File: rxvt.7.pod

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rxvt-unicode 9.22-1
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file content (2585 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 85,388 bytes parent folder | download | duplicates (2)
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=head1 NAME

RXVT_REFERENCE - FAQ, command sequences and other background information

=head1 SYNOPSIS

   # set a new font set
   printf '\33]50;%s\007' 9x15,xft:Kochi" Mincho"

   # change the locale and tell rxvt-unicode about it
   export LC_CTYPE=ja_JP.EUC-JP; printf "\33]701;$LC_CTYPE\007"

   # set window title
   printf '\33]2;%s\007' "new window title"

=head1 DESCRIPTION

This document contains the FAQ, the RXVT TECHNICAL REFERENCE documenting
all escape sequences, and other background information.

The newest version of this document is also available on the World Wide Web at
L<http://pod.tst.eu/http://cvs.schmorp.de/rxvt-unicode/doc/rxvt.7.pod>.

The main manual page for @@RXVT_NAME@@ itself is available at
L<http://pod.tst.eu/http://cvs.schmorp.de/rxvt-unicode/doc/rxvt.1.pod>.

=head1 RXVT-UNICODE/URXVT FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS


=head2 Meta, Features & Commandline Issues

=head3 My question isn't answered here, can I ask a human?

Before sending me mail, you could go to IRC: C<irc.freenode.net>,
channel C<#rxvt-unicode> has some rxvt-unicode enthusiasts that might be
interested in learning about new and exciting problems (but not FAQs :).

=head3 I use Gentoo, and I have a problem...

There are two big problems with Gentoo Linux: first, most if not all
Gentoo systems are completely broken (missing or mismatched header
files, broken compiler etc. are just the tip of the iceberg);
secondly, it should be called Gentoo GNU/Linux.

For these reasons, it is impossible to support rxvt-unicode on
Gentoo. Problems appearing on Gentoo systems will usually simply be
ignored unless they can be reproduced on non-Gentoo systems.

=head3 Does it support tabs, can I have a tabbed rxvt-unicode?

Beginning with version 7.3, there is a perl extension that implements a
simple tabbed terminal. It is installed by default, so any of these should
give you tabs:

   @@URXVT_NAME@@ -pe tabbed

   URxvt.perl-ext-common: default,tabbed

It will also work fine with tabbing functionality of many window managers
or similar tabbing programs, and its embedding-features allow it to be
embedded into other programs, as witnessed by F<doc/rxvt-tabbed> or
the upcoming C<Gtk2::URxvt> perl module, which features a tabbed urxvt
(murxvt) terminal as an example embedding application.

=head3 How do I know which rxvt-unicode version I'm using?

The version number is displayed with the usage (-h). Also the escape
sequence C<ESC [ 8 n> sets the window title to the version number. When
using the @@URXVT_NAME@@c client, the version displayed is that of the
daemon.

=head3 Rxvt-unicode uses gobs of memory, how can I reduce that?

Rxvt-unicode tries to obey the rule of not charging you for something you
don't use. One thing you should try is to configure out all settings that
you don't need, for example, Xft support is a resource hog by design,
when used. Compiling it out ensures that no Xft font will be loaded
accidentally when rxvt-unicode tries to find a font for your characters.

Also, many people (me included) like large windows and even larger
scrollback buffers: Without C<--enable-unicode3>, rxvt-unicode will use
6 bytes per screen cell. For a 160x?? window this amounts to almost a
kilobyte per line. A scrollback buffer of 10000 lines will then (if full)
use 10 Megabytes of memory. With C<--enable-unicode3> it gets worse, as
rxvt-unicode then uses 8 bytes per screen cell.

=head3 How can I start @@URXVT_NAME@@d in a race-free way?

Try C<@@URXVT_NAME@@d -f -o>, which tells @@URXVT_NAME@@d to open the
display, create the listening socket and then fork.

=head3 How can I start @@URXVT_NAME@@d automatically when I run @@URXVT_NAME@@c?

If you want to start @@URXVT_NAME@@d automatically whenever you run
@@URXVT_NAME@@c and the daemon isn't running yet, use this script:

   #!/bin/sh
   @@URXVT_NAME@@c "$@"
   if [ $? -eq 2 ]; then
      @@URXVT_NAME@@d -q -o -f
      @@URXVT_NAME@@c "$@"
   fi

This tries to create a new terminal, and if fails with exit status 2,
meaning it couldn't connect to the daemon, it will start the daemon and
re-run the command. Subsequent invocations of the script will re-use the
existing daemon.

=head3 How do I distinguish whether I'm running rxvt-unicode or a regular
xterm? I need this to decide about setting colours etc.

The original rxvt and rxvt-unicode always export the variable "COLORTERM",
so you can check and see if that is set. Note that several programs, JED,
slrn, Midnight Commander automatically check this variable to decide
whether or not to use colour.

=head3 How do I set the correct, full IP address for the DISPLAY variable?

If you've compiled rxvt-unicode with DISPLAY_IS_IP and have enabled
insecure mode then it is possible to use the following shell script
snippets to correctly set the display. If your version of rxvt-unicode
wasn't also compiled with ESCZ_ANSWER (as assumed in these snippets) then
the COLORTERM variable can be used to distinguish rxvt-unicode from a
regular xterm.

Courtesy of Chuck Blake <cblake@BBN.COM> with the following shell script
snippets:

   # Bourne/Korn/POSIX family of shells:
   [ ${TERM:-foo} = foo ] && TERM=xterm # assume an xterm if we don't know
   if [ ${TERM:-foo} = xterm ]; then
      stty -icanon -echo min 0 time 15 # see if enhanced rxvt or not
      printf "\eZ"
      read term_id
      stty icanon echo
      if [ ""${term_id} = '^[[?1;2C' -a ${DISPLAY:-foo} = foo ]; then
         printf '\e[7n'        # query the rxvt we are in for the DISPLAY string
         read DISPLAY          # set it in our local shell
      fi
   fi

=head3 How do I compile the manual pages on my own?

You need to have a recent version of perl installed as F</usr/bin/perl>,
one that comes with F<pod2man>, F<pod2text> and F<pod2xhtml> (from
F<Pod::Xhtml>). Then go to the doc subdirectory and enter C<make alldoc>.

=head3 Isn't rxvt-unicode supposed to be small? Don't all those features bloat?

I often get asked about this, and I think, no, they didn't cause extra
bloat. If you compare a minimal rxvt and a minimal urxvt, you can see
that the urxvt binary is larger (due to some encoding tables always being
compiled in), but it actually uses less memory (RSS) after startup. Even
with C<--disable-everything>, this comparison is a bit unfair, as many
features unique to urxvt (locale, encoding conversion, iso14755 etc.) are
already in use in this mode.

    text    data     bss     drs     rss filename
   98398    1664      24   15695    1824 rxvt --disable-everything
  188985    9048   66616   18222    1788 urxvt --disable-everything

When you C<--enable-everything> (which I<is> unfair, as this involves xft
and full locale/XIM support which are quite bloaty inside libX11 and my
libc), the two diverge, but not unreasonably so.

    text    data     bss     drs     rss filename
  163431    2152      24   20123    2060 rxvt --enable-everything
 1035683   49680   66648   29096    3680 urxvt --enable-everything

The very large size of the text section is explained by the east-asian
encoding tables, which, if unused, take up disk space but nothing else
and can be compiled out unless you rely on X11 core fonts that use those
encodings. The BSS size comes from the 64k emergency buffer that my c++
compiler allocates (but of course doesn't use unless you are out of
memory). Also, using an xft font instead of a core font immediately adds a
few megabytes of RSS. Xft indeed is responsible for a lot of RSS even when
not used.

Of course, due to every character using two or four bytes instead of one,
a large scrollback buffer will ultimately make rxvt-unicode use more
memory.

Compared to e.g. Eterm (5112k), aterm (3132k) and xterm (4680k), this
still fares rather well. And compared to some monsters like gnome-terminal
(21152k + extra 4204k in separate processes) or konsole (22200k + extra
43180k in daemons that stay around after exit, plus half a minute of
startup time, including the hundreds of warnings it spits out), it fares
extremely well *g*.

=head3 Why C++, isn't that unportable/bloated/uncool?

Is this a question? :) It comes up very often. The simple answer is: I had
to write it, and C++ allowed me to write and maintain it in a fraction
of the time and effort (which is a scarce resource for me). Put even
shorter: It simply wouldn't exist without C++.

My personal stance on this is that C++ is less portable than C, but in
the case of rxvt-unicode this hardly matters, as its portability limits
are defined by things like X11, pseudo terminals, locale support and unix
domain sockets, which are all less portable than C++ itself.

Regarding the bloat, see the above question: It's easy to write programs
in C that use gobs of memory, and certainly possible to write programs in
C++ that don't. C++ also often comes with large libraries, but this is
not necessarily the case with GCC. Here is what rxvt links against on my
system with a minimal config:

   libX11.so.6 => /usr/X11R6/lib/libX11.so.6 (0x00002aaaaabc3000)
   libc.so.6 => /lib/libc.so.6 (0x00002aaaaadde000)
   libdl.so.2 => /lib/libdl.so.2 (0x00002aaaab01d000)
   /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 (0x00002aaaaaaab000)

And here is rxvt-unicode:

   libX11.so.6 => /usr/X11R6/lib/libX11.so.6 (0x00002aaaaabc3000)
   libgcc_s.so.1 => /lib/libgcc_s.so.1 (0x00002aaaaada2000)
   libc.so.6 => /lib/libc.so.6 (0x00002aaaaaeb0000)
   libdl.so.2 => /lib/libdl.so.2 (0x00002aaaab0ee000)
   /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 (0x00002aaaaaaab000)

No large bloated libraries (of course, none were linked in statically),
except maybe libX11 :)


=head2 Rendering, Font & Look and Feel Issues

=head3 I can't get transparency working, what am I doing wrong?

First of all, transparency isn't officially supported in rxvt-unicode, so
you are mostly on your own. Do not bug the author about it (but you may
bug everybody else). Also, if you can't get it working consider it a rite
of passage: ... and you failed.

Here are four ways to get transparency. B<Do> read the manpage and option
descriptions for the programs mentioned and rxvt-unicode. Really, do it!

1. Use transparent mode:

   Esetroot wallpaper.jpg
   @@URXVT_NAME@@ -tr -tint red -sh 40

That works. If you think it doesn't, you lack transparency and tinting
support, or you are unable to read.
This method requires that the background-setting program sets the
_XROOTPMAP_ID or ESETROOT_PMAP_ID property. Compatible programs
are Esetroot, hsetroot and feh.

2. Use a simple pixmap and emulate pseudo-transparency. This enables you
to use effects other than tinting and shading: Just shade/tint/whatever
your picture with gimp or any other tool:

   convert wallpaper.jpg -blur 20x20 -modulate 30 background.jpg
   @@URXVT_NAME@@ -pixmap "background.jpg;:root"

That works. If you think it doesn't, you lack GDK-PixBuf support, or you
are unable to read.

