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         Expat (XML Parser Toolkit) Module for Ruby
                       version 0.7.3

                       Yoshida Masato
                  <yoshidam@yoshidam.net>

- Introduction

This is a module to access to James Clark's XML Parser
Toolkit "expat" (http://www.jclark.com/xml/expat.html) from
Ruby.

Supported versions of expat are 1.95.0 or later
(http://sourceforge.net/projects/expat/).


- Installation

This can work with ruby-1.6. I recommend you to use
ruby-1.6.7 or later. And you need the source code of
expat-1.95.x.

First, compile expat. With expat-1.95.x, configure; make;
make install.

Then, compile xmlparser. You can specify the location of
expat's header file or library file.

   --with-expat-dir=/path/to/expat

or

   --with-expat-lib=/path/to/expat/lib
   --with-expat-include=/path/to/expat/inclide

If you want to use encoding maps of XML::Parser of Perl, set
the proper directory with --with-perl-enc-map option.

For example:

  ruby extconf.rb --with-expat-dir=/usr/local --with-perl-enc-map=/usr/local/share/XML/Parser/Encodings
  make
  make site-install

To install using gem, for exapmle:

  gem build xmlparser.gemspac
  gem install xmlparser -- --with-expat-include='"C:\Program Files\Expat 2.0.1\Source\lib"' --with-expat-lib='"C:\Program Files\Expat 2.0.1\Bin"'


- Usage

If you do not link this module with Ruby statically, 

  require "xml/parser"

before using.

There is two styles to get parsing result. One is to
define instance methods as event handlers, another is
to use iterator.

To define event handlers is like SAX (Simple API for XML).

If you use event handlers, inherit XMLParser class and
define instance methods as event handlers.
Or you may use the instance of XMLParser class (or derived)
with singleton instance methods as event handlers.

When no event handlers are defined, this parser does
non-validating syntax checking only.

  method name              | event
  -------------------------+---------------------------
  startElement             | element start tag
  endElement               | element end tag
  character                | character data
  processingInstruction    | processing instruction
  unparsedEntityDecl       | unparsed entity declaration(OBSOLETE)
  notationDecl             | notation declaration
  externalEntityRef        | external entity reference
  comment                  | comment
  startCdata               | CDATA section start
  endCdata                 | CDATA section end
  startNamespaceDecl       | Namespace declaration start
  endNamespaceDecl         | Namespace declaration end
  startDoctypeDecl         | DOCTYPE declaration start
  endDoctypeDecl           | DOCTYPE declaration end
  notStandalone            | document is not standalone
  default                  | other data
  defaultExpand            | same as default (*1)
  unknownEncoding          | unknown character encoding
  elementDecl              | element declaration
  attlistDecl              | attlist declaration
  xmlDecl                  | XML declaration
  entityDecl               | entity declaration

  *1 inhibits expansion of internal entities. defaultExpand
     have higher priority than default.

To use iterator is probably a ruby-ish manner.

If you use iterator, this parser ignores event handlers
even if they are defined.
The iterator evaluates the iterator block with three
variables, event type, name, and data.

  event type                        | name            | data
  ----------------------------------+-----------------+-------------------
  START_ELEM                        | element name    | hash of attributes
  END_ELEM                          | element name    | nil
  CDATA                             | nil             | string
  PI                                | PI name         | string
  UNPARSED_ENTITY_DECL(OBSOLETE)    | entity name     | array (*1)
  NOTATION_DECL                     | notation name   | array (*2)
  EXTERNAL_ENTITY_REF               | entity names(*5)| array (*2)
  COMMENT                           | nil             | string
  START_CDATA                       | nil             | nil
  END_CDATA                         | nil             | nil
  START_NAMESPACE_DECL              | prefix          | URI
  END_NAMESPACE_DECL                | prefix          | nil
  START_DOCTYPE_DECL                | doctype name    | nil
  END_DOCTYPE_DECL                  | nil             | nil
  DEFAULT (*4)                      | nil             | string
  ELEMENT_DECL                      | element name    | array (*8)
  ATTLIST_DECL                      | element name    | array (*9)
  XML_DECL                          | nil             | array (*10)
  ENTITY_DECL                       | entity name     | array (*11)



