File: md2man

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#!/usr/bin/env python3

# This script takes a manpage written in markdown and turns it into an html web
# page and a nroff man page.  The input file must have the name of the program
# and the section in this format: NAME.NUM.md.  The output files are written
# into the current directory named NAME.NUM.html and NAME.NUM.  The input
# format has one extra extension: if a numbered list starts at 0, it is turned
# into a description list. The dl's dt tag is taken from the contents of the
# first tag inside the li, which is usually a p, code, or strong tag.  The
# cmarkgfm or commonmark lib is used to transforms the input file into html.
# The html.parser is used as a state machine that both tweaks the html and
# outputs the nroff data based on the html tags.
#
# Copyright (C) 2020 Wayne Davison
#
# This program is freely redistributable.

import sys, os, re, argparse, subprocess, time
from html.parser import HTMLParser

CONSUMES_TXT = set('h1 h2 p li pre'.split())

HTML_START = """\
<html><head>
<title>%s</title>
<link href="https://fonts.googleapis.com/css2?family=Roboto&family=Roboto+Mono&display=swap" rel="stylesheet">
<style>
body {
  max-width: 50em;
  margin: auto;
}
body, b, strong, u {
  font-family: 'Roboto', sans-serif;
}
code {
  font-family: 'Roboto Mono', monospace;
  font-weight: bold;
  white-space: pre;
}
pre code {
  display: block;
  font-weight: normal;
}
blockquote pre code {
  background: #f1f1f1;
}
dd p:first-of-type {
  margin-block-start: 0em;
}
</style>
</head><body>
"""

HTML_END = """\
<div style="float: right"><p><i>%s</i></p></div>
</body></html>
"""

MAN_START = r"""
.TH "%s" "%s" "%s" "%s" "User Commands"
""".lstrip()

MAN_END = """\
"""

NORM_FONT = ('\1', r"\fP")
BOLD_FONT = ('\2', r"\fB")
UNDR_FONT = ('\3', r"\fI")
NBR_DASH = ('\4', r"\-")
NBR_SPACE = ('\xa0', r"\ ")

md_parser = None

def main():
    fi = re.match(r'^(?P<fn>(?P<srcdir>.+/)?(?P<name>(?P<prog>[^/]+)\.(?P<sect>\d+))\.md)$', args.mdfile)
    if not fi:
        die('Failed to parse NAME.NUM.md out of input file:', args.mdfile)
    fi = argparse.Namespace(**fi.groupdict())

    if not fi.srcdir:
        fi.srcdir = './'

    fi.title = fi.prog + '(' + fi.sect + ') man page'
    fi.mtime = 0

    git_dir = fi.srcdir + '.git'
    if os.path.lexists(git_dir):
        fi.mtime = int(subprocess.check_output(['git', '--git-dir', git_dir, 'log', '-1', '--format=%at']))

    env_subs = { 'prefix': os.environ.get('RSYNC_OVERRIDE_PREFIX', None) }

    if args.test:
        env_subs['VERSION'] = '1.0.0'
        env_subs['libdir'] = '/usr'
    else:
        for fn in (fi.srcdir + 'version.h', 'Makefile'):
            try:
                st = os.lstat(fn)
            except:
                die('Failed to find', fi.srcdir + fn)
            if not fi.mtime:
                fi.mtime = st.st_mtime

        with open(fi.srcdir + 'version.h', 'r', encoding='utf-8') as fh:
            txt = fh.read()
        m = re.search(r'"(.+?)"', txt)
        env_subs['VERSION'] = m.group(1)

        with open('Makefile', 'r', encoding='utf-8') as fh:
            for line in fh:
                m = re.match(r'^(\w+)=(.+)', line)
                if not m:
                    continue
                var, val = (m.group(1), m.group(2))
                if var == 'prefix' and env_subs[var] is not None:
                    continue
                while re.search(r'\$\{', val):
                    val = re.sub(r'\$\{(\w+)\}', lambda m: env_subs[m.group(1)], val)
                env_subs[var] = val
                if var == 'srcdir':
                    break

    with open(fi.fn, 'r', encoding='utf-8') as fh:
        txt = fh.read()

    txt = re.sub(r'@VERSION@', env_subs['VERSION'], txt)
    txt = re.sub(r'@LIBDIR@', env_subs['libdir'], txt)

    fi.html_in = md_parser(txt)
    txt = None

    fi.date = time.strftime('%d %b %Y', time.localtime(fi.mtime))
    fi.man_headings = (fi.prog, fi.sect, fi.date, fi.prog + ' ' + env_subs['VERSION'])