3. Use an ARGB visual:

   @@URXVT_NAME@@ -depth 32 -fg grey90 -bg rgba:0000/0000/4444/cccc

This requires XFT support, and the support of your X-server. If that
doesn't work for you, blame Xorg and Keith Packard. ARGB visuals aren't
there yet, no matter what they claim. Rxvt-Unicode contains the necessary
bugfixes and workarounds for Xft and Xlib to make it work, but that
doesn't mean that your WM has the required kludges in place.

4. Use xcompmgr and let it do the job:

  xprop -frame -f _NET_WM_WINDOW_OPACITY 32c \
        -set _NET_WM_WINDOW_OPACITY 0xc0000000

Then click on a window you want to make transparent. Replace C<0xc0000000>
by other values to change the degree of opacity. If it doesn't work and
your server crashes, you got to keep the pieces.

=head3 Why does rxvt-unicode sometimes leave pixel droppings?

Most fonts were not designed for terminal use, which means that character
size varies a lot. A font that is otherwise fine for terminal use might
contain some characters that are simply too wide. Rxvt-unicode will avoid
these characters. For characters that are just "a bit" too wide a special
"careful" rendering mode is used that redraws adjacent characters.

All of this requires that fonts do not lie about character sizes,
however: Xft fonts often draw glyphs larger than their acclaimed bounding
box, and rxvt-unicode has no way of detecting this (the correct way is to
ask for the character bounding box, which unfortunately is wrong in these
cases).

It's not clear (to me at least), whether this is a bug in Xft, freetype,
or the respective font. If you encounter this problem you might try using
the C<-lsp> option to give the font more height. If that doesn't work, you
might be forced to use a different font.

All of this is not a problem when using X11 core fonts, as their bounding
box data is correct.

=head3 How can I keep rxvt-unicode from using reverse video so much?

First of all, make sure you are running with the right terminal settings
(C<TERM=rxvt-unicode>), which will get rid of most of these effects. Then
make sure you have specified colours for italic and bold, as otherwise
rxvt-unicode might use reverse video to simulate the effect:

   URxvt.colorBD:  white
   URxvt.colorIT:  green

=head3 Some programs assume totally weird colours (red instead of blue), how can I fix that?

For some unexplainable reason, some rare programs assume a very weird
colour palette when confronted with a terminal with more than the standard
8 colours (rxvt-unicode supports 88). The right fix is, of course, to fix
these programs not to assume non-ISO colours without very good reasons.

In the meantime, you can either edit your C<rxvt-unicode> terminfo
definition to only claim 8 colour support or use C<TERM=rxvt>, which will
fix colours but keep you from using other rxvt-unicode features.

=head3 Can I switch the fonts at runtime?

Yes, using an escape sequence. Try something like this, which has the same
effect as using the C<-fn> switch, and takes effect immediately:

   printf '\33]50;%s\007' "9x15bold,xft:Kochi Gothic"

This is useful if you e.g. work primarily with japanese (and prefer a
japanese font), but you have to switch to chinese temporarily, where
japanese fonts would only be in your way.

You can think of this as a kind of manual ISO-2022 switching.

=head3 Why do italic characters look as if clipped?

Many fonts have difficulties with italic characters and hinting. For
example, the otherwise very nicely hinted font C<xft:Bitstream Vera Sans
Mono> completely fails in its italic face. A workaround might be to
enable freetype autohinting, i.e. like this:

   URxvt.italicFont:        xft:Bitstream Vera Sans Mono:italic:autohint=true
   URxvt.boldItalicFont:    xft:Bitstream Vera Sans Mono:bold:italic:autohint=true

=head3 Can I speed up Xft rendering somehow?

Yes, the most obvious way to speed it up is to avoid Xft entirely, as
it is simply slow. If you still want Xft fonts you might try to disable
antialiasing (by appending C<:antialias=false>), which saves lots of
memory and also speeds up rendering considerably.

=head3 Rxvt-unicode doesn't seem to anti-alias its fonts, what is wrong?

Rxvt-unicode will use whatever you specify as a font. If it needs to
fall back to its default font search list it will prefer X11 core
fonts, because they are small and fast, and then use Xft fonts. It has
antialiasing disabled for most of them, because the author thinks they
look best that way.

If you want antialiasing, you have to specify the fonts manually.

=head3 What's with this bold/blink stuff?

If no bold colour is set via C<colorBD:>, bold will invert text using the
standard foreground colour.

For the standard background colour, blinking will actually make
the text blink when compiled with C<--enable-text-blink>. Without
C<--enable-text-blink>, the blink attribute will be ignored.

On ANSI colours, bold/blink attributes are used to set high-intensity
foreground/background colours.

color0-7 are the low-intensity colours.

color8-15 are the corresponding high-intensity colours.

=head3 I don't like the screen colours.  How do I change them?

You can change the screen colours at run-time using F<~/.Xdefaults>
resources (or as long-options).

Here are values that are supposed to resemble a VGA screen,
including the murky brown that passes for low-intensity yellow:

   URxvt.color0:   #000000
   URxvt.color1:   #A80000
   URxvt.color2:   #00A800
   URxvt.color3:   #A8A800
   URxvt.color4:   #0000A8
   URxvt.color5:   #A800A8
   URxvt.color6:   #00A8A8
   URxvt.color7:   #A8A8A8

   URxvt.color8:   #000054
   URxvt.color9:   #FF0054
   URxvt.color10:  #00FF54
   URxvt.color11:  #FFFF54
   URxvt.color12:  #0000FF
   URxvt.color13:  #FF00FF
   URxvt.color14:  #00FFFF
   URxvt.color15:  #FFFFFF

And here is a more complete set of non-standard colours.

   URxvt.cursorColor:  #dc74d1
   URxvt.pointerColor: #dc74d1
   URxvt.background:   #0e0e0e
   URxvt.foreground:   #4ad5e1
   URxvt.color0:       #000000
   URxvt.color8:       #8b8f93
   URxvt.color1:       #dc74d1
   URxvt.color9:       #dc74d1
   URxvt.color2:       #0eb8c7
   URxvt.color10:      #0eb8c7
   URxvt.color3:       #dfe37e
   URxvt.color11:      #dfe37e
   URxvt.color5:       #9e88f0
   URxvt.color13:      #9e88f0
   URxvt.color6:       #73f7ff
   URxvt.color14:      #73f7ff
   URxvt.color7:       #e1dddd
   URxvt.color15:      #e1dddd

They have been described (not by me) as "pretty girly".

=head3 Why do some characters look so much different than others?

See next entry.

=head3 How does rxvt-unicode choose fonts?

Most fonts do not contain the full range of Unicode, which is
fine. Chances are that the font you (or the admin/package maintainer of
your system/os) have specified does not cover all the characters you want
to display.

B<rxvt-unicode> makes a best-effort try at finding a replacement
font. Often the result is fine, but sometimes the chosen font looks
bad/ugly/wrong. Some fonts have totally strange characters that don't
resemble the correct glyph at all, and rxvt-unicode lacks the artificial
intelligence to detect that a specific glyph is wrong: it has to believe
the font that the characters it claims to contain indeed look correct.

In that case, select a font of your taste and add it to the font list,
e.g.:

   @@URXVT_NAME@@ -fn basefont,font2,font3...

When rxvt-unicode sees a character, it will first look at the base
font. If the base font does not contain the character, it will go to the
next font, and so on. Specifying your own fonts will also speed up this
search and use less resources within rxvt-unicode and the X-server.

The only limitation is that none of the fonts may be larger than the base
font, as the base font defines the terminal character cell size, which
must be the same due to the way terminals work.

=head3 Why do some chinese characters look so different than others?

This is because there is a difference between script and language --
rxvt-unicode does not know which language the text that is output is,
as it only knows the unicode character codes. If rxvt-unicode first
sees a japanese/chinese character, it might choose a japanese font for
display. Subsequent japanese characters will use that font. Now, many
chinese characters aren't represented in japanese fonts, so when the first
non-japanese character comes up, rxvt-unicode will look for a chinese font
-- unfortunately at this point, it will still use the japanese font for
chinese characters that are also in the japanese font.

The workaround is easy: just tag a chinese font at the end of your font
list (see the previous question). The key is to view the font list as
a preference list: If you expect more japanese, list a japanese font
first. If you expect more chinese, put a chinese font first.

In the future it might be possible to switch language preferences at
runtime (the internal data structure has no problem with using different
fonts for the same character at the same time, but no interface for this
has been designed yet).

Until then, you might get away with switching fonts at runtime (see L<Can
I switch the fonts at runtime?> later in this document).

=head3 How can I make mplayer display video correctly?

We are working on it, in the meantime, as a workaround, use something like:

   @@URXVT_NAME@@ -b 600 -geometry 20x1 -e sh -c 'mplayer -wid $WINDOWID file...'

=head3 Why is the cursor now blinking in emacs/vi/...?

This is likely caused by your editor/program's use of the C<cvvis>
terminfo capability. Emacs uses it by default, as well as some versions of
vi and possibly other programs.

In emacs, you can switch that off by adding this to your C<.emacs> file:

   (setq visible-cursor nil)

For other programs, if they do not have an option, your have to remove the
C<cvvis> capability from the terminfo description.

When @@URXVT_NAME@@ first added the blinking cursor option, it didn't
add a C<cvvis> capability, which served no purpose before. Version 9.21
introduced C<cvvis> (and the ability to control blinking independent of
cursor shape) for compatibility with other terminals, which traditionally
use a blinking cursor for C<cvvis>. This also reflects the intent of
programs such as emacs, who expect C<cvvis> to enable a blinking cursor.

=head2 Keyboard, Mouse & User Interaction

=head3 The new selection selects pieces that are too big, how can I select single words?

If you want to select e.g. alphanumeric words, you can use the following
setting:

   URxvt.selection.pattern-0: ([[:word:]]+)

If you click more than twice, the selection will be extended
more and more.

To get a selection that is very similar to the old code, try this pattern:

   URxvt.selection.pattern-0: ([^"&'()*,;<=>?@[\\\\]^`{|})]+)

Please also note that the I<LeftClick Shift-LeftClick> combination also
selects words like the old code.

=head3 I don't like the new selection/popups/hotkeys/perl, how do I change/disable it?

You can disable the perl extension completely by setting the
B<perl-ext-common> resource to the empty string, which also keeps
rxvt-unicode from initialising perl, saving memory.

If you only want to disable specific features, you first have to
identify which perl extension is responsible. For this, read the section
B<PREPACKAGED EXTENSIONS> in the @@URXVT_NAME@@perl(3) manpage. For
example, to disable the B<selection-popup> and B<option-popup>, specify
this B<perl-ext-common> resource:

   URxvt.perl-ext-common: default,-selection-popup,-option-popup

This will keep the default extensions, but disable the two popup
extensions. Some extensions can also be configured, for example,
scrollback search mode is triggered by B<M-s>. You can move it to any
other combination by adding a B<keysym> resource that binds the desired
combination to the C<start> action of C<searchable-scrollback> and another
one that binds B<M-s> to the C<builtin:> action:

   URxvt.keysym.CM-s: searchable-scrollback:start
   URxvt.keysym.M-s: builtin:

=head3 The cursor moves when selecting text in the current input line, how do I switch this off?

See next entry.

