, btrie_oct_t pfx, unsigned nbits)
{
  if (nbits != 0) {
    unsigned v = (prefix[pos / 8] << 8) + prefix[pos / 8 + 1];
    unsigned mask = (1U << nbits) - 1;
    unsigned shift = 16 - (pos % 8) - nbits;
    v = (v & ~(mask << shift)) | (pfx << shift);
    prefix[pos / 8] = v >> 8;
    prefix[pos / 8 + 1] = (btrie_oct_t)v;
  }
}

static void
dump_tbm_node(const struct tbm_node *node, unsigned pos,
              btrie_oct_t *prefix, int indent)
{
  unsigned pfx = 0, plen = 0;

  dump_prefix(prefix, pos, indent, " [tbm]\n");

  for (;;) {
    if (plen < TBM_STRIDE) {
      const void **data_p = tbm_data_p(node, pfx, plen);
      if (data_p) {
        insert_bits(prefix, pos, pfx, plen);
        dump_prefix(prefix, pos + plen, indent, "");
        printf(" [%u/%u] (%s)\n", pfx, plen, (const char *)*data_p);
      }
      plen++;
      pfx <<= 1;
    }
    else {
      const node_t *ext_path = tbm_ext_path(node, pfx);
      if (ext_path) {
        insert_bits(prefix, pos, pfx, TBM_STRIDE);
        dump_node(ext_path, pos + TBM_STRIDE, prefix, indent + 1);
      }
      while (pfx & 1) {
        if (--plen == 0)
          return;
        pfx >>= 1;
      }
      pfx++;
    }
  }
}

static void
dump_lc_node(const struct lc_node *node, unsigned pos,
             btrie_oct_t *prefix, int indent)
{
  unsigned end = pos + lc_len(node);
  btrie_oct_t save_prefix = prefix[lc_shift(pos)];

  memcpy(&prefix[lc_shift(pos)], node->prefix, lc_bytes(node, pos));

  if (lc_is_terminal(node)) {
    dump_prefix(prefix, end, indent, "");
    printf(" (%s)\n", (const char *)node->ptr.data);
  }
  else {
    dump_prefix(prefix, end, indent, "\n");
    dump_node(node->ptr.child, end, prefix, indent + 1);
  }

  prefix[lc_shift(pos)] = save_prefix;
  if (lc_bytes(node, pos) > 1)
    memset(&prefix[lc_shift(pos) + 1], 0, lc_bytes(node, pos) - 1);
}

static void
dump_node(const node_t *node, unsigned pos, btrie_oct_t *prefix, int indent)
{
  if (is_lc_node(node))
    dump_lc_node(&node->lc_node, pos, prefix, indent);
  else
    dump_tbm_node(&node->tbm_node, pos, prefix, indent);
}

static void
btrie_dump(struct btrie *btrie)
{
  btrie_oct_t prefix[(BTRIE_MAX_PREFIX + 7) / 8];

  memset(prefix, 0, sizeof(prefix));
  dump_node(&btrie->root, 0, prefix, 0);
  puts(btrie_stats(btrie));
}

/****************************************************************
 *
 * test program - just enough to construct a trie and preform a lookup
 *
 */

#include <arpa/inet.h>

static int
parse_prefix(const char *arg, btrie_oct_t prefix[16], unsigned *len)
{
  char addrbuf[128];
  return sscanf(arg, "%127[0-9a-fA-F:]/%u", addrbuf, len) == 2
    && inet_pton(AF_INET6, addrbuf, prefix) == 1;
}


static int
test_btrie(int argc, char *argv[])
{
  struct btrie *btrie = btrie_init(NULL);
  int i;
  btrie_oct_t prefix[16];
  unsigned len;

  for (i = 1; i < argc-1; i++) {
    if (!parse_prefix(argv[i], prefix, &len)) {
      fprintf(stderr, "Can not parse arg '%s'\n", argv[i]);
      return 1;
    }
    btrie_add_prefix(btrie, prefix, len, argv[i]);
  }

  btrie_dump(btrie);


  if (argc > 1) {
    const void *data;

    if (!parse_prefix(argv[argc-1], prefix, &len)) {
      fprintf(stderr, "Can not parse arg '%s'\n", argv[argc-1]);
      return 1;
    }
    data = btrie_lookup(btrie, prefix, 128);
    printf("lookup(%s) => %s\n", argv[argc-1], (const char *)data);
  }

  return 0;
}

int
main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
  if ((pgm_name = strrchr(argv[0], '/')) != NULL)
    pgm_name++;
  else
    pgm_name = argv[0];

  if (argc > 1)
    return test_btrie(argc, argv);
  else
    return unit_tests();
}

#endif /* TEST */