  *1 [URL base, system ID, public ID, notation name]
      URL base and notation name may be nil.
  *2 [URL base, system ID, public ID]
      URL base, system ID and public ID may be nil.
  *4 defaultExpand enables this event
  *5 It may be nil
  *8 [type, quant, name, [...]]
  *9 [attname, atttype, default, isrequired]
  *10 [version, encoding, standalone]
  *11 [isPE, value, system ID, public ID, notation name]

UNPARSED_ENTITY_DECL, NOTATION_DECL, EXTERNAL_ENTITY_REF,
COMMENT, START_CDATA, END_CDATA, START_NAMESPACE_DECL,
END_NAMESPACE_DECL, DEFAULT, ELEMENT_DECL, ATTLIST_DECL,
XML_DECL and ENTITY_DECL events are generated only if
each dummy methods, "unparsedEntityDecl", "notationDecl",
"externalEntityRef", "comment", "startCdata", "endCdata",
"startNamespaceDecl", "endNamespaceDecl", "default" (or
"defaultExpand"), "elementDecl", "attlistDecl", "xmlDecl"
and "entityDecl" are defined.

Supported input character encodings are UTF-8 and UTF-16.
Output character encoding is UTF-8.
If XML_ENC_PATH is set on compiling, you can use the
encoding maps of XML::Parser of Perl. This package not
include them, you must get XML::Parser or XML::Encoding from
CPAN, and install .enc files into the proper directory.


XMLParser class:

 Class method
    new(encoding = nil, nssep = nil)
      Create a XML parser object. A failure of the
      creation raises a XMLParserError exception.

      The "encoding" parameter can specify the character
      encoding. Expat can recognize ISO-8859-1, UTF-8,
      US-ASCII and UTF-16, and expat_ja can also EUC-JP and
      Shift_JIS.

      The "nssep" parameter enables namespace extension.
      The namespace-prefixed element and attribute names are
      concatenated with the namespace's URI and a separator
      (the first byte of nssep).

      For example, with nssep = '!',

         <hoge:test xmlns:hoge="http://www.yoshidam.net/ns/hoge">

      is parsed into

         http://www.yoshidam.net/ns/hoge!test

      The object that finish parsing cannot be reused,
      so you must create a new one for every parsing.

    new(parser, context, encoding = nil)
      Create a XML parser object that can parse an external
      general entity. A failure of the creation raises a
      XMLParserError exception.

      This can be called at any point after the first call
      to an externalEntityRef event.

      The "context" parameter can be passed from the parse
      context of externalEntityRef event.

      The "encoding" parameter can specify the character
      encoding.

      Call "reset" to be reused.

    expatVersion()
      Get expat version.

    getFeatureList
      Get a hash list of expat API's features.

      This method is for expat-1.95.5 or later.

 Method
    parse(str, isFinal = true)
      Parse a string. This method can be an
      iterator. Parsing results can be processed by event
      handlers or an iterator block.

      "IsFinal" parameter must true on last call of this
      method. Default is true. No parameter call of this
      method indicates the end of parsing.

      "Str" can be a stream object. It must be an object
      with "gets" method. In this case, "isFinal" is
      ignored, the parsing is repeated until the stream
      returns nil.

      A failure to parse raises a XMLParserError
      exception.

    done
      Free the parser. Usually you can trust the GC, but
      after parsing the external parameser entity, you must
      free the parser in the externalEntityRef event.

    defaultCurrent
      Raise a "default" event within any event handlers or
      an iterator block.
      You can get the corresponding markup.

      If within a event handler, it raise a default event
      immediately. But within an iterator block, the next
      yielding will be a DEFAULT event.

    setBase
      Set URL base. The setting value can get the parameter
      'base' of the external entity methods, such as
      unparsedEntityDecl.

    line
    column
    byteIndex
      Get current parsing location.

      When a "parse" method raises XML::Parser::Error, these
      method return the position of the error detected.

    byteCount
      Get the number of bytes in the current event.

      When the event is is in an internal entity, this
      method returns 0.

    getSpecifiedAttributes
      Check the attributes whether specified or defaulted.

      Return value is a hash, the keys are the attribute's
      name, the values are specified or not (boolean).

      This method should be used in startElement event
      handler.

    setParamEntityParsing(parsing)
      Controls parsing of parameter entities (including the
      external DTD subset ).

      "Parsing" parameter is
         PARAM_ENTITY_PARSING_NEVER (0) or
         PARAM_ENTITY_PARSING_UNLESS_STANDALONE (1) or
         PARAM_ENTITY_PARSING_ALWAYS (2).