=head3 During rlogin/ssh/telnet/etc. sessions, clicking near the cursor outputs strange escape sequences, how do I fix this?

These are caused by the C<readline> perl extension. Under normal
circumstances, it will move your cursor around when you click into the
line that contains it. It tries hard not to do this at the wrong moment,
but when running a program that doesn't parse cursor movements or in some
cases during rlogin sessions, it fails to detect this properly.

You can permanently switch this feature off by disabling the C<readline>
extension:

   URxvt.perl-ext-common: default,-readline

=head3 My numeric keypad acts weird and generates differing output?

Some Debian GNU/Linux users seem to have this problem, although no
specific details were reported so far. It is possible that this is caused
by the wrong C<TERM> setting, although the details of whether and how
this can happen are unknown, as C<TERM=rxvt> should offer a compatible
keymap. See the answer to the previous question, and please report if that
helped.

=head3 My Compose (Multi_key) key is no longer working.

The most common causes for this are that either your locale is not set
correctly, or you specified a B<preeditType> that is not supported by
your input method. For example, if you specified B<OverTheSpot> and
your input method (e.g. the default input method handling Compose keys)
does not support this (for instance because it is not visual), then
rxvt-unicode will continue without an input method.

In this case either do not specify a B<preeditType> or specify more than
one pre-edit style, such as B<OverTheSpot,Root,None>.

If it still doesn't work, then maybe your input method doesn't support
compose sequences - to fall back to the built-in one, make sure you don't
specify an input method via C<-im> or C<XMODIFIERS>.

=head3 I cannot type C<Ctrl-Shift-2> to get an ASCII NUL character due to ISO 14755

Either try C<Ctrl-2> alone (it often is mapped to ASCII NUL even on
international keyboards) or simply use ISO 14755 support to your
advantage, typing <Ctrl-Shift-0> to get a ASCII NUL. This works for other
codes, too, such as C<Ctrl-Shift-1-d> to type the default telnet escape
character and so on.

=head3 Mouse cut/paste suddenly no longer works.

Make sure that mouse reporting is actually turned off since killing
some editors prematurely may leave it active. I've
heard that tcsh may use mouse reporting unless it is otherwise specified. A
quick check is to see if cut/paste works when the Alt or Shift keys are
pressed.

=head3 What's with the strange Backspace/Delete key behaviour?

Assuming that the physical Backspace key corresponds to the
Backspace keysym (not likely for Linux ... see the following
question) there are two standard values that can be used for
Backspace: C<^H> and C<^?>.

Historically, either value is correct, but rxvt-unicode adopts the debian
policy of using C<^?> when unsure, because it's the one and only correct
choice :).

It is possible to toggle between C<^H> and C<^?> with the DECBKM
private mode:

   # use Backspace = ^H
   $ stty erase ^H
   $ printf "\e[?67h"

   # use Backspace = ^?
   $ stty erase ^?
   $ printf "\e[?67l"

This helps satisfy some of the Backspace discrepancies that occur, but
if you use Backspace = C<^H>, make sure that the termcap/terminfo value
properly reflects that.

The Delete key is a another casualty of the ill-defined Backspace problem.
To avoid confusion between the Backspace and Delete keys, the Delete
key has been assigned an escape sequence to match the vt100 for Execute
(C<ESC [ 3 ~>) and is in the supplied termcap/terminfo.

Some other Backspace problems:

some editors use termcap/terminfo,
some editors (vim I'm told) expect Backspace = ^H,
GNU Emacs (and Emacs-like editors) use ^H for help.

Perhaps someday this will all be resolved in a consistent manner.

=head3 I don't like the key-bindings.  How do I change them?

There are some compile-time selections available via configure. Unless
you have run "configure" with the C<--disable-resources> option you can
use the `keysym' resource to alter the keystrings associated with keysyms.

Here's an example for a URxvt session started using C<@@URXVT_NAME@@ -name URxvt>

   URxvt.keysym.Prior:         \033[5~
   URxvt.keysym.Next:          \033[6~
   URxvt.keysym.Home:          \033[7~
   URxvt.keysym.End:           \033[8~
   URxvt.keysym.Up:            \033[A
   URxvt.keysym.Down:          \033[B
   URxvt.keysym.Right:         \033[C
   URxvt.keysym.Left:          \033[D

See some more examples in the documentation for the B<keysym> resource.

=head3 I'm using keyboard model XXX that has extra Prior/Next/Insert keys. How do I make use of them? For example, the Sun Keyboard type 4 has the following map

   KP_Insert == Insert
   F22 == Print
   F27 == Home
   F29 == Prior
   F33 == End
   F35 == Next

Rather than have rxvt-unicode try to accommodate all the various possible
keyboard mappings, it is better to use `xmodmap' to remap the keys as
required for your particular machine.


=head2 Terminal Configuration

=head3 Can I see a typical configuration?

The default configuration tries to be xterm-like, which I don't like that
much, but it's least surprise to regular users.

As a rxvt or rxvt-unicode user, you are practically supposed to invest
time into customising your terminal. To get you started, here is the
author's .Xdefaults entries, with comments on what they do. It's certainly
not I<typical>, but what's typical...

   URxvt.cutchars: "()*,<>[]{}|'
   URxvt.print-pipe: cat >/tmp/xxx

These are just for testing stuff.

   URxvt.imLocale: ja_JP.UTF-8
   URxvt.preeditType: OnTheSpot,None

This tells rxvt-unicode to use a special locale when communicating with
the X Input Method, and also tells it to only use the OnTheSpot pre-edit
type, which requires the C<xim-onthespot> perl extension but rewards me
with correct-looking fonts.

   URxvt.perl-lib: /root/lib/urxvt
   URxvt.perl-ext-common: default,selection-autotransform,selection-pastebin,xim-onthespot,remote-clipboard
   URxvt.selection.pattern-0: ( at .*? line \\d+)
   URxvt.selection.pattern-1: ^(/[^:]+):\ 
   URxvt.selection-autotransform.0: s/^([^:[:space:]]+):(\\d+):?$/:e \\Q$1\\E\\x0d:$2\\x0d/
   URxvt.selection-autotransform.1: s/^ at (.*?) line (\\d+)$/:e \\Q$1\\E\\x0d:$2\\x0d/

This is my perl configuration. The first two set the perl library
directory and also tells urxvt to use a large number of extensions. I
develop for myself mostly, so I actually use most of the extensions I
write.

The selection stuff mainly makes the selection perl-error-message aware
and tells it to convert perl error messages into vi-commands to load the
relevant file and go to the error line number.

   URxvt.scrollstyle:      plain
   URxvt.secondaryScroll:  true

As the documentation says: plain is the preferred scrollbar for the
author. The C<secondaryScroll> configures urxvt to scroll in full-screen
apps, like screen, so lines scrolled out of screen end up in urxvt's
scrollback buffer.

   URxvt.background:       #000000
   URxvt.foreground:       gray90
   URxvt.color7:           gray90
   URxvt.colorBD:          #ffffff
   URxvt.cursorColor:      #e0e080
   URxvt.throughColor:     #8080f0
   URxvt.highlightColor:   #f0f0f0

Some colours. Not sure which ones are being used or even non-defaults, but
these are in my .Xdefaults. Most notably, they set foreground/background
to light gray/black, and also make sure that the colour 7 matches the
default foreground colour.

   URxvt.underlineColor:   yellow

Another colour, makes underline lines look different. Sometimes hurts, but
is mostly a nice effect.

   URxvt.geometry:         154x36
   URxvt.loginShell:       false
   URxvt.meta:             ignore
   URxvt.utmpInhibit:      true

Uh, well, should be mostly self-explanatory. By specifying some defaults
manually, I can quickly switch them for testing.

   URxvt.saveLines:        8192

A large scrollback buffer is essential. Really.

   URxvt.mapAlert:         true

The only case I use it is for my IRC window, which I like to keep
iconified till people msg me (which beeps).

   URxvt.visualBell:       true

The audible bell is often annoying, especially when in a crowd.

   URxvt.insecure:         true

Please don't hack my mutt! Ooops...

   URxvt.pastableTabs:     false

I once thought this is a great idea.

   urxvt.font:             9x15bold,\
                           -misc-fixed-bold-r-normal--15-140-75-75-c-90-iso10646-1,\
                           -misc-fixed-medium-r-normal--15-140-75-75-c-90-iso10646-1, \
                           [codeset=JISX0208]xft:Kochi Gothic, \
                           xft:Bitstream Vera Sans Mono:autohint=true, \
                           xft:Code2000:antialias=false
   urxvt.boldFont:         -xos4-terminus-bold-r-normal--14-140-72-72-c-80-iso8859-15
   urxvt.italicFont:       xft:Bitstream Vera Sans Mono:italic:autohint=true
   urxvt.boldItalicFont:   xft:Bitstream Vera Sans Mono:bold:italic:autohint=true

I wrote rxvt-unicode to be able to specify fonts exactly. So don't be
overwhelmed. A special note: the C<9x15bold> mentioned above is actually
the version from XFree-3.3, as XFree-4 replaced it by a totally different
font (different glyphs for C<;> and many other harmless characters),
while the second font is actually the C<9x15bold> from XFree4/XOrg. The
bold version has less chars than the medium version, so I use it for rare
characters, too. When editing sources with vim, I use italic for comments
and other stuff, which looks quite good with Bitstream Vera anti-aliased.

Terminus is a quite bad font (many very wrong glyphs), but for most of my
purposes, it works, and gives a different look, as my normal (Non-bold)
font is already bold, and I want to see a difference between bold and
normal fonts.

Please note that I used the C<urxvt> instance name and not the C<URxvt>
class name. That is because I use different configs for different purposes,
for example, my IRC window is started with C<-name IRC>, and uses these
defaults:

   IRC*title:              IRC
   IRC*geometry:           87x12+535+542
   IRC*saveLines:          0
   IRC*mapAlert:           true
   IRC*font:               suxuseuro
   IRC*boldFont:           suxuseuro
   IRC*colorBD:            white
   IRC*keysym.M-C-1:       command:\033]710;suxuseuro\007\033]711;suxuseuro\007
   IRC*keysym.M-C-2:       command:\033]710;9x15bold\007\033]711;9x15bold\007

C<Alt-Ctrl-1> and C<Alt-Ctrl-2> switch between two different font
sizes. C<suxuseuro> allows me to keep an eye (and actually read)
stuff while keeping a very small window. If somebody pastes something
complicated (e.g. japanese), I temporarily switch to a larger font.

The above is all in my C<.Xdefaults> (I don't use C<.Xresources> nor
C<xrdb>). I also have some resources in a separate C<.Xdefaults-hostname>
file for different hosts, for example, on my main desktop, I use:

   URxvt.keysym.C-M-q: command:\033[3;5;5t
   URxvt.keysym.C-M-y: command:\033[3;5;606t
   URxvt.keysym.C-M-e: command:\033[3;1605;5t
   URxvt.keysym.C-M-c: command:\033[3;1605;606t
   URxvt.keysym.C-M-p: perl:test

The first for keysym definitions allow me to quickly bring some windows
in the layout I like most. Ion users might start laughing but will stop
immediately when I tell them that I use my own Fvwm2 module for much the
same effect as Ion provides, and I only very rarely use the above key
combinations :->

=head3 Why doesn't rxvt-unicode read my resources?

