File: DATA.txt

package info (click to toggle)
routino 3.2-5
  • links: PTS, VCS
  • area: main
  • in suites: buster
  • size: 8,376 kB
  • sloc: ansic: 22,337; xml: 5,520; perl: 2,485; makefile: 753; sh: 661
file content (116 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 4,786 bytes parent folder | download | duplicates (7)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
                               Routino : Data
                               ==============


   A router relies on data to be able to find a route.


OpenStreetMap Data
------------------

   The data that is collected by the OpenStreetMap project consists of
   nodes, ways and relations.

   Node
          A node is a point that has a latitude and longitude and
          attributes that describe what type of point it is (part of a way
          or a place of interest for example).

   Way
          A way is a collection of nodes that when joined together define
          something (for example a road, a railway, a boundary, a
          building, a lake etc). The ways also have attributes that define
          them (speed limits, type of road and restrictions for example).

   Relation
          A relation is a collection of items (usually ways) that are
          related to each other for some reason (highways that make up a
          route for example).

   The OpenStreetMap Wiki explains the data much better than I can.


Router Data
-----------

   The information that is needed by a routing algorithm is only a subset
   of the information that is collected by the OpenStreetMap project. For
   routing what is required is information about the location of roads (or
   other highways), the connections between the highways and the
   properties of those highways.

   Location of highways (nodes)
          The locations of things is provided by the nodes from the
          OpenStreetMap data. The nodes are the only things that have
          coordinates in OpenStreetMap and everything else is made up by
          reference to them. Not all of the nodes are useful, only the
          ones that are part of highways. The location of the nodes is
          stored but none of the other attributes are currently used by
          the router.

   Location of highways (ways)
          The location of the highways is defined in the OpenStreetMap
          data by the ways. Only the highway ways are useful and the other
          ways are discarded. What remains is lists of nodes that join
          together to form a section of highway. This is further split
          into segments which are individual parts of a way connected by
          two nodes.

   Properties of highways (tags)
          The ways that belong to highways are extracted from the data in
          the previous step and for each way the useful information for
          routing is stored. For the router the useful information is the
          type of highway, the speed limit, the allowed types of transport
          and other restrictions (one-way, minimum height, maximum weight
          etc).

   Connections between highways
          The connections between highways are defined in the
          OpenStreetMap data by ways that share nodes. Since the ways may
          join in the middle and not just the ends it is the segments
          defined above that are not part of the OpenStreetMap data that
          are most important.

   The information that is extracted from the OpenStreetMap data is stored
   in an optimised way that allows the routing to be performed quickly.


Interpreting Data Tags
----------------------

   The tags are the information that is attached to the nodes and ways in
   OpenStreetMap. The router needs to interpret these tags and use them
   when deciding what type of traffic can use a highway (for example).

   There are no well defined rules in OpenStreetMap about tagging, but
   there is guidance on the OpenStreetMap Wiki "Map_Features" page. This
   describes a set of recommended tags but these are not universally used
   so it is up to each application how to interpret them.

   The tagging rules that the router uses are very important in
   controlling how the router works. With Routino the data tags can be
   modified when the data is imported to allow customisation of the
   information used for routing.


Problems With OpenStreetMap Data
--------------------------------

   The route that can be found is only as good as the data that is
   available. This is not intended as a criticism of the OpenStreetMap
   data; it is generally good.

   There are some problems that are well known and which affect the
   router. For example highways might be missing because nobody has mapped
   them. A highway may be wrongly tagged with incorrect properties, or a
   highway might be missing important tags for routing (e.g. speed
   limits). There can also be problems with highways that should join but
   don't because they do not share nodes.

   A lot of these problems can be found using the interactive data
   visualiser that uses the same Routino routing database.


--------

Copyright 2008-2010 Andrew M. Bishop.