      References to external parameter entities will invoke
      the externalEntityRef event. The context will be nil.

    setReturnNSTriplet(do_nst)
      Sets namespace triplet flag.

      It will work well for element names with Expat-1.95.3 or later 

    getInputContext
      Returns the parser's input buffer and current parse
      posion.

    getIdAttribute
      Gets the ID attribute name.

      This method should be used in startElement event
      handler.

    reset(encoding)
      Resets the parser object to be reused.

      The "encoding" parameter can specify the character
      encoding.

      This method is for the expat-1.95.3 or later.

    useForeignDTD(useDTD)
      Specifies to parse an external DTD subset without the
      DOCTYPE declaration.

      In externalEntityRef, sysID and pubID will be NULL.

      This method is for the expat-1.95.5 or later.

      See setParamEntityParsing also.


 Method (event handler)
    startElement(name, attrs)
      This method is called when element start tags are
      detected.
      "Name" is the element name, attrs is a hash of
      attributes, the keys are the attribute's name, the
      values are attribute's values.

    endElement(name)
      This method is called when element end tags are
      detected.
      "Name" is the element name.

    character(data)
      This method is called when texts or CDATA sections are
      detected.
      Internal entities are expanded as long as "default"
      handler is not defined.

    processingInstruction(target, data)
      This method is called when processing instructions are
      detected.

    unparsedEntityDecl(entityName, base, systemId, publicId, notationName)
      ** OBSOLETE **
      This methods is called when parsed entity declarations
      are detected.
      "EntityName", "base", "systemId", "publicId" and
      "notationName" are the entity name, the URL base, the
      system identifier, the public identifier and the
      notation name.
      The URL base and the notation name can be nil.

      If you use iterator, this method is not called, but to
      define this affects to cause UNPARSED_ENTITY_DECL
      event.

    notationDecl(notationName, base, systemId, publicId)
      This methods is called when notation declarations are
      detected.
      "NotationName", "base", "systemId", and "publicId" are
      the notation name, the URL base, the system identifier
      and the public identifier.
      The URL base, the system identifier and the public
      identifier can be nil.

      If you use iterator, this method is not called, but to
      define this affects to cause NOTATION_DECL event.

    externalEntityRef(context, base, systemId, publicId)
      This methods is called when external entity references
      are detected.
      "context", "base", "systemId", and "publicId" are the
      parsing context, the URL base, the system identifier
      and the public identifier.
      The URL base and the public identifier can be nil.
      The context can use the 'context' parameter of the
      constructor of the external entity parser.

      If you do not parse the external entities by this
      event, the external entities are never parsed.

      If you use iterator, this method is not called, but to
      define this affects to cause EXTERNAL_ENTITY_REF
      event.

      On expat-19990626 or later, it is called when external
      parameter entity refs (including external DTD subset) are
      detected. In this case, "context" will be nil. The
      parser for the external parameter entitiy must be
      created, "parse" and "done" in this event.
      See setParamEntityParsing also.

    comment(data)
      This methods is called when comments are detected.

      If you use iterator, this method is not called, but to
      define this affects to cause COMMENT event.

    startCdata()
      This methods is called when CDATA sections start.
      The contents of the CDATA sections are reported by
      character event.

      If you use iterator, this method is not called, but to
      define this affects to cause START_CDATA event.

    endCdata()
      This methods is called when CDATA sections end.

      If you use iterator, this method is not called, but to
      define this affects to cause END_CDATA event.

    startNamespaceDecl(prefix, uri)
      This methods is called before the element that has
      namespace declaration.

      Prefix and uri can be nil.

      If you use iterator, this method is not called, but to
      define this affects to cause START_NAMESPACE_DECL
      event.

    endNamespaceDecl(prefix)
      This methods is called after the element that has
      namespace declaration.

      Prefix can be nil.

      If you use iterator, this method is not called, but to
      define this affects to cause END_NAMESPACE_DECL event.

    startDoctypeDecl(doctypeName, sysid, pubid, has_internal_subset)
      This methods is called when the name of the DOCTYPE is
      encountered.

      If you use iterator, this method is not called, but to
      define this affects to cause START_DOCTYPE_DECL event.

    endDoctypeDecl()
      This methods is called when the closing > is
      encountered, but after processing any external subset.

      If you use iterator, this method is not called, but to
      define this affects to cause END_DOCTYPE_DECL event.

    default(data)
      This method is called when there is no applicable
      event handler.