Well, why, indeed? It does, in a way very similar to other X
applications. Most importantly, this means that if you or your OS loads
resources into the X display (the right way to do it), rxvt-unicode will
ignore any resource files in your home directory. It will only read
F<$HOME/.Xdefaults> when no resources are attached to the display.

If you have or use an F<$HOME/.Xresources> file, chances are that
resources are loaded into your X-server. In this case, you have to
re-login after every change (or run F<xrdb -merge $HOME/.Xresources>).

Also consider the form resources have to use:

  URxvt.resource: value

If you want to use another form (there are lots of different ways of
specifying resources), make sure you understand whether and why it
works. If unsure, use the form above.

=head3 When I log-in to another system it tells me about missing terminfo data?

The terminal description used by rxvt-unicode is not as widely available
as that for xterm, or even rxvt (for which the same problem often arises).

The correct solution for this problem is to install the terminfo, this can
be done by simply installing rxvt-unicode on the remote system as well
(in case you have a nice package manager ready), or you can install the
terminfo database manually like this (with ncurses infocmp. works as
user and root):

   REMOTE=remotesystem.domain
   infocmp rxvt-unicode | ssh $REMOTE "mkdir -p .terminfo && cat >/tmp/ti && tic /tmp/ti"

One some systems you might need to set C<$TERMINFO> to the full path of
F<$HOME/.terminfo> for this to work.

If you cannot or do not want to do this, then you can simply set
C<TERM=rxvt> or even C<TERM=xterm>, and live with the small number of
problems arising, which includes wrong keymapping, less and different
colours and some refresh errors in fullscreen applications. It's a nice
quick-and-dirty workaround for rare cases, though.

If you always want to do this (and are fine with the consequences) you
can either recompile rxvt-unicode with the desired TERM value or use a
resource to set it:

   URxvt.termName: rxvt

If you don't plan to use B<rxvt> (quite common...) you could also replace
the rxvt terminfo file with the rxvt-unicode one and use C<TERM=rxvt>.

=head3 nano fails with "Error opening terminal: rxvt-unicode"

This exceptionally confusing and useless error message is printed by nano
when it can't find the terminfo database. Nothing is wrong with your
terminal, read the previous answer for a solution.

=head3 C<tic> outputs some error when compiling the terminfo entry.

Most likely it's the empty definition for C<enacs=>. Just replace it by
C<enacs=\E[0@> and try again.

=head3 C<bash>'s readline does not work correctly under @@URXVT_NAME@@.

See next entry.

=head3 I need a termcap file entry.

One reason you might want this is that some distributions or operating
systems still compile some programs using the long-obsoleted termcap
library (Fedora's bash is one example) and rely on a termcap entry
for C<rxvt-unicode>.

You could use rxvt's termcap entry with reasonable results in many cases.
You can also create a termcap entry by using terminfo's infocmp program
like this:

   infocmp -C rxvt-unicode

Or you could use the termcap entry in doc/etc/rxvt-unicode.termcap,
generated by the command above.

=head3 Why does C<ls> no longer have coloured output?

The C<ls> in the GNU coreutils unfortunately doesn't use terminfo to
decide whether a terminal has colour, but uses its own configuration
file. Needless to say, C<rxvt-unicode> is not in its default file (among
with most other terminals supporting colour). Either add:

   TERM rxvt-unicode

to C</etc/DIR_COLORS> or simply add:

   alias ls='ls --color=auto'

to your C<.profile> or C<.bashrc>.

=head3 Why doesn't vim/emacs etc. use the 88 colour mode?

See next entry.

=head3 Why doesn't vim/emacs etc. make use of italic?

See next entry.

=head3 Why are the secondary screen-related options not working properly?

Make sure you are using C<TERM=rxvt-unicode>. Some pre-packaged
distributions break rxvt-unicode by setting C<TERM> to C<rxvt>, which
doesn't have these extra features. Unfortunately, some of these
furthermore fail to even install the C<rxvt-unicode> terminfo file, so
you will need to install it on your own (See the question B<When I
log-in to another system it tells me about missing terminfo data?> on
how to do this).


=head2 Encoding / Locale / Input Method Issues

=head3 Rxvt-unicode does not seem to understand the selected encoding?

See next entry.

=head3 Unicode does not seem to work?

If you encounter strange problems like typing an accented character but
getting two unrelated other characters or similar, or if program output is
subtly garbled, then you should check your locale settings.

Rxvt-unicode must be started with the same C<LC_CTYPE> setting as the
programs running in it. Often rxvt-unicode is started in the C<C> locale,
while the login script running within the rxvt-unicode window changes the
locale to something else, e.g. C<en_GB.UTF-8>. Needless to say, this is
not going to work, and is the most common cause for problems.

The best thing is to fix your startup environment, as you will likely run
into other problems. If nothing works you can try this in your .profile.

  printf '\33]701;%s\007' "$LC_CTYPE"   # $LANG or $LC_ALL are worth a try, too

If this doesn't work, then maybe you use a C<LC_CTYPE> specification not
supported on your systems. Some systems have a C<locale> command which
displays this (also, C<perl -e0> can be used to check locale settings, as
it will complain loudly if it cannot set the locale). If it displays something
like:

  locale: Cannot set LC_CTYPE to default locale: ...

Then the locale you specified is not supported on your system.

If nothing works and you are sure that everything is set correctly then
you will need to remember a little known fact: Some programs just don't
support locales :(

=head3 How does rxvt-unicode determine the encoding to use?

See next entry.

=head3 Is there an option to switch encodings?

Unlike some other terminals, rxvt-unicode has no encoding switch, and no
specific "utf-8" mode, such as xterm. In fact, it doesn't even know about
UTF-8 or any other encodings with respect to terminal I/O.

The reasons is that there exists a perfectly fine mechanism for selecting
the encoding, doing I/O and (most important) communicating this to all
applications so everybody agrees on character properties such as width
and code number. This mechanism is the I<locale>. Applications not using
that info will have problems (for example, C<xterm> gets the width of
characters wrong as it uses its own, locale-independent table under all
locales).

Rxvt-unicode uses the C<LC_CTYPE> locale category to select encoding. All
programs doing the same (that is, most) will automatically agree in the
interpretation of characters.

Unfortunately, there is no system-independent way to select locales, nor
is there a standard on how locale specifiers will look like.

On most systems, the content of the C<LC_CTYPE> environment variable
contains an arbitrary string which corresponds to an already-installed
locale. Common names for locales are C<en_US.UTF-8>, C<de_DE.ISO-8859-15>,
C<ja_JP.EUC-JP>, i.e. C<language_country.encoding>, but other forms
(i.e. C<de> or C<german>) are also common.

Rxvt-unicode ignores all other locale categories, and except for
the encoding, ignores country or language-specific settings,
i.e. C<de_DE.UTF-8> and C<ja_JP.UTF-8> are the normally same to
rxvt-unicode.

If you want to use a specific encoding you have to make sure you start
rxvt-unicode with the correct C<LC_CTYPE> category.

=head3 Can I switch locales at runtime?

Yes, using an escape sequence. Try something like this, which sets
rxvt-unicode's idea of C<LC_CTYPE>.

  printf '\33]701;%s\007' ja_JP.SJIS

See also the previous answer.

Sometimes this capability is rather handy when you want to work in
one locale (e.g. C<de_DE.UTF-8>) but some programs don't support it
(e.g. UTF-8). For example, I use this script to start C<xjdic>, which
first switches to a locale supported by xjdic and back later:

   printf '\33]701;%s\007' ja_JP.SJIS
   xjdic -js
   printf '\33]701;%s\007' de_DE.UTF-8

You can also use xterm's C<luit> program, which usually works fine, except
for some locales where character width differs between program- and
rxvt-unicode-locales.

=head3 I have problems getting my input method working.

Try a search engine, as this is slightly different for every input method server.

Here is a checklist:

=over 4

=item - Make sure your locale I<and> the imLocale are supported on your OS.

Try C<locale -a> or check the documentation for your OS.

=item - Make sure your locale or imLocale matches a locale supported by your XIM.

For example, B<kinput2> does not support UTF-8 locales, you should use
C<ja_JP.EUC-JP> or equivalent.

=item - Make sure your XIM server is actually running.

=item - Make sure the C<XMODIFIERS> environment variable is set correctly when I<starting> rxvt-unicode.

When you want to use e.g. B<kinput2>, it must be set to
C<@im=kinput2>. For B<scim>, use C<@im=SCIM>. You can see what input
method servers are running with this command:

   xprop -root XIM_SERVERS

=back

=head3 My input method wants <some encoding> but I want UTF-8, what can I do?

You can specify separate locales for the input method and the rest of the
terminal, using the resource C<imlocale>:

   URxvt.imlocale: ja_JP.EUC-JP

Now you can start your terminal with C<LC_CTYPE=ja_JP.UTF-8> and still
use your input method. Please note, however, that, depending on your Xlib
version, you may not be able to input characters outside C<EUC-JP> in a
normal way then, as your input method limits you.

=head3 Rxvt-unicode crashes when the X Input Method changes or exits.

Unfortunately, this is unavoidable, as the XIM protocol is racy by
design. Applications can avoid some crashes at the expense of memory
leaks, and Input Methods can avoid some crashes by careful ordering at
exit time. B<kinput2> (and derived input methods) generally succeeds,
while B<SCIM> (or similar input methods) fails. In the end, however,
crashes cannot be completely avoided even if both sides cooperate.

So the only workaround is not to kill your Input Method Servers.


=head2 Operating Systems / Package Maintaining

=head3 I am maintaining rxvt-unicode for distribution/OS XXX, any recommendation?

You should build one binary with the default options. F<configure>
now enables most useful options, and the trend goes to making them
runtime-switchable, too, so there is usually no drawback to enabling them,
except higher disk and possibly memory usage. The perl interpreter should
be enabled, as important functionality (menus, selection, likely more in
the future) depends on it.

You should not overwrite the C<perl-ext-common> and C<perl-ext> resources
system-wide (except maybe with C<defaults>). This will result in useful
behaviour. If your distribution aims at low memory, add an empty
C<perl-ext-common> resource to the app-defaults file. This will keep the
perl interpreter disabled until the user enables it.

If you can/want build more binaries, I recommend building a minimal
one with C<--disable-everything> (very useful) and a maximal one with
C<--enable-everything> (less useful, it will be very big due to a lot of
encodings built-in that increase download times and are rarely used).

=head3 I need to make it setuid/setgid to support utmp/ptys on my OS, is this safe?

It should be, starting with release 7.1. You are encouraged to properly
install urxvt with privileges necessary for your OS now.

When rxvt-unicode detects that it runs setuid or setgid, it will fork
into a helper process for privileged operations (pty handling on some
systems, utmp/wtmp/lastlog handling on others) and drop privileges
immediately. This is much safer than most other terminals that keep
privileges while running (but is more relevant to urxvt, as it contains
things as perl interpreters, which might be "helpful" to attackers).

