File: TAGGING.txt

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                           Routino : Tagging Rules
                           =======================


   The different tags and attributes in the OSM format XML that are used
   by Routino are described below.

   Routino handles the tags in the input file after they have been
   processed according to a set of rules defined in a configuration file.
   The first half of this file describes the tags that are recognised by
   Routino after being processed; the second half of the file describes
   the transformations that are in the default tagging configuration file.


Tags Recognised After Processing
--------------------------------

   This section describes the tags that are recognised by Routino after
   the tag transformations have been applied. This is therefore a much
   reduced set of tags compared to the original OSM data and also includes
   tags which are specific to Routino.

   In all cases of tag processing values of true, yes, 1 are recognised as
   being affirmative and any other value is negative.


Node Tags And Attributes
------------------------

   The node attributes id, latitude and longitude are used. The id
   attribute is required to associate the node with the ways and the
   position attributes are required to locate the node.

Transport Specific Tags
- - - - - - - - - - - -

   One tag is recognised for each of the different modes of transport:
   foot, horse, bicycle, wheelchair, moped, motorcycle, motorcar, goods,
   hgv and psv. These indicate whether the specific type of transport is
   allowed to pass through the node or not.

   By default for nodes all types of transport are allowed to pass through
   a node and specific tags must be used to remove the permissions for the
   transport.

The roundabout Tag
- - - - - - - - -

   The roundabout tag for mini-roundabouts is recognised and used to
   improve the description of the route.


Way Tags And Attributes
-----------------------

   The tags from the ways in the data are the ones that provide most of
   the information for routing. The id attribute is used only so that the
   many segments associated with a way can share a set of tags taken from
   the way. The nd information is used to identify the nodes that make up
   the way.

The highway Tag
- - - - - - - -

   The most important tag that is used from a way is the highway tag. This
   defines the type of highway that the way represents. Any way that does
   not have a highway tag is discarded.

   There are more highway types defined than are used by the router. The
   subset that the router uses are:
     * motorway
     * trunk
     * primary
     * secondary
     * tertiary
     * unclassified
     * residential
     * service
     * track
     * cycleway
     * path (1)
     * steps (2)

   Note 1: This changed in version 1.3 of Routino - the bridleway and
   footway types were included within the path highway type.
   Note 2: This changed in version 1.3 of Routino - the steps type was
   separated from the footway type.

Transport Specific Tags
- - - - - - - - - - - -

   One tag is recognised for each of the different modes of transport:
   foot, horse, bicycle, wheelchair, moped, motorcycle, motorcar, goods,
   hgv and psv. These indicate whether the specific type of transport is
   allowed on the highway or not.

   By default for ways no types of transport are allowed to pass along a
   highway and specific tags must be used to add the permissions for the
   transport.

The name Tag
- - - - - -

   The name tag is used to provide the label for the highway when printing
   the results.

The ref Tag
- - - - - -

   The ref tag is used to provide the label for the highway when printing
   the results.

The lanes Tag
- - - - - - -

   The lanes tag is used to identify whether a highway has multiple lanes
   for traffic and this is used to derive the multilane highway
   properties.

The paved Tag
- - - - - - -

   The paved tag is used to identify whether a highway is paved or not,
   this is one of the available highway properties. A paved tag may exist
   in the original data but normally the surface tag needs to be
   transformed into the paved tag.

The multilane Tag
- - - - - - - - -

   The multilane tag is used to indicate that a highway has multiple lanes
   for traffic.

The bridge Tag
- - - - - - -

   The bridge tag is used to identify whether a highway is a bridge and
   therefore set one of the available properties.

The tunnel Tag
- - - - - - -

   The tunnel tag is used to identify whether a highway is a tunnel and
   therefore set one of the available properties.

The footroute Tag
- - - - - - - - -

   The footroute tag is used to identify whether a highway is part of a
   walking route and therefore set one of the available properties. This
   is not a standard OSM tag and is normally added to the individual
   highways by looking for route relations that are designated for foot
   access.

The bicycleroute Tag
- - - - - - - - - -

   The bicycleroute tag is used to identify whether a highway is part of a
   bicycle route and therefore set one of the available properties. This
   is not a standard OSM tag and is normally added to the individual
   highways by looking for route relations that are designated for bicycle
   access.

