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<html><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1"><title>Chapter�26.�System and Account Policies</title><link rel="stylesheet" href="../samba.css" type="text/css"><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL Stylesheets V1.75.2"><link rel="home" href="index.html" title="The Official Samba 3.5.x HOWTO and Reference Guide"><link rel="up" href="optional.html" title="Part�III.�Advanced Configuration"><link rel="prev" href="AdvancedNetworkManagement.html" title="Chapter�25.�Advanced Network Management"><link rel="next" href="ProfileMgmt.html" title="Chapter�27.�Desktop Profile Management"></head><body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="navheader"><table width="100%" summary="Navigation header"><tr><th colspan="3" align="center">Chapter�26.�System and Account Policies</th></tr><tr><td width="20%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="AdvancedNetworkManagement.html">Prev</a>�</td><th width="60%" align="center">Part�III.�Advanced Configuration</th><td width="20%" align="right">�<a accesskey="n" href="ProfileMgmt.html">Next</a></td></tr></table><hr></div><div class="chapter" title="Chapter�26.�System and Account Policies"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title"><a name="PolicyMgmt"></a>Chapter�26.�System and Account Policies</h2></div><div><div class="author"><h3 class="author"><span class="firstname">John</span> <span class="othername">H.</span> <span class="surname">Terpstra</span></h3><div class="affiliation"><span class="orgname">Samba Team<br></span><div class="address"><p><code class="email">&lt;<a class="email" href="mailto:jht@samba.org">jht@samba.org</a>&gt;</code></p></div></div></div></div><div><p class="pubdate">April 3 2003</p></div></div></div><div class="toc"><p><b>Table of Contents</b></p><dl><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="PolicyMgmt.html#id422418">Features and Benefits</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="PolicyMgmt.html#id422512">Creating and Managing System Policies</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="PolicyMgmt.html#id422683">Windows 9x/ME Policies</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="PolicyMgmt.html#id422806">Windows NT4-Style Policy Files</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="PolicyMgmt.html#id423012">MS Windows 200x/XP Professional Policies</a></span></dt></dl></dd><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="PolicyMgmt.html#id423414">Managing Account/User Policies</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="PolicyMgmt.html#id423619">Management Tools</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="PolicyMgmt.html#id423630">Samba Editreg Toolset</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="PolicyMgmt.html#id423706">Windows NT4/200x</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="PolicyMgmt.html#id423743">Samba PDC</a></span></dt></dl></dd><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="PolicyMgmt.html#id423806">System Startup and Logon Processing Overview</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="PolicyMgmt.html#id423947">Common Errors</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="PolicyMgmt.html#id423958">Policy Does Not Work</a></span></dt></dl></dd></dl></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422407"></a>
This chapter summarizes the current state of knowledge derived from personal
practice and knowledge from Samba mailing list subscribers. Before reproduction
of posted information, every effort has been made to validate the information given.
Where additional information was uncovered through this validation, it is provided
also.
</p><div class="sect1" title="Features and Benefits"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="id422418"></a>Features and Benefits</h2></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422425"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422432"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422439"></a>
When MS Windows NT 3.5 was introduced, the hot new topic was the ability to implement
Group Policies for users and groups. Then along came MS Windows NT4 and a few sites
started to adopt this capability. How do we know that? By the number of <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">boo-boos</span>&#8221;</span>
(or mistakes) administrators made and then requested help to resolve.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422455"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422462"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422471"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422478"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422484"></a>
By the time that MS Windows 2000 and Active Directory was released, administrators
got the message: Group Policies are a good thing! They can help reduce administrative
costs and actually make happier users. But adoption of the true
potential of MS Windows 200x Active Directory and Group Policy Objects (GPOs) for users
and machines were picked up on rather slowly. This was obvious from the Samba
mailing list back in 2000 and 2001 when there were few postings regarding GPOs and
how to replicate them in a Samba environment.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422501"></a>
Judging by the traffic volume since mid 2002, GPOs have become a standard part of
the deployment in many sites. This chapter reviews techniques and methods that can
be used to exploit opportunities for automation of control over user desktops and
network client workstations.