This forking is done as the very first within main(), which is very early
and reduces possible bugs to initialisation code run before main(), or
things like the dynamic loader of your system, which should result in very
little risk.

=head3 I am on FreeBSD and rxvt-unicode does not seem to work at all.

Rxvt-unicode requires the symbol C<__STDC_ISO_10646__> to be defined
in your compile environment, or an implementation that implements it,
whether it defines the symbol or not. C<__STDC_ISO_10646__> requires that
B<wchar_t> is represented as unicode.

As you might have guessed, FreeBSD does neither define this symbol nor
does it support it. Instead, it uses its own internal representation of
B<wchar_t>. This is, of course, completely fine with respect to standards.

However, that means rxvt-unicode only works in C<POSIX>, C<ISO-8859-1> and
C<UTF-8> locales under FreeBSD (which all use Unicode as B<wchar_t>).

C<__STDC_ISO_10646__> is the only sane way to support multi-language
apps in an OS, as using a locale-dependent (and non-standardized)
representation of B<wchar_t> makes it impossible to convert between
B<wchar_t> (as used by X11 and your applications) and any other encoding
without implementing OS-specific-wrappers for each and every locale. There
simply are no APIs to convert B<wchar_t> into anything except the current
locale encoding.

Some applications (such as the formidable B<mlterm>) work around this
by carrying their own replacement functions for character set handling
with them, and either implementing OS-dependent hacks or doing multiple
conversions (which is slow and unreliable in case the OS implements
encodings slightly different than the terminal emulator).

The rxvt-unicode author insists that the right way to fix this is in the
system libraries once and for all, instead of forcing every app to carry
complete replacements for them :)

=head3 How can I use rxvt-unicode under cygwin?

rxvt-unicode should compile and run out of the box on cygwin, using
the X11 libraries that come with cygwin. libW11 emulation is no
longer supported (and makes no sense, either, as it only supported a
single font). I recommend starting the X-server in C<-multiwindow> or
C<-rootless> mode instead, which will result in similar look&feel as the
old libW11 emulation.

At the time of this writing, cygwin didn't seem to support any multi-byte
encodings (you might try C<LC_CTYPE=C-UTF-8>), so you are likely limited
to 8-bit encodings.

=head3 Character widths are not correct.

urxvt uses the system wcwidth function to know the information about
the width of characters, so on systems with incorrect locale data you
will likely get bad results. Two notorious examples are Solaris 9,
where single-width characters like U+2514 are reported as double-width,
and Darwin 8, where combining chars are reported having width 1.

The solution is to upgrade your system or switch to a better one. A
possibly working workaround is to use a wcwidth implementation like

http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~mgk25/ucs/wcwidth.c

=head1 RXVT-UNICODE TECHNICAL REFERENCE

The rest of this document describes various technical aspects of
B<rxvt-unicode>. First the description of supported command sequences,
followed by pixmap support and last by a description of all features
selectable at C<configure> time.

=head2 Definitions

=over 4

=item B<< C<c> >>

The literal character c (potentially a multi-byte character).

=item B<< C<C> >>

A single (required) character.

=item B<< C<Ps> >>

A single (usually optional) numeric parameter, composed of one or more
digits.

=item B<< C<Pm> >>

A multiple numeric parameter composed of any number of single numeric
parameters, separated by C<;> character(s).

=item B<< C<Pt> >>

A text parameter composed of printable characters.

=back

=head2 Values

=over 4

=item B<< C<ENQ> >>

Enquiry (Ctrl-E) = Send Device Attributes (DA)
request attributes from terminal. See B<< C<ESC [ Ps c> >>.

=item B<< C<BEL> >>

Bell (Ctrl-G)

=item B<< C<BS> >>

Backspace (Ctrl-H)

=item B<< C<TAB> >>

Horizontal Tab (HT) (Ctrl-I)

=item B<< C<LF> >>

Line Feed or New Line (NL) (Ctrl-J)

=item B<< C<VT> >>

Vertical Tab (Ctrl-K) same as B<< C<LF> >>

=item B<< C<FF> >>

Form Feed or New Page (NP) (Ctrl-L) same as B<< C<LF> >>

=item B<< C<CR> >>

Carriage Return (Ctrl-M)

=item B<< C<SO> >>

Shift Out (Ctrl-N), invokes the G1 character set.
Switch to Alternate Character Set

=item B<< C<SI> >>

Shift In (Ctrl-O), invokes the G0 character set (the default).
Switch to Standard Character Set

=item B<< C<SP> >>

Space Character

=back

=head2 Escape Sequences

=over 4

=item B<< C<ESC # 8> >>

DEC Screen Alignment Test (DECALN)

=item B<< C<ESC 7> >>

Save Cursor (SC)

=item B<< C<ESC 8> >>

Restore Cursor

=item B<< C<ESC => >>

Application Keypad (SMKX). See also next sequence.

=item B<<< C<< ESC > >> >>>

Normal Keypad (RMKX)

B<Note:> numbers or control functions are generated by the numeric
keypad in normal or application mode, respectively (see Key Codes).


=item B<< C<ESC D> >>

Index (IND)

=item B<< C<ESC E> >>

Next Line (NEL)

=item B<< C<ESC H> >>

Tab Set (HTS)

=item B<< C<ESC M> >>

Reverse Index (RI)

=item B<< C<ESC N> >>

Single Shift Select of G2 Character Set (SS2): affects next character
only I<unimplemented>

=item B<< C<ESC O> >>

Single Shift Select of G3 Character Set (SS3): affects next character
only I<unimplemented>

=item B<< C<ESC Z> >>

Obsolete form of returns: B<< C<ESC [ ? 1 ; 2 C> >> I<rxvt-unicode compile-time option>

=item B<< C<ESC c> >>

Full reset (RIS)

=item B<< C<ESC n> >>

Invoke the G2 Character Set (LS2)

=item B<< C<ESC o> >>

Invoke the G3 Character Set (LS3)

=item B<< C<ESC ( C> >>

Designate G0 Character Set (ISO 2022), see below for values of C<C>.

=item B<< C<ESC ) C> >>

Designate G1 Character Set (ISO 2022), see below for values of C<C>.

=item B<< C<ESC * C> >>

Designate G2 Character Set (ISO 2022), see below for values of C<C>.

=item B<< C<ESC + C> >>

Designate G3 Character Set (ISO 2022), see below for values of C<C>.

=item B<< C<ESC $ C> >>

Designate Kanji Character Set

Where B<< C<C> >> is one of:

=begin table

	C = C<0>	DEC Special Character and Line Drawing Set
	C = C<A>	United Kingdom (UK)
	C = C<B>	United States (USASCII)
	C = C<< < >>	Multinational character set I<unimplemented>
	C = C<5>	Finnish character set I<unimplemented>
	C = C<C>	Finnish character set I<unimplemented>
	C = C<K>	German character set I<unimplemented>

=end table

=back

X<CSI>

=head2 CSI (Command Sequence Introducer) Sequences

=over 4

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps @> >>

Insert B<< C<Ps> >> (Blank) Character(s) [default: 1] (ICH)X<ESCOBPsA>

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps A> >>

Cursor Up B<< C<Ps> >> Times [default: 1] (CUU)

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps B> >>

Cursor Down B<< C<Ps> >> Times [default: 1] (CUD)X<ESCOBPsC>

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps C> >>

Cursor Forward B<< C<Ps> >> Times [default: 1] (CUF)

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps D> >>

Cursor Backward B<< C<Ps> >> Times [default: 1] (CUB)

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps E> >>

Cursor Down B<< C<Ps> >> Times [default: 1] and to first column

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps F> >>

Cursor Up B<< C<Ps> >> Times [default: 1] and to first columnX<ESCOBPsG>

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps G> >>

Cursor to Column B<< C<Ps> >> (HPA)

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps;Ps H> >>

Cursor Position [row;column] [default: 1;1] (CUP)

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps I> >>

Move forward B<< C<Ps> >> tab stops [default: 1]

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps J> >>

Erase in Display (ED)

=begin table

	B<< C<Ps = 0> >>	Clear Right and Below (default)
	B<< C<Ps = 1> >>	Clear Left and Above
	B<< C<Ps = 2> >>	Clear All

=end table

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps K> >>

Erase in Line (EL)

=begin table

	B<< C<Ps = 0> >>	Clear to Right (default)
	B<< C<Ps = 1> >>	Clear to Left
	B<< C<Ps = 2> >>	Clear All
	B<< C<Ps = 3> >>	Like Ps = 0, but is ignored when wrapped
				(@@RXVT_NAME@@ extension)

=end table

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps L> >>

Insert B<< C<Ps> >> Line(s) [default: 1] (IL)

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps M> >>

Delete B<< C<Ps> >> Line(s) [default: 1] (DL)

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps P> >>

Delete B<< C<Ps> >> Character(s) [default: 1] (DCH)

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps;Ps;Ps;Ps;Ps T> >>

Initiate . I<unimplemented> Parameters are
[func;startx;starty;firstrow;lastrow].

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps W> >>

Tabulator functions

=begin table

	B<< C<Ps = 0> >>	Tab Set (HTS)
	B<< C<Ps = 2> >>	Tab Clear (TBC), Clear Current Column (default)
	B<< C<Ps = 5> >>	Tab Clear (TBC), Clear All

=end table

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps X> >>

Erase B<< C<Ps> >> Character(s) [default: 1] (ECH)

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps Z> >>

Move backward B<< C<Ps> >> [default: 1] tab stops

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps '> >>

See B<< C<ESC [ Ps G> >>

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps a> >>

See B<< C<ESC [ Ps C> >>

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps c> >>

Send Device Attributes (DA)
B<< C<Ps = 0> >> (or omitted): request attributes from terminal
returns: B<< C<ESC [ ? 1 ; 2 c> >> (``I am a VT100 with Advanced Video
Option'')

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps d> >>

Cursor to Line B<< C<Ps> >> (VPA)

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps e> >>

See B<< C<ESC [ Ps A> >>

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps;Ps f> >>

Horizontal and Vertical Position [row;column] (HVP) [default: 1;1]

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps g> >>

Tab Clear (TBC)

=begin table

	B<< C<Ps = 0> >>	Clear Current Column (default)
	B<< C<Ps = 3> >>	Clear All (TBC)

=end table

=item B<< C<ESC [ Pm h> >>

Set Mode (SM). See B<< C<ESC [ Pm l> >> sequence for description of C<Pm>.

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps i> >>

Printing. See also the C<print-pipe> resource.