The cyclebothways Tag
- - - - - - - - - - -

   The cyclebothways tag is used to identify whether a highway allows
   cycling in the opposite direction to a signposted oneway restriction.

The oneway Tag
- - - - - - -

   The oneway tag is used to specify that traffic is only allowed to
   travel in one direction.

The roundabout Tag
- - - - - - - - -

   The roundabout tag is used to specify that a highway is part of a
   roundabout to improve the description of the calculated route.

The maxspeed Tag
- - - - - - - -

   The maxspeed tag is used to specify the maximum speed limit on the
   highway; this is always measured in km/hr in OpenStreetMap data. If the
   tag value contains "mph" then it is assumed to be a value in those
   units and converted to km/hr.

The maxweight Tag
- - - - - - - - -

   The maxweight tag is used to specify the maximum weight of any traffic
   on the highway. In other words this must be set to the heaviest weight
   allowed on the highway (for example a bridge) in tonnes. If the tag
   value contains "kg" then it is assumed that the value is in these units
   and converted to tonnes.

The maxheight Tag
- - - - - - - - -

   The maxheight tag is used to specify the maximum height of any traffic
   on the highway. In other words this must be set to the lowest height of
   anything above the highway (like a bridge) in metres. If the tag value
   contains a measurement in feet or feet and inches then attempts are
   made to convert this to metres.

The maxwidth Tag
- - - - - - - -

   The maxwidth tag is used to specify the maximum width of any traffic on
   the highway. This must be set to the minimum width of the constraints
   at the wayside in metres. If the tag value contains a measurement in
   feet or feet and inches then attempts are made to convert this to
   metres.

The maxlength Tag
- - - - - - - - -

   The maxlength tag is used to specify the maximum length of any traffic
   on the highway (usually from a traffic sign) in metres. If the tag
   value contains a measurement in feet or feet and inches then attempts
   are made to convert this to metres.

The area Tag
- - - - - -

   The area tag is used to specify that a way defines an area. This is
   used only so that in the case of duplicated segments those belonging to
   an area can be discarded in preference to those that are not.


Relation Tags And Attributes
----------------------------

   The tags from the relations are used to associate more properties with
   the highways that are part of that relation. The id attribute is used
   so that relations that are members of other relations can be
   identified. The member information is used to identify the nodes and
   ways that make up the relation.

The footroute Tag
- - - - - - - - -

   The footroute tag is used to identify whether a relation defines a
   walking route and therefore should be applied to the individual member
   highways.

The bicycleroute Tag
- - - - - - - - - -

   The bicycleroute tag is used to identify whether a relation defines a
   bicycle route and therefore should be applied to the individual member
   highways.

The type, restriction & except Tags
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

   For turn relations the information about the allowed or disallowed
   turns are stored in the type, restriction and except tags. For a turn
   restriction the type must be equal to "restriction", the restriction
   must define the type of turn relation and except defines transport
   types which are exempt from the restriction.


Tag Transformations
-------------------

   This section describes the set of tag transformations that are
   contained in the default configuration file. The configuration file
   tagging rules are applied in sequence and this section of the document
   is arranged in the same order.


Node Tag Transformations
------------------------

Barrier Defaults
- - - - - - - -

   The first part of the tag transformations is to decide on defaults for
   each type of node. This uses the barrier tag in the OSM file and
   converts it into a default set of disallowed transport types.

   Barrier       foot horse wheelchair bicycle moped motorcycle motorcar goods hgv psv
   -------       ---- ----- ---------- ------- ----- ---------- -------- ----- --- ---
   kissing_gate, footgate, stile, v_stile, turnstile, squeeze,  squeeze_stile,
   cycle_barrier, bicycle_barrier
                 yes  no    no         no      no    no         no       no    no  no
   horse_stile, horse_jump, step_over
                 yes  yes   no         no      no    no         no       no    no  no
   horse_barrier, cattle_grid
                 yes  no    yes        yes     yes   yes        yes      yes   yes yes
   motorcyle_barrier
                 yes  yes   yes        yes     no    no         no       no    no  no
   bollard, car_barrier, car_trap
                 yes  yes   yes        yes     yes   yes        no       no    no  no

Generic Access Permissions
- - - - - - - - - - - - -

   The access tag is used to specify the default access restrictions
   through the node. If the tag value is no or private or a selection of
   other values then all transport types are denied access (later tag
   transformation rules may add specific transport types back again).