    HtmlToManPage(fi)

    if args.test:
        print("The test was successful.")
        return

    for fn, txt in ((fi.name + '.html', fi.html_out), (fi.name, fi.man_out)):
        print("Wrote:", fn)
        with open(fn, 'w', encoding='utf-8') as fh:
            fh.write(txt)


def html_via_commonmark(txt):
    return commonmark.HtmlRenderer().render(commonmark.Parser().parse(txt))


class HtmlToManPage(HTMLParser):
    def __init__(self, fi):
        HTMLParser.__init__(self, convert_charrefs=True)

        st = self.state = argparse.Namespace(
                list_state = [ ],
                p_macro = ".P\n",
                at_first_tag_in_li = False,
                at_first_tag_in_dd = False,
                dt_from = None,
                in_pre = False,
                in_code = False,
                html_out = [ HTML_START % fi.title ],
                man_out = [ MAN_START % fi.man_headings ],
                txt = '',
                )

        self.feed(fi.html_in)
        fi.html_in = None

        st.html_out.append(HTML_END % fi.date)
        st.man_out.append(MAN_END)

        fi.html_out = ''.join(st.html_out)
        st.html_out = None

        fi.man_out = ''.join(st.man_out)
        st.man_out = None


    def handle_starttag(self, tag, attrs_list):
        st = self.state
        if args.debug:
            self.output_debug('START', (tag, attrs_list))
        if st.at_first_tag_in_li:
            if st.list_state[-1] == 'dl':
                st.dt_from = tag
                if tag == 'p':
                    tag = 'dt'
                else:
                    st.html_out.append('<dt>')
            elif tag == 'p':
                st.at_first_tag_in_dd = True # Kluge to suppress a .P at the start of an li.
            st.at_first_tag_in_li = False
        if tag == 'p':
            if not st.at_first_tag_in_dd:
                st.man_out.append(st.p_macro)
        elif tag == 'li':
            st.at_first_tag_in_li = True
            lstate = st.list_state[-1]
            if lstate == 'dl':
                return
            if lstate == 'o':
                st.man_out.append(".IP o\n")
            else:
                st.man_out.append(".IP " + str(lstate) + ".\n")
                st.list_state[-1] += 1
        elif tag == 'blockquote':
            st.man_out.append(".RS 4\n")
        elif tag == 'pre':
            st.in_pre = True
            st.man_out.append(st.p_macro + ".nf\n")
        elif tag == 'code' and not st.in_pre:
            st.in_code = True
            st.txt += BOLD_FONT[0]
        elif tag == 'strong' or tag == 'b':
            st.txt += BOLD_FONT[0]
        elif tag == 'em' or  tag == 'i':
            tag = 'u' # Change it into underline to be more like the man page
            st.txt += UNDR_FONT[0]
        elif tag == 'ol':
            start = 1
            for var, val in attrs_list:
                if var == 'start':
                    start = int(val) # We only support integers.
                    break
            if st.list_state:
                st.man_out.append(".RS\n")
            if start == 0:
                tag = 'dl'
                attrs_list = [ ]
                st.list_state.append('dl')
            else:
                st.list_state.append(start)
            st.man_out.append(st.p_macro)
            st.p_macro = ".IP\n"
        elif tag == 'ul':
            st.man_out.append(st.p_macro)
            if st.list_state:
                st.man_out.append(".RS\n")
                st.p_macro = ".IP\n"
            st.list_state.append('o')
        st.html_out.append('<' + tag + ''.join(' ' + var + '="' + htmlify(val) + '"' for var, val in attrs_list) + '>')
        st.at_first_tag_in_dd = False