=begin table

	B<< C<Ps = 0> >>	print screen (MC0)
	B<< C<Ps = 4> >>	disable transparent print mode (MC4)
	B<< C<Ps = 5> >>	enable transparent print mode (MC5)

=end table

=item B<< C<ESC [ Pm l> >>

Reset Mode (RM)

=over 4

=item B<< C<Ps = 4> >>

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Insert Mode (SMIR)
	B<< C<l> >>	Replace Mode (RMIR)

=end table

=item B<< C<Ps = 20> >> (partially implemented)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Automatic Newline (LNM)
	B<< C<l> >>	Normal Linefeed (LNM)

=end table

=back

=item B<< C<ESC [ Pm m> >>

Character Attributes (SGR)

=begin table

	B<< C<Pm = 0> >>	Normal (default)
	B<< C<Pm = 1 / 21> >>	On / Off Bold (bright fg)
	B<< C<Pm = 3 / 23> >>	On / Off Italic
	B<< C<Pm = 4 / 24> >>	On / Off Underline
	B<< C<Pm = 5 / 25> >>	On / Off Slow Blink (bright bg)
	B<< C<Pm = 6 / 26> >>	On / Off Rapid Blink (bright bg)
	B<< C<Pm = 7 / 27> >>	On / Off Inverse
	B<< C<Pm = 8 / 27> >>	On / Off Invisible (NYI)
	B<< C<Pm = 30 / 40> >>	fg/bg Black
	B<< C<Pm = 31 / 41> >>	fg/bg Red
	B<< C<Pm = 32 / 42> >>	fg/bg Green
	B<< C<Pm = 33 / 43> >>	fg/bg Yellow
	B<< C<Pm = 34 / 44> >>	fg/bg Blue
	B<< C<Pm = 35 / 45> >>	fg/bg Magenta
	B<< C<Pm = 36 / 46> >>	fg/bg Cyan
	B<< C<Pm = 37 / 47> >>	fg/bg White
	B<< C<Pm = 38;5 / 48;5> >>	set fg/bg to colour #m (ISO 8613-6)
	B<< C<Pm = 39 / 49> >>	fg/bg Default
	B<< C<Pm = 90 / 100> >>	fg/bg Bright Black
	B<< C<Pm = 91 / 101> >>	fg/bg Bright Red
	B<< C<Pm = 92 / 102> >>	fg/bg Bright Green
	B<< C<Pm = 93 / 103> >>	fg/bg Bright Yellow
	B<< C<Pm = 94 / 104> >>	fg/bg Bright Blue
	B<< C<Pm = 95 / 105> >>	fg/bg Bright Magenta
	B<< C<Pm = 96 / 106> >>	fg/bg Bright Cyan
	B<< C<Pm = 97 / 107> >>	fg/bg Bright White
	B<< C<Pm = 99 / 109> >>	fg/bg Bright Default

=end table

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps n> >>

Device Status Report (DSR)

=begin table

	B<< C<Ps = 5> >>	Status Report B<< C<ESC [ 0 n> >> (``OK'')
	B<< C<Ps = 6> >>	Report Cursor Position (CPR) [row;column] as B<< C<ESC [ r ; c R> >>
	B<< C<Ps = 7> >>	Request Display Name
	B<< C<Ps = 8> >>	Request Version Number (place in window title)

=end table

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps SP q> >>

Set Cursor Style (DECSCUSR)

=begin table

	B<< C<Ps = 0> >>	Blink Block
	B<< C<Ps = 1> >>	Blink Block
	B<< C<Ps = 2> >>	Steady Block
	B<< C<Ps = 3> >>	Blink Underline
	B<< C<Ps = 4> >>	Steady Underline
	B<< C<Ps = 5> >>	Blink Bar (XTerm)
	B<< C<Ps = 6> >>	Steady Bar (XTerm)

=end table

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps;Ps r> >>

Set Scrolling Region [top;bottom]
[default: full size of window] (CSR)

=item B<< C<ESC [ s> >>

Save Cursor (SC)

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps;Pt t> >>

Window Operations

=begin table

	B<< C<Ps = 1> >>	Deiconify (map) window
	B<< C<Ps = 2> >>	Iconify window
	B<< C<Ps = 3> >>	B<< C<ESC [ 3 ; X ; Y t> >> Move window to (X|Y)
	B<< C<Ps = 4> >>	B<< C<ESC [ 4 ; H ; W t> >> Resize to WxH pixels
	B<< C<Ps = 5> >>	Raise window
	B<< C<Ps = 6> >>	Lower window
	B<< C<Ps = 7> >>	Refresh screen once
	B<< C<Ps = 8> >>	B<< C<ESC [ 8 ; R ; C t> >> Resize to R rows and C columns
	B<< C<Ps = 11> >>	Report window state (responds with C<Ps = 1> or C<Ps = 2>)
	B<< C<Ps = 13> >>	Report window position (responds with C<Ps = 3>)
	B<< C<Ps = 14> >>	Report window pixel size (responds with C<Ps = 4>)
	B<< C<Ps = 18> >>	Report window text size (responds with C<Ps = 7>)
	B<< C<Ps = 19> >>	Currently the same as C<Ps = 18>, but responds with C<Ps = 9>
	B<< C<Ps = 20> >>	Reports icon label (B<< C<ESC ] L NAME \234> >>)
	B<< C<Ps = 21> >>	Reports window title (B<< C<ESC ] l NAME \234> >>)
	B<< C<Ps = 24..> >>	Set window height to C<Ps> rows

=end table

=item B<< C<ESC [ u> >>

Restore Cursor

=item B<< C<ESC [ Ps x> >>

Request Terminal Parameters (DECREQTPARM)

=back

X<PrivateModes>

=head2 DEC Private Modes

=over 4

=item B<< C<ESC [ ? Pm h> >>

DEC Private Mode Set (DECSET)

=item B<< C<ESC [ ? Pm l> >>

DEC Private Mode Reset (DECRST)

=item B<< C<ESC [ ? Pm r> >>

Restore previously saved DEC Private Mode Values.

=item B<< C<ESC [ ? Pm s> >>

Save DEC Private Mode Values.

=item B<< C<ESC [ ? Pm t> >>

Toggle DEC Private Mode Values (rxvt extension). I<where>

=over 4

=item B<< C<Pm = 1> >> (DECCKM)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Application Cursor Keys
	B<< C<l> >>	Normal Cursor Keys

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 2> >> (DECANM)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Enter VT52 mode
	B<< C<l> >>	Enter VT52 mode

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 3> >> (DECCOLM)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	132 Column Mode
	B<< C<l> >>	80 Column Mode

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 4> >> (DECSCLM)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Smooth (Slow) Scroll
	B<< C<l> >>	Jump (Fast) Scroll

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 5> >> (DECSCNM)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Reverse Video
	B<< C<l> >>	Normal Video

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 6> >> (DECOM)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Origin Mode
	B<< C<l> >>	Normal Cursor Mode

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 7> >> (DECAWM)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Wraparound Mode
	B<< C<l> >>	No Wraparound Mode

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 8> >> (DECARM) I<unimplemented>

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Auto-repeat Keys
	B<< C<l> >>	No Auto-repeat Keys

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 9> >> (X10 XTerm mouse protocol)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Send Mouse X & Y on button press.
	B<< C<l> >>	No mouse reporting.

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 12> >> (AT&T 610, XTerm)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Blinking cursor (cvvis)
	B<< C<l> >>	Steady cursor (cnorm)

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 25> >> (DECTCEM)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Visible cursor {cnorm/cvvis}
	B<< C<l> >>	Invisible cursor {civis}

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 30> >> (B<rxvt>)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	scrollBar visible
	B<< C<l> >>	scrollBar invisible

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 35> >> (B<rxvt>)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Allow XTerm Shift+key sequences
	B<< C<l> >>	Disallow XTerm Shift+key sequences

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 38> >> I<unimplemented>

Enter Tektronix Mode (DECTEK)

=item B<< C<Pm = 40> >>

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Allow 80/132 Mode
	B<< C<l> >>	Disallow 80/132 Mode

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 44> >> I<unimplemented>

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Turn On Margin Bell
	B<< C<l> >>	Turn Off Margin Bell

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 45> >> I<unimplemented>

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Reverse-wraparound Mode
	B<< C<l> >>	No Reverse-wraparound Mode

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 46> >> I<unimplemented>

=item B<< C<Pm = 47> >>

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Use Alternate Screen Buffer
	B<< C<l> >>	Use Normal Screen Buffer

=end table

X<Priv66>

=item B<< C<Pm = 66> >> (DECNKM)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Application Keypad (DECKPAM/DECPAM) == C<ESC =>
	B<< C<l> >>	Normal Keypad (DECKPNM/DECPNM) == C<< ESC > >>

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 67> >> (DECBKM)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Backspace key sends B<< C<BS> >>
	B<< C<l> >>	Backspace key sends B<< C<DEL> >>

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 1000> >> (X11 XTerm mouse protocol)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Send Mouse X & Y on button press and release.
	B<< C<l> >>	No mouse reporting.

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 1001> >> (X11 XTerm) I<unimplemented>

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Use Hilite Mouse Tracking.
	B<< C<l> >>	No mouse reporting.

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 1002> >> (X11 XTerm cell motion mouse tracking)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Send Mouse X & Y on button press and release, and motion with a button pressed.
	B<< C<l> >>	No mouse reporting.

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 1003> >> (X11 XTerm all motion mouse tracking)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Send Mouse X & Y on button press and release, and motion.
	B<< C<l> >>	No mouse reporting.

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 1004> >> (X11 XTerm focus in/focus out events) I<unimplemented>

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Send Mouse focus in/focus out events.
	B<< C<l> >>	Don'T send focus events.

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 1005> >> (X11 XTerm UTF-8 mouse mode) (Compile frills)

Try to avoid this mode, it doesn't work sensibly in non-UTF-8 locales. Use
mode C<1015> instead.

Unlike XTerm, coordinates larger than 2015) will work fine.

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Enable mouse coordinates in locale-specific encoding.
	B<< C<l> >>	Enable mouse coordinates as binary octets.

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 1010> >> (B<rxvt>)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Don't scroll to bottom on TTY output
	B<< C<l> >>	Scroll to bottom on TTY output

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 1011> >> (B<rxvt>)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Scroll to bottom when a key is pressed
	B<< C<l> >>	Don't scroll to bottom when a key is pressed

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 1015> >> (B<rxvt-unicode>) (Compile frills)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Enable urxvt mouse coordinate reporting.
	B<< C<l> >>	Use old-style C<CSI M C C C> encoding.

=end table

Changes all mouse reporting codes to use decimal parameters instead of
octets or characters.

This mode should be enabled I<before> actually enabling mouse reporting,
for semi-obvious reasons.

The sequences received for various modes are as follows:

   ESC [ M o o o    !1005, !1015 (three octets)
   ESC [ M c c c    1005, !1015 (three characters)
   ESC [ Pm M       1015 (three or more numeric parameters)

The first three parameters are C<code>, C<x> and C<y>. Code is the numeric
code as for the other modes (but encoded as a decimal number, including
the additional offset of 32, so you have to subtract 32 first), C<x> and
C<y> are the coordinates (1|1 is the upper left corner, just as with
cursor positioning).

Example: Shift-Button-1 press at top row, column 80.

   ESC [ 37 ; 80 ; 1 M

One can use this feature by simply enabling it and then looking for
parameters to the C<ESC [ M> reply - if there are any, this mode is
active, otherwise one of the old reporting styles is used.

Other (to be implemented) reply sequences will use a similar encoding.

In the future, more parameters might get added (pixel coordinates for
example - anybody out there who needs this?).