      If this method is defined, expansion of internal
      entities are inhibited.

      If you use iterator, this method is not called, but to
      define this affects to cause DEFAULT event and to
      inhibit expansion of internal entities.

    defaultExpand(data)
      This method is called when there is no applicable
      event handler.

      If you use iterator, this method is not called, but to
      define this affects to cause DEFAULT event.

      This method have higher priority than default method.

    unknownEncoding(name)
      This method is called when unknown encoding is
      detected.

      XMLEncoding object (or nil to reject) must be returned.

      Even if parse method is used as the iterator, this
      method is called.

    notStandalone()
      This methods is called if the document is not standalone
      (it has an external subset or a reference to a
       parameter entity, but does not have standalone="yes").

      If you may return 0 to raise an error, or return 1 to
      continue the parsing.

      Even if parse method is used as the iterator, this
      method is called.

    elementDecl(name, model)

      If you use iterator, this method is not called, but to
      define this affects to cause ELEMENT_DECL event.

    attlistDecl(elname, attname, att_type, dflt, isrequired)

      If you use iterator, this method is not called, but to
      define this affects to cause ATTLIST_DECL event.

    xmlDecl(version, encoding, standalone)

      If you use iterator, this method is not called, but to
      define this affects to cause XML_DECL event.

    entityDecl(entityName, isparameter_entity, vale,
               base, systemId, publicId, notationName)

      If you use iterator, this method is not called, but to
      define this affects to cause ENTITY_DECL event.

    skippedEntity(entityName, is_parameter_entity)

      This method is for expat-1.95.4.

      If you use iterator, this method is not called, but to
      define this affects to cause
      SKIPPED_ENTITY event.


XMLEncoding class:
  To convert the character encoding, you must define map and
  convert method.

  Method
    map(code)
      This method is called to define byte stream
      information. Code is the first byte of stream, 00h to
      ffh. You must return the following value.

        >= 0     : treat as Unicode value
        -1       : the byte sequence is malformed
        -n (n>=2): n-byte sequence

    convert(s)
      This method is called to convert the byte sequence
      into a Unicode.
      The byte sequence is n-byte string (n is defined by
      map), you must return an integer value (treat as
      Unicode code point [<=65535]), an ASCII  character or two byte string
      (treat as a little endian UCS-2 character).

  Exapmle:
    class EUCHandler<XML::Encoding
      def map(i)
        return i if i < 128
        return -1 if i < 160 or i == 255
        return -2 
      end
      def convert(s)
        s.force_encoding(Encoding::EUCJP).encode(Encoding::UTF_16LE)
      end
    end

    class SJISHandler<XML::Encoding
      def map(i)
        return i if i < 128
        return -2 
      end
      def convert(s)
        s.force_encoding(Encoding::CP932).encode(Encoding::UTF_16LE)
      end
    end

    def unknownEncoding(name)
      return EUCHandler.new if name =~ /^euc-jp$/i
      return SJISHandler.new if name =~ /^shift_jis$/i
      nil
    end


- Additional Library

XML::DOM module and XML::DOM::Builder module are
added since version 0.3.1.
These module are not well documented, and API specification is
not fixed, so they are for experts only.


XML::DOM module (xml/dom/core.rb)
  This module is a library for making and manipulating XML
  trees.
  The APIs are like Document Object Model (DOM) Core of W3C.
 
  Classes
    NameNodeMap
    NodeList
    Node
    DocumentFragment<Node
    Document<Node
    CharacterData<Node
    Attr<Node
    Element<Node
    Text<CharacterData
    Comment<Data
    CDATASection<Text
    DocumentType<Node
    Notation<Node
    Entity<Node
    EntityReference<Node
    ProcessingInstruction<Node

XML::DOM::Builder (xml/dom/builder.rb)
  This module is a library for parsing XML file and building
  XML tree.

XML::DOM::Visitor (xml/dom/visitor.rb)

SAX module (xml/sax.rb, xml/saxdriver.rb)

XML::ParserNS class (xml/parserns.rb)

XML::DOM (xml/dom2/)
  An experimental implementation of DOM Level 2.


- Copying

This extension module is copyrighted free software by
Yoshida Masato.

You can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same term as
Ruby or expat.

encoding.h and the functions of encoding map are part of
XML::Parser for Perl.

  Copyright (c) 1998 Larry Wall and Clark Cooper.
  All rights reserved.
  This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
  under the same terms as Perl itself. 