</p></div><div class="sect1" title="Creating and Managing System Policies"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="id422512"></a>Creating and Managing System Policies</h2></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422520"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422527"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422534"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422541"></a>
Under MS Windows platforms, particularly those following the release of MS Windows
NT4 and MS Windows 95, it is possible to create a type of file that would be placed
in the NETLOGON share of a domain controller. As the client logs onto the network,
this file is read and the contents initiate changes to the registry of the client
machine. This file allows changes to be made to those parts of the registry that
affect users, groups of users, or machines.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422555"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422562"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422568"></a>
For MS Windows 9x/Me, this file must be called <code class="filename">Config.POL</code> and may
be generated using a tool called <code class="filename">poledit.exe</code>, better known as the
Policy Editor. The policy editor was provided on the Windows 98 installation CD-ROM, but
disappeared again with the introduction of MS Windows Me. From
comments of MS Windows network administrators, it would appear that this tool became
a part of the MS Windows Me Resource Kit.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422594"></a>
MS Windows NT4 server products include the <span class="emphasis"><em>System Policy Editor</em></span>
under <span class="guimenu">Start -&gt; Programs -&gt; Administrative Tools</span>.
For MS Windows NT4 and later clients, this file must be called <code class="filename">NTConfig.POL</code>.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422620"></a>
New with the introduction of MS Windows 2000 was the Microsoft Management Console
or MMC. This tool is the new wave in the ever-changing landscape of Microsoft
methods for management of network access and security. Every new Microsoft product
or technology seems to make the old rules obsolete and introduces newer and more
complex tools and methods. To Microsoft's credit, the MMC does appear to
be a step forward, but improved functionality comes at a great price.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422634"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422641"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422648"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422654"></a>
Before embarking on the configuration of network and system policies, it is highly
advisable to read the documentation available from Microsoft's Web site regarding
<a class="ulink" href="http://www.microsoft.com/ntserver/techresources/management/prof_policies.asp" target="_top">
Implementing Profiles and Policies in Windows NT 4.0</a>.
There are a large number of documents in addition to this old one that should also
be read and understood. Try searching on the Microsoft Web site for <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">Group Policies</span>&#8221;</span>.
</p><p>
What follows is a brief discussion with some helpful notes. The information provided
here is incomplete  you are warned.
</p><div class="sect2" title="Windows 9x/ME Policies"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id422683"></a>Windows 9x/ME Policies</h3></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422691"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422697"></a>
	You need the Windows 98 Group Policy Editor to set up Group Profiles under Windows 9x/Me.
	It can be found on the original full-product Windows 98 installation CD-ROM under
	<code class="filename">tools\reskit\netadmin\poledit</code>. Install this using the
	Add/Remove Programs facility, and then click on <span class="guiicon">Have Disk</span>.
	</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422721"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422728"></a>
	Use the Group Policy Editor to create a policy file that specifies the location of
	user profiles and/or <code class="filename">My Documents</code>, and so on. Then save these
	settings in a file called <code class="filename">Config.POL</code> that needs to be placed in the
	root of the <em class="parameter"><code>[NETLOGON]</code></em> share. If Windows 98 is configured to log onto
	the Samba domain, it will automatically read this file and update the Windows 9x/Me registry
	of the machine as it logs on.
	</p><p>
	Further details are covered in the Windows 98 Resource Kit documentation.
	</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422763"></a>
	If you do not take the correct steps, then every so often Windows 9x/Me will check the
	integrity of the registry and restore its settings from the backup
	copy of the registry it stores on each Windows 9x/Me machine. So, you will
	occasionally notice things changing back to the original settings.
	</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422775"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422782"></a>
	Install the Group Policy handler for Windows 9x/Me to pick up Group Policies. Look on the
	Windows 98 CD-ROM in <code class="filename">\tools\reskit\netadmin\poledit</code>.
	Install Group Policies on a Windows 9x/Me client by double-clicking on
	<code class="filename">grouppol.inf</code>. Log off and on again a couple of times and see
	if Windows 98 picks up Group Policies. Unfortunately, this needs to be done on every
	Windows 9x/Me machine that uses Group Policies.
	</p></div><div class="sect2" title="Windows NT4-Style Policy Files"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id422806"></a>Windows NT4-Style Policy Files</h3></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422814"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422821"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422828"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422835"></a>
	To create or edit <code class="filename">ntconfig.pol</code>, you must use the NT Server
	Policy Editor, <code class="literal">poledit.exe</code>, which is included with NT4 Server
	but not with NT workstation. There is a Policy Editor on an NT4
	Workstation but it is not suitable for creating domain policies.