=item B<< C<Pm = 1021> >> (B<rxvt>)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Bold/italic implies high intensity (see option B<\-is>)
	B<< C<l> >>	Font styles have no effect on intensity (Compile styles)

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 1047> >> (X11 XTerm alternate screen buffer)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Use Alternate Screen Buffer
	B<< C<l> >>	Use Normal Screen Buffer - clear Alternate Screen Buffer if returning from it

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 1048> >> (X11 XTerm alternate DECSC)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Save cursor position
	B<< C<l> >>	Restore cursor position

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 1049> >> (X11 XTerm 1047 + 1048)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Use Alternate Screen Buffer - clear Alternate Screen Buffer if switching to it
	B<< C<l> >>	Use Normal Screen Buffer

=end table

=item B<< C<Pm = 2004> >> (X11 XTerm bracketed paste mode)

=begin table

	B<< C<h> >>	Enable bracketed paste mode - prepend / append to the pasted text the control sequences C<ESC [ 200 ~> / C<ESC [ 201 ~>
	B<< C<l> >>	Disable bracketed paste mode

=end table

=back

=back

X<XTerm>

=head2 XTerm Operating System Commands

=over 4

=item B<< C<ESC ] Ps;Pt ST> >>

Set XTerm Parameters. 8-bit ST: 0x9c, 7-bit ST sequence: ESC \ (0x1b,
0x5c), backwards compatible terminator BEL (0x07) is also accepted. any
B<octet> can be escaped by prefixing it with SYN (0x16, ^V).

=begin table

	B<< C<Ps = 0> >>	Change Icon Name and Window Title to B<< C<Pt> >>
	B<< C<Ps = 1> >>	Change Icon Name to B<< C<Pt> >>
	B<< C<Ps = 2> >>	Change Window Title to B<< C<Pt> >>
	B<< C<Ps = 3> >>	If B<< C<Pt> >> starts with a B<< C<?> >>, query the (STRING) property of the window and return it. If B<< C<Pt> >> contains a B<< C<=> >>, set the named property to the given value, else delete the specified property.
	B<< C<Ps = 4> >>	B<< C<Pt> >> is a semi-colon separated sequence of one or more semi-colon separated B<number>/B<name> pairs, where B<number> is an index to a colour and B<name> is the name of a colour. Each pair causes the B<number>ed colour to be changed to B<name>. Numbers 0-7 corresponds to low-intensity (normal) colours and 8-15 corresponds to high-intensity colours. 0=black, 1=red, 2=green, 3=yellow, 4=blue, 5=magenta, 6=cyan, 7=white
	B<< C<Ps = 10> >>	Change colour of text foreground to B<< C<Pt> >>
	B<< C<Ps = 11> >>	Change colour of text background to B<< C<Pt> >>
	B<< C<Ps = 12> >>	Change colour of text cursor foreground to B<< C<Pt> >>
	B<< C<Ps = 13> >>	Change colour of mouse foreground to B<< C<Pt> >>
	B<< C<Ps = 17> >>	Change background colour of highlight characters to B<< C<Pt> >>
	B<< C<Ps = 19> >>	Change foreground colour of highlight characters to B<< C<Pt> >>
	B<< C<Ps = 20> >>	Change background pixmap parameters (see section BACKGROUND IMAGE) (Compile pixbuf).
	B<< C<Ps = 39> >>	Change default foreground colour to B<< C<Pt> >>. [deprecated, use 10]
	B<< C<Ps = 46> >>	Change Log File to B<< C<Pt> >> I<unimplemented>
	B<< C<Ps = 49> >>	Change default background colour to B<< C<Pt> >>. [deprecated, use 11]
	B<< C<Ps = 50> >>	Set fontset to B<< C<Pt> >>, with the following special values of B<< C<Pt> >> (B<rxvt>) B<< C<#+n> >> change up B<< C<n> >> B<< C<#-n> >> change down B<< C<n> >> if B<< C<n> >> is missing of 0, a value of 1 is used I<empty> change to font0 B<< C<n> >> change to font B<< C<n> >>
	B<< C<Ps = 55> >>	Log all scrollback buffer and all of screen to B<< C<Pt> >> [disabled]
	B<< C<Ps = 701> >>	Change current locale to B<< C<Pt> >>, or, if B<< C<Pt> >> is B<< C<?> >>, return the current locale (Compile frills).
	B<< C<Ps = 702> >>	Request version if B<< C<Pt> >> is B<< C<?> >>, returning C<rxvt-unicode>, the resource name, the major and minor version numbers, e.g. C<ESC ] 702 ; rxvt-unicode ; urxvt ; 7 ; 4 ST>.
	B<< C<Ps = 704> >>	Change colour of italic characters to B<< C<Pt> >>
	B<< C<Ps = 705> >>	Change background pixmap tint colour to B<< C<Pt> >> (Compile transparency).
	B<< C<Ps = 706> >>	Change colour of bold characters to B<< C<Pt> >>
	B<< C<Ps = 707> >>	Change colour of underlined characters to B<< C<Pt> >>
	B<< C<Ps = 708> >>	Change colour of the border to B<< C<Pt> >>
	B<< C<Ps = 710> >>	Set normal fontset to B<< C<Pt> >>. Same as C<Ps = 50>.
	B<< C<Ps = 711> >>	Set bold fontset to B<< C<Pt> >>. Similar to C<Ps = 50> (Compile styles).
	B<< C<Ps = 712> >>	Set italic fontset to B<< C<Pt> >>. Similar to C<Ps = 50> (Compile styles).
	B<< C<Ps = 713> >>	Set bold-italic fontset to B<< C<Pt> >>. Similar to C<Ps = 50> (Compile styles).
	B<< C<Ps = 720> >>	Move viewing window up by B<< C<Pt> >> lines, or clear scrollback buffer if C<Pt = 0> (Compile frills).
	B<< C<Ps = 721> >>	Move viewing window down by B<< C<Pt> >> lines, or clear scrollback buffer if C<Pt = 0> (Compile frills).
	B<< C<Ps = 777> >>	Call the perl extension with the given string, which should be of the form C<extension:parameters> (Compile perl).

=end table

=back

=head1 BACKGROUND IMAGE

For the BACKGROUND IMAGE XTerm escape sequence B<< C<ESC ] 20 ; Pt ST> >> the value
of B<< C<Pt> >> can be one of the following commands:

=over 4

=item B<< C<?> >>

display scale and position in the title

=item B<< C<;WxH+X+Y> >>

change scale and/or position

=item B<< C<FILE;WxH+X+Y> >>

change background image

=back

X<Mouse>

=head1 Mouse Reporting

=over 4

=item B<< C<< ESC [ M <b> <x> <y> >> >>

report mouse position

=back

The lower 2 bits of B<< C<< <b> >> >> indicate the button:

=over 4

=item Button = B<< C<< (<b> - SPACE) & 3 >> >>

=begin table

	0	Button1 pressed
	1	Button2 pressed
	2	Button3 pressed
	3	button released (X11 mouse report)

=end table

=back

The upper bits of B<< C<< <b> >> >> indicate the modifiers when the
button was pressed and are added together (X11 mouse report only):

=over 4

=item State = B<< C<< (<b> - SPACE) & ~3 >> >>

=begin table

	4	Shift
	8	Meta
	16	Control
	32	Motion Notify
	32	Double Click I<(rxvt extension)>, disabled by default
	64	Button1 is actually Button4, Button2 is actually Button5 etc.

=end table

Col = B<< C<< <x> - SPACE >> >>

Row = B<< C<< <y> - SPACE >> >>

=back

=head1 Key Codes

X<KeyCodes>

Note: B<Shift> + B<F1>-B<F10> generates B<F11>-B<F20>

For the keypad, use B<Shift> to temporarily toggle Application Keypad
mode and use B<Num_Lock> to override Application Keypad mode, i.e. if
B<Num_Lock> is on the keypad is in normal mode. Also note that the
values of B<BackSpace>, B<Delete> may have been compiled differently
on your system.

=begin table

		B<Normal>	B<Shift>	B<Control>	B<Ctrl+Shift>
	Tab	^I	ESC [ Z	^I	ESC [ Z
	BackSpace	^?	^?	^H	^H
	Find	ESC [ 1 ~	ESC [ 1 $	ESC [ 1 ^	ESC [ 1 @
	Insert	ESC [ 2 ~	I<paste>	ESC [ 2 ^	ESC [ 2 @
	Execute	ESC [ 3 ~	ESC [ 3 $	ESC [ 3 ^	ESC [ 3 @
	Select	ESC [ 4 ~	ESC [ 4 $	ESC [ 4 ^	ESC [ 4 @
	Prior	ESC [ 5 ~	I<scroll-up>	ESC [ 5 ^	ESC [ 5 @
	Next	ESC [ 6 ~	I<scroll-down>	ESC [ 6 ^	ESC [ 6 @
	Home	ESC [ 7 ~	ESC [ 7 $	ESC [ 7 ^	ESC [ 7 @
	End	ESC [ 8 ~	ESC [ 8 $	ESC [ 8 ^	ESC [ 8 @
	Delete	ESC [ 3 ~	ESC [ 3 $	ESC [ 3 ^	ESC [ 3 @
	F1	ESC [ 11 ~	ESC [ 23 ~	ESC [ 11 ^	ESC [ 23 ^
	F2	ESC [ 12 ~	ESC [ 24 ~	ESC [ 12 ^	ESC [ 24 ^
	F3	ESC [ 13 ~	ESC [ 25 ~	ESC [ 13 ^	ESC [ 25 ^
	F4	ESC [ 14 ~	ESC [ 26 ~	ESC [ 14 ^	ESC [ 26 ^
	F5	ESC [ 15 ~	ESC [ 28 ~	ESC [ 15 ^	ESC [ 28 ^
	F6	ESC [ 17 ~	ESC [ 29 ~	ESC [ 17 ^	ESC [ 29 ^
	F7	ESC [ 18 ~	ESC [ 31 ~	ESC [ 18 ^	ESC [ 31 ^
	F8	ESC [ 19 ~	ESC [ 32 ~	ESC [ 19 ^	ESC [ 32 ^
	F9	ESC [ 20 ~	ESC [ 33 ~	ESC [ 20 ^	ESC [ 33 ^
	F10	ESC [ 21 ~	ESC [ 34 ~	ESC [ 21 ^	ESC [ 34 ^
	F11	ESC [ 23 ~	ESC [ 23 $	ESC [ 23 ^	ESC [ 23 @
	F12	ESC [ 24 ~	ESC [ 24 $	ESC [ 24 ^	ESC [ 24 @
	F13	ESC [ 25 ~	ESC [ 25 $	ESC [ 25 ^	ESC [ 25 @
	F14	ESC [ 26 ~	ESC [ 26 $	ESC [ 26 ^	ESC [ 26 @
	F15 (Help)	ESC [ 28 ~	ESC [ 28 $	ESC [ 28 ^	ESC [ 28 @
	F16 (Menu)	ESC [ 29 ~	ESC [ 29 $	ESC [ 29 ^	ESC [ 29 @
	F17	ESC [ 31 ~	ESC [ 31 $	ESC [ 31 ^	ESC [ 31 @
	F18	ESC [ 32 ~	ESC [ 32 $	ESC [ 32 ^	ESC [ 32 @
	F19	ESC [ 33 ~	ESC [ 33 $	ESC [ 33 ^	ESC [ 33 @
	F20	ESC [ 34 ~	ESC [ 34 $	ESC [ 34 ^	ESC [ 34 @
					B<Application>
	Up	ESC [ A	ESC [ a	ESC O a	ESC O A
	Down	ESC [ B	ESC [ b	ESC O b	ESC O B
	Right	ESC [ C	ESC [ c	ESC O c	ESC O C
	Left	ESC [ D	ESC [ d	ESC O d	ESC O D
	KP_Enter	^M			ESC O M
	KP_F1	ESC O P			ESC O P
	KP_F2	ESC O Q			ESC O Q
	KP_F3	ESC O R			ESC O R
	KP_F4	ESC O S			ESC O S
	KP_Multiply	*			ESC O j
	KP_Add	+			ESC O k
	KP_Separator	,			ESC O l
	KP_Subtract	-			ESC O m
	KP_Decimal	.			ESC O n
	KP_Divide	/			ESC O o
	KP_0	0			ESC O p
	KP_1	1			ESC O q
	KP_2	2			ESC O r
	KP_3	3			ESC O s
	KP_4	4			ESC O t
	KP_5	5			ESC O u
	KP_6	6			ESC O v
	KP_7	7			ESC O w
	KP_8	8			ESC O x
	KP_9	9			ESC O y