- Author

 Yoshida Masato <yoshidam@yoshidam.net>

 XPointer support is contributed by Masaki Fukushima 
     <fukusima@goto.info.waseda.ac.jp>


- History

 Feb  7, 2013 version 0.7.3  fixes PARAM_ENTITY_PARSING_* constants
 Feb 28, 2011 version 0.7.2  reverts once removed digest.rb
 Dec 28, 2009 version 0.7.1  Ruby 1.9.1 encoding conversion
 Dec 15, 2009 version 0.7.0  Ruby 1.9.1
 Apr  5, 2004 version 0.6.8  fixes overflow, and taints output.
 Sep 20, 2002 version 0.6.5  fixes reset
                             adds skippedEntity event for expat-1.95.4
                             adds XML::Parser.getFeatureList and
                             XML::Parser#useForeignDTD for expat-1.95.5
 Jun 18, 2002 version 0.6.4  adds XML::Parser#reset for expat-1.95.3.
 Mar 23, 2002 version 0.6.2  changes a layout under lib
                             changes the parent class of XML::Parser::Error
                             adds an experimental implementaion of DOM Level 2
                             adds XML::ParserNS (experimental)
 Oct 15  2000 version 0.6.1  support expat-1.95.0 and expat-1.2
 Aug  5, 2000 version 0.5.19 RDize xmltree.rb by TAKAHASHI Masayoshi
 May 30, 2000 version 0.5.18 fix for Ruby 1.5
 Oct 14, 1999 version 0.5.16 change some samples
 Aug 18, 1999 version 0.5.15 support start/endDoctypeDecl event of
                             expat-19990728.
                             fix SAX driver bug.
 Jun 29, 1999 version 0.5.14 support to parse external
                             parameter entities for
                             expat-19990626
 Jun 10, 1999 version 0.5.13 support experimental SAX driver
                             support expat-1.1
 May 13, 1999 version 0.5.12 fix extconf.rb bug
 Apr 28, 1999 version 0.5.11 for expat-19990425, add NotStandalone
                             event, getSpecifiedAttributes method
                             and byteCount method
 Apr 20, 1999 version 0.5.10 change xmldigest.rb for xss4j
 Mar 29, 1999 version 0.5.9  change the object structure for Ruby 1.3
 Mar 23, 1999 version 0.5.8  support the omission of keywords of XPointer
                             support to parse external parsed entities in 
                             XML::DOM::Builder
 Mar  8, 1999 version 0.5.7  support start/endNamespaceDecl event of
                             expat-19990307.
 Jan 25, 1999 version 0.5.6  class name aliases are defined in C module.
                             support cygwin.
 Jan 14, 1999 version 0.5.5  support start/endCdataSection event of
                             expat-19981231
 Jan 13, 1999 version 0.5.4  modify xmltree and xmltreebuilder
 Jan 10, 1999 version 0.5.3  encoding map support
 Dec  1, 1998 version 0.5.1  fix some bugs
 Nov 24, 1998 version 0.5.0  support the test version of expat
 Nov  5, 1998 version 0.4.18 fix some bugs, class name alias
                               XMLParserErorr        -> XML::Parser::Error
                             and change some internal functions.
 Oct 28, 1998 version 0.4.17 mIDs are stored into static vars
 Oct 28, 1998 version 0.4.16 change ID attribute support of XPointer.
                             Node#trim is now xml:space-aware
 Oct 23, 1998 version 0.4.15 fix some bugs, add class name alias
                               XMLParser              -> XML::Parser
                               XML::SimpleTree        -> XML::DOM
                               XML::SimpleTreeBuilder -> XML::DOM::Builder
 Oct 20, 1998 version 0.4.14 add better XPointer support by Masaki Fukushima
 Sep 17, 1998 version 0.4.5 add methods to SimpleTree
 Sep  8, 1998 version 0.4.4 change parser object type from
                            T_DATA to T_OBJECT (now can use
                            instance variables)
 Sep  3, 1998 version 0.4.3 add isFinal flag, and stream
                            parsing facility
 Sep  2, 1998 version 0.4.2 add external entity event and parser
 Aug 14, 1998 version 0.3.3 support expat 1.0
 Aug 12, 1998 version 0.3.2
 Aug  4, 1998 version 0.3.1
 Jul 17, 1998 version 0.3
 Jul  3, 1998 version 0.2
 Jul  1, 1998 version 0.1