    def handle_endtag(self, tag):
        st = self.state
        if args.debug:
            self.output_debug('END', (tag,))
        if tag in CONSUMES_TXT or st.dt_from == tag:
            txt = st.txt.strip()
            st.txt = ''
        else:
            txt = None
        add_to_txt = None
        if tag == 'h1':
            st.man_out.append(st.p_macro + '.SH "' + manify(txt) + '"\n')
        elif tag == 'h2':
            st.man_out.append(st.p_macro + '.SS "' + manify(txt) + '"\n')
        elif tag == 'p':
            if st.dt_from == 'p':
                tag = 'dt'
                st.man_out.append('.IP "' + manify(txt) + '"\n')
                st.dt_from = None
            elif txt != '':
                st.man_out.append(manify(txt) + "\n")
        elif tag == 'li':
            if st.list_state[-1] == 'dl':
                if st.at_first_tag_in_li:
                    die("Invalid 0. -> td translation")
                tag = 'dd'
            if txt != '':
                st.man_out.append(manify(txt) + "\n")
            st.at_first_tag_in_li = False
        elif tag == 'blockquote':
            st.man_out.append(".RE\n")
        elif tag == 'pre':
            st.in_pre = False
            st.man_out.append(manify(txt) + "\n.fi\n")
        elif (tag == 'code' and not st.in_pre):
            st.in_code = False
            add_to_txt = NORM_FONT[0]
        elif tag == 'strong' or tag == 'b':
            add_to_txt = NORM_FONT[0]
        elif tag == 'em' or  tag == 'i':
            tag = 'u' # Change it into underline to be more like the man page
            add_to_txt = NORM_FONT[0]
        elif tag == 'ol' or tag == 'ul':
            if st.list_state.pop() == 'dl':
                tag = 'dl'
            if st.list_state:
                st.man_out.append(".RE\n")
            else:
                st.p_macro = ".P\n"
            st.at_first_tag_in_dd = False
        st.html_out.append('</' + tag + '>')
        if add_to_txt:
            if txt is None:
                st.txt += add_to_txt
            else:
                txt += add_to_txt
        if st.dt_from == tag:
            st.man_out.append('.IP "' + manify(txt) + '"\n')
            st.html_out.append('</dt><dd>')
            st.at_first_tag_in_dd = True
            st.dt_from = None
        elif tag == 'dt':
            st.html_out.append('<dd>')
            st.at_first_tag_in_dd = True


    def handle_data(self, txt):
        st = self.state
        if args.debug:
            self.output_debug('DATA', (txt,))
        if st.in_pre:
            html = htmlify(txt)
        else:
            txt = re.sub(r'\s--(\s)', NBR_SPACE[0] + r'--\1', txt).replace('--', NBR_DASH[0]*2)
            txt = re.sub(r'(^|\W)-', r'\1' + NBR_DASH[0], txt)
            html = htmlify(txt)
            if st.in_code:
                txt = re.sub(r'\s', NBR_SPACE[0], txt)
                html = html.replace(NBR_DASH[0], '-').replace(NBR_SPACE[0], ' ') # <code> is non-breaking in CSS
        st.html_out.append(html.replace(NBR_SPACE[0], '&nbsp;').replace(NBR_DASH[0], '-&#8288;'))
        st.txt += txt


    def output_debug(self, event, extra):
        import pprint
        st = self.state
        if args.debug < 2:
            st = argparse.Namespace(**vars(st))
            if len(st.html_out) > 2:
                st.html_out = ['...'] + st.html_out[-2:]
            if len(st.man_out) > 2:
                st.man_out = ['...'] + st.man_out[-2:]
        print(event, extra)
        pprint.PrettyPrinter(indent=2).pprint(vars(st))


def manify(txt):
    return re.sub(r"^(['.])", r'\&\1', txt.replace('\\', '\\\\')
            .replace(NBR_SPACE[0], NBR_SPACE[1])
            .replace(NBR_DASH[0], NBR_DASH[1])
            .replace(NORM_FONT[0], NORM_FONT[1])
            .replace(BOLD_FONT[0], BOLD_FONT[1])
            .replace(UNDR_FONT[0], UNDR_FONT[1]), flags=re.M)


def htmlify(txt):
    return txt.replace('&', '&amp;').replace('<', '&lt;').replace('>', '&gt;').replace('"', '&quot;')


def warn(*msg):
    print(*msg, file=sys.stderr)


def die(*msg):
    warn(*msg)
    sys.exit(1)


if __name__ == '__main__':
    parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description='Transform a NAME.NUM.md markdown file into a NAME.NUM.html web page & a NAME.NUM man page.', add_help=False)
    parser.add_argument('--test', action='store_true', help='Test if we can parse the input w/o updating any files.')
    parser.add_argument('--debug', '-D', action='count', default=0, help='Output copious info on the html parsing. Repeat for even more.')
    parser.add_argument("--help", "-h", action="help", help="Output this help message and exit.")
    parser.add_argument('mdfile', help="The NAME.NUM.md file to parse.")
    args = parser.parse_args()

    try:
        import cmarkgfm
        md_parser = cmarkgfm.markdown_to_html
    except:
        try:
            import commonmark
            md_parser = html_via_commonmark
        except:
            die("Failed to find cmarkgfm or commonmark for python3.")

    main()