=end table

=head1 CONFIGURE OPTIONS

General hint: if you get compile errors, then likely your configuration
hasn't been tested well. Either try with C<--enable-everything> or use
the default configuration (i.e. no C<--enable-xxx> or C<--disable-xxx>
switches). Of course, you should always report when a combination doesn't
work, so it can be fixed. Marc Lehmann <rxvt@schmorp.de>.

All

=over 4

=item --enable-everything

Add (or remove) support for all non-multichoice options listed
in C<./configure --help>, except for C<--enable-assert> and
C<--enable-256-color>.

You can specify this and then disable options you do not like by
I<following> this with the appropriate C<--disable-...> arguments,
or you can start with a minimal configuration by specifying
C<--disable-everything> and than adding just the C<--enable-...> arguments
you want.

=item --enable-xft (default: on)

Add support for Xft (anti-aliased, among others) fonts. Xft fonts are
slower and require lots of memory, but as long as you don't use them, you
don't pay for them.

=item --enable-font-styles (default: on)

Add support for B<bold>, I<italic> and B<< I<bold italic> >> font
styles. The fonts can be set manually or automatically.

=item --with-codesets=CS,... (default: all)

Compile in support for additional codeset (encoding) groups (C<eu>, C<vn>
are always compiled in, which includes most 8-bit character sets). These
codeset tables are used for driving X11 core fonts, they are not required
for Xft fonts, although having them compiled in lets rxvt-unicode choose
replacement fonts more intelligently. Compiling them in will make your
binary bigger (all of together cost about 700kB), but it doesn't increase
memory usage unless you use a font requiring one of these encodings.

=begin table

	all	all available codeset groups
	zh	common chinese encodings
	zh_ext	rarely used but very big chinese encodings
	jp	common japanese encodings
	jp_ext	rarely used but big japanese encodings
	kr	korean encodings

=end table

=item --enable-xim (default: on)

Add support for XIM (X Input Method) protocol. This allows using
alternative input methods (e.g. kinput2) and will also correctly
set up the input for people using dead keys or compose keys.

=item --enable-unicode3 (default: off)

Recommended to stay off unless you really need non-BMP characters.

Enable direct support for displaying unicode codepoints above
65535 (the basic multilingual page). This increases storage
requirements per character from 2 to 4 bytes. X11 fonts do not yet
support these extra characters, but Xft does.

Please note that rxvt-unicode can store unicode code points >65535
even without this flag, but the number of such characters is
limited to a few thousand (shared with combining characters,
see next switch), and right now rxvt-unicode cannot display them
(input/output and cut&paste still work, though).

=item --enable-combining (default: on)

Enable automatic composition of combining characters into
composite characters. This is required for proper viewing of text
where accents are encoded as separate unicode characters. This is
done by using precomposed characters when available or creating
new pseudo-characters when no precomposed form exists.

Without --enable-unicode3, the number of additional precomposed
characters is somewhat limited (the 6400 private use characters will be
(ab-)used). With --enable-unicode3, no practical limit exists.

This option will also enable storage (but not display) of characters
beyond plane 0 (>65535) when --enable-unicode3 was not specified.

The combining table also contains entries for arabic presentation forms,
but these are not currently used. Bug me if you want these to be used (and
tell me how these are to be used...).

=item --enable-fallback[=CLASS] (default: Rxvt)

When reading resource settings, also read settings for class CLASS. To
disable resource fallback use --disable-fallback.

=item --with-res-name=NAME (default: urxvt)

Use the given name as default application name when
reading resources. Specify --with-res-name=rxvt to replace rxvt.

=item --with-res-class=CLASS (default: URxvt)

Use the given class as default application class
when reading resources. Specify --with-res-class=Rxvt to replace
rxvt.

=item --enable-utmp (default: on)

Write user and tty to utmp file (used by programs like F<w>) at
start of rxvt execution and delete information when rxvt exits.

=item --enable-wtmp (default: on)

Write user and tty to wtmp file (used by programs like F<last>) at
start of rxvt execution and write logout when rxvt exits.  This
option requires --enable-utmp to also be specified.

=item --enable-lastlog (default: on)

Write user and tty to lastlog file (used by programs like
F<lastlogin>) at start of rxvt execution.  This option requires
--enable-utmp to also be specified.

=item --enable-pixbuf (default: on)

Add support for GDK-PixBuf to be used for background images.
It adds support for many file formats including JPG, PNG,
TIFF, GIF, XPM, BMP, ICO and TGA.

=item --enable-startup-notification (default: on)

Add support for freedesktop startup notifications. This allows window managers
to display some kind of progress indicator during startup.

=item --enable-transparency (default: on)

Add support for using the root pixmap as background to simulate transparency.
Note that this feature depends on libXrender and on the availability
of the RENDER extension in the X server.

=item --enable-fading (default: on)

Add support for fading the text when focus is lost.

=item --enable-rxvt-scroll (default: on)

Add support for the original rxvt scrollbar.

=item --enable-next-scroll (default: on)

Add support for a NeXT-like scrollbar.

=item --enable-xterm-scroll (default: on)

Add support for an Xterm-like scrollbar.

=item --disable-backspace-key

Removes any handling of the backspace key by us - let the X server do it.

=item --disable-delete-key

Removes any handling of the delete key by us - let the X server
do it.

=item --disable-resources

Removes any support for resource checking.

=item --disable-swapscreen

Remove support for secondary/swap screen.

=item --enable-frills (default: on)

Add support for many small features that are not essential but nice to
have. Normally you want this, but for very small binaries you may want to
disable this.

A non-exhaustive list of features enabled by C<--enable-frills> (possibly
in combination with other switches) is:

  MWM-hints
  EWMH-hints (pid, utf8 names) and protocols (ping)
  urgency hint
  separate underline colour (-underlineColor)
  settable border widths and borderless switch (-w, -b, -bl)
  visual depth selection (-depth)
  settable extra linespacing (-lsp)
  iso-14755 5.1 (basic) support
  tripleclickwords (-tcw)
  settable insecure mode (-insecure)
  keysym remapping support
  cursor blinking and underline cursor (-bc, -uc)
  XEmbed support (-embed)
  user-pty (-pty-fd)
  hold on exit (-hold)
  compile in built-in block graphics
  skip builtin block graphics (-sbg)
  separate highlight colour (-highlightColor, -highlightTextColor)
  extended mouse reporting modes (1005 and 1015).
  visual selection via -visual and -depth.

It also enables some non-essential features otherwise disabled, such as:

  some round-trip time optimisations
  nearest colour allocation on pseudocolor screens
  UTF8_STRING support for selection
  sgr modes 90..97 and 100..107
  backindex and forwardindex escape sequences
  view change/zero scrollback escape sequences
  locale switching escape sequence
  window op and some xterm/OSC escape sequences
  rectangular selections
  trailing space removal for selections
  verbose X error handling

=item --enable-iso14755 (default: on)

Enable extended ISO 14755 support (see @@RXVT_NAME@@(1)).
Basic support (section 5.1) is enabled by C<--enable-frills>, while
support for 5.2, 5.3 and 5.4 is enabled with this switch.

=item --enable-keepscrolling (default: on)

Add support for continual scrolling of the display when you hold
the mouse button down on a scrollbar arrow.

=item --enable-selectionscrolling (default: on)

Add support for scrolling when the selection moves to the top or
bottom of the screen.

=item --enable-mousewheel (default: on)

Add support for scrolling via mouse wheel or buttons 4 & 5.

=item --enable-slipwheeling (default: on)

Add support for continual scrolling (using the mouse wheel as an
accelerator) while the control key is held down.  This option
requires --enable-mousewheel to also be specified.

=item --enable-smart-resize (default: off)

Add smart growth/shrink behaviour when resizing.
This should keep the window corner which is closest to a corner of
the screen in a fixed position.

=item --enable-text-blink (default: on)

Add support for blinking text.

=item --enable-pointer-blank (default: on)

Add support to have the pointer disappear when typing or inactive.

=item --enable-perl (default: on)

Enable an embedded perl interpreter. See the B<@@RXVT_NAME@@perl(3)>
manpage for more info on this feature, or the files in F<src/perl/>
for the extensions that are installed by default.
The perl interpreter that is used can be specified via the C<PERL>
environment variable when running configure. Even when compiled in,
perl will I<not> be initialised when all extensions have been disabled
C<-pe "" --perl-ext-common "">, so it should be safe to enable from a
resource standpoint.

=item --enable-assert (default: off)

Enables the assertions in the code, normally disabled. This switch is only
useful when developing rxvt-unicode.

=item --enable-256-color (default: off)

Force use of so-called 256 colour mode, to work around buggy applications
that do not support termcap/terminfo, or simply improve support for
applications hardcoding the xterm 256 colour table.

This switch breaks termcap/terminfo compatibility to C<TERM=rxvt-unicode>,
and consequently sets C<TERM> to C<rxvt-unicode-256color> by default
(F<doc/etc/> contains termcap/terminfo definitions for both).

It also results in higher memory usage and can slow down @@RXVT_NAME@@
dramatically when more than six fonts are in use by a terminal instance.

=item --with-name=NAME (default: urxvt)

Set the basename for the installed binaries, resulting
in C<urxvt>, C<urxvtd> etc.). Specify C<--with-name=rxvt> to replace with
C<rxvt>.

=item --with-term=NAME (default: rxvt-unicode)

Change the environmental variable for the terminal to NAME.

=item --with-terminfo=PATH

Change the environmental variable for the path to the terminfo tree to
PATH.

=item --with-x

Use the X Window System (pretty much default, eh?).

=back

=head1 AUTHORS

Marc Lehmann <rxvt@schmorp.de> converted this document to pod and
reworked it from the original Rxvt documentation, which was done by Geoff
Wing <gcw@pobox.com>, who in turn used the XTerm documentation and other
sources.