Other Access Permissions
- - - - - - - - - - - -

   A tag named vehicle means any of the bicycle, moped, motorcycle,
   motorcar, goods, hgv and psv transport types. A tag named motor_vehicle
   is transformed to mean any vehicle except a bicycle.

Specific Access Permissions
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

   The final part of the access permissions is to use the specific
   transport type tags.

   One tag is recognised for each of the different modes of transport:
   foot, horse, bicycle, wheelchair, moped, motorcycle, motorcar, goods,
   hgv and psv. These indicate whether the specific type of transport is
   allowed through the node or not; the values listed for the access tag
   are also accepted here.

Mini-roundabouts
- - - - - - - -

   If the highway tag has the value mini_roundabout or the junction tag
   has the value roundabout then a junction tag with value roundaboutis
   passed through.


Way Tag Transformations
-----------------------

Highway Defaults
- - - - - - - -

   The first part of the tag transformations is to decide on defaults for
   each type of highway. This uses the highway tag in the OSM file and
   maps it into one of the highway tags that are recognised by Routino,
   defining the default allowed transport types and adding a number of
   properties.

   The first part of the highway tag checking is to ignore the highway tag
   if it has a value that indicates a non-highway. These are the proposed
   and construction values for future highways, the no, abandoned and
   disused values for previous highways and a small number of other
   values.

   The second part of the highway transformation is to convert the highway
   tag into one that is recognised by Routino.

   Original tag                            Transformed tag
   ------------                            ---------------
   motorway_link                           motorway
   trunk_link                              trunk
   primary_link                            primary
   secondary_link                          secondary
   tertiary_link                           tertiary
   minor, road                             unclassified
   living_street                           residential
   access, services, layby                 service
   byway, unsurfaced, unpaved              track
   footway, bridleway, pedestrian, walkway path
   route=ferry                             ferry (1)

   Note 1: A ferry route is converted into a highway of type "ferry" so
   that routes using a ferry can be calculated.

   The type of highway also determines the defaults for the types of
   transport allowed on the highway. The default assumptions are as shown
   in the table below.

   Highway      foot  horse  wheelchair bicycle moped motorcycle motorcar goods hgv psv
   -------      ----  -----  ---------- ------- ----- ---------  -------- ----- --- ---
   motorway     no    no     no         no      no    yes        yes      yes   yes yes
   trunk        no(1) no(1)  no(1)      yes     yes   yes        yes      yes   yes yes
   primary      yes   yes    yes        yes     yes   yes        yes      yes   yes yes
   secondary    yes   yes    yes        yes     yes   yes        yes      yes   yes yes
   tertiary     yes   yes    yes        yes     yes   yes        yes      yes   yes yes
   unclassified yes   yes    yes        yes     yes   yes        yes      yes   yes yes
   residential  yes   yes    yes        yes     yes   yes        yes      yes   yes yes
   service      yes   yes    yes        yes     yes   yes        yes      yes   yes yes
   track        yes   yes    yes        yes     no    no         no       no    no  no
   cycleway     yes   no     yes        yes     no    no         no       no    no  no
   path         yes   yes(2) yes        yes(2)  no    no         no       no    no  no
   steps        yes   no     no         no      no    no         no       no    no  no
   ferry (3)    no    no     no         no      no    no         no       no    no  no

   Note 1: A trunk road may legally allow foot, horse or wheelchair access
   but in the absence of other tags is considered to be too dangerous.
   Note 2: A path allows bicycle or horse access by default only if
   actually labelled as a highway of type "bridleway".
   Note 3: Ferry routes must be explicitly tagged with the allowed
   transport types, it is not sensible to try to guess.

   Finally for the highway tag a number of default properties are added
   depending on the highway type.

   Highway      Properties
   -------      ----------
   motorway     paved, oneway, multilane
   trunk        paved, multilane (1)
   primary      paved, multilane (1)
   secondary    paved
   tertiary     paved
   unclassified paved
   residential  paved
   service      paved
   track        paved (2)
   cycleway     paved
   path         paved (3)
   steps
   ferry

   Note 1: A highway of this type has the multilane property by default if
   it is oneway.
   Note 2: A track is paved only if it is tagged as tracktype=grade1.
   Note 3: A path is paved only if it was originally tagged as
   highway=walkway or highway=pedestrian.

Generic Access Permissions
- - - - - - - - - - - - -

   The access tag is used to specify the default access restrictions on
   the highway. If the tag value is no or private or a selection of other
   values then all transport types are denied access (later tag
   transformation rules may add specific transport types back again).

Other Access Permissions
- - - - - - - - - - - -

   A tag named vehicle means any of the bicycle, moped, motorcycle,
   motorcar, goods, hgv and psv transport types. A tag named motor_vehicle
   is transformed to mean any vehicle except a bicycle.

   The designation tag is used as an alternative method of identifying the
   legal right of way on a path (in the UK at least). The tag
   transformations convert these tags into a set of allowed transport
   types as shown below.

   Designation tag           Equivalent access permissions
   ---------------           -----------------------------
   restricted_byway          foot=yes, wheelchair=yes, horse=yes, bicycle=yes
   public_byway, byway,
   byway_open_to_all_traffic foot=yes, wheelchair=yes, horse=yes, bicycle=yes,
                             moped=yes, motorcycle=yes, motorcar=yes
   permissive_bridleway,
   public_bridleway,
   bridleway                 foot=yes, wheelchair=yes, horse=yes, bicycle=yes
   public_cycleway           foot=yes, wheelchair=yes, bicycle=yes
   permissive_footpath,
   public_footpath,
   footpath                  foot=yes, wheelchair=yes

   In addition to these there are some other tags and values that will
   modify the transport permissions on the highway.

   A highway that is tagged as motorroad with a value of yes will deny
   access to foot, horse, wheelchair, bicycle and moped transport.

   A highway that is tagged with footway or sidewalk and one of a set of
   popular values will allow foot and wheelchair access even if the road
   type would not normally do so.

   A highway that is tagged as cycleway with one of several values will
   allow bicycle access. If the value of the cycleway tag is
   opposite_lane, opposite_track or opposite then the cyclebothways tag is
   set.

   A highway that is tagged as oneway:bicycle with the value no will also
   cause the cyclebothways tag to be set.

Specific Access Permissions
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

   The final part of the access permissions is to use the specific
   transport type tags.

   One tag is recognised for each of the different modes of transport:
   foot, horse, bicycle, wheelchair, moped, motorcycle, motorcar, goods,
   hgv and psv. These indicate whether the specific type of transport is
   allowed on the highway or not.

Highway Properties
- - - - - - - - -

   If there is a surface tag then the highway is assumed to be unpaved
   unless the tag value matches one of the following: paved, asphalt,
   concrete or many other values listed in the configuration file.

   Support for the obsolete paved tag is also provided and the highway is
   paved if this is set to a true value.

   The lanes tag is passed through to be used to set the multilane highway
   property.

   The bridge and tunnel tags are copied directly from the input to the
   output.

Highway Restrictions
- - - - - - - - - -

   The oneway, maxspeed, maxweight, maxheight, maxwidth and maxlength are
   copied directly from the input to the output without modification.

Roundabouts
- - - - - -

   If a highway is tagged as junction=roundabout then a roundabout=yes tag
   created on the output.

Highway Names and References
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

   The name and ref tags are copied directly from the input to the output.

Highway Areas
- - - - - - -

   The area tag is copied directly from the input to the output.


Relation Tag Transformations
----------------------------

   The type tag is passed through without change.

Routes
- - -

   The route tag can be used to determine whether a relation is part of a
   walking or bicycle route so that the footroute or bicycleroute
   properties can be applied to the highways that make up that relation.

   The tag transformations that are applied for route relations are
   defined in the table below.

   Relation Tag                 footroute Property bicycleroute Property
   ------------                 ------------------ ---------------------
   foot, walking, hiking        yes                no
   bicycle                      no                 yes
   bicycle;foot, foot;bicycle   yes                yes

Turn Restrictions
- - - - - - - - -

   No tag transformations are defined for turn restriction relations but
   the restriction and except tags are passed through without change.


--------

Copyright 2008-2015 Andrew M. Bishop.