	Furthermore, although the Windows 95 Policy Editor can be installed on an NT4
	workstation/server, it will not work with NT clients. However, the files from
	the NT Server will run happily enough on an NT4 workstation.
	</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422860"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422867"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422874"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422881"></a>
	You need <code class="filename">poledit.exe</code>, <code class="filename">common.adm</code>, and <code class="filename">winnt.adm</code>.
	It is convenient to put the two <code class="filename">*.adm</code> files in  the <code class="filename">c:\winnt\inf</code> 
	directory, which is where the binary will look for them unless told otherwise. This
	directory is normally <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">hidden.</span>&#8221;</span>
	</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422925"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422932"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422939"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422945"></a>
	The Windows NT Policy Editor is also included with the Service Pack 3 (and
	later) for Windows NT 4.0. Extract the files using <code class="literal">servicepackname /x</code>
	 that's <code class="literal">Nt4sp6ai.exe /x</code> for Service Pack 6a. The Policy Editor,
	<code class="literal">poledit.exe</code>, and the associated template files (*.adm) should
	be extracted as well. It is also possible to download the policy template
	files for Office97 and get a copy of the Policy Editor. Another possible
	location is with the Zero Administration Kit available for download from Microsoft.
	</p><div class="sect3" title="Registry Spoiling"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="id422977"></a>Registry Spoiling</h4></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422985"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id422992"></a>
			With NT4-style registry-based policy changes, a large number of settings are not
			automatically reversed as the user logs off. The settings that were in the
			<code class="filename">NTConfig.POL</code> file were applied to the client machine registry and apply to the
			hive key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE are permanent until explicitly reversed. This is known
			as tattooing. It can have serious consequences downstream, and the administrator must
			be extremely careful not to lock out the ability to manage the machine at a later date.
			</p></div></div><div class="sect2" title="MS Windows 200x/XP Professional Policies"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id423012"></a>MS Windows 200x/XP Professional Policies</h3></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423020"></a>
	Windows NT4 system policies allow the setting of registry parameters specific to
	users, groups, and computers (client workstations) that are members of the NT4-style
	domain. Such policy files will work with MS Windows 200x/XP clients also.
	</p><p>
	New to MS Windows 2000, Microsoft recently introduced a style of Group Policy that confers
	a superset of capabilities compared with NT4-style policies. Obviously, the tool used
	to create them is different, and the mechanism for implementing them is much improved.
	</p><p>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id423038"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423045"></a>
	The older NT4-style registry-based policies are known as <span class="emphasis"><em>Administrative Templates</em></span>
	in MS Windows 2000/XP GPOs. The latter includes the ability to set various security
	configurations, enforce Internet Explorer browser settings, change and redirect aspects of the
	users desktop (including the location of <code class="filename">My Documents</code> files, as
	well as intrinsics of where menu items will appear in the Start menu). An additional new
	feature is the ability to make available particular software Windows applications to particular
	users and/or groups.
	</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423069"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423076"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423082"></a>
	Remember, NT4 policy files are named <code class="filename">NTConfig.POL</code> and are stored in the root
	of the NETLOGON share on the domain controllers. A Windows NT4 user enters a username and password
	and selects the domain name to which the logon will attempt to take place. During the logon process,
	the client machine reads the <code class="filename">NTConfig.POL</code> file from the NETLOGON share on
	the authenticating server and modifies the local registry values according to the settings in this file.
	</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423108"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423115"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423121"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423128"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423135"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423142"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423151"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423160"></a>
	Windows 200x GPOs are feature-rich. They are not stored in the NETLOGON share, but rather part of
	a Windows 200x policy file is stored in the Active Directory itself and the other part is stored
	in a shared (and replicated) volume called the SYSVOL folder. This folder is present on all Active
	Directory domain controllers. The part that is stored in the Active Directory itself is called the
	Group Policy Container (GPC), and the part that is stored in the replicated share called SYSVOL is
	known as the Group Policy Template (GPT).
	</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423175"></a>
	With NT4 clients, the policy file is read and executed only as each user logs onto the network.
	MS Windows 200x policies are much more complex  GPOs are processed and applied at client machine
	startup (machine specific part), and when the user logs onto the network, the user-specific part
	is applied. In MS Windows 200x-style policy management, each machine and/or user may be subject
	to any number of concurrently applicable (and applied) policy sets (GPOs). Active Directory allows
	the administrator to also set filters over the policy settings. No such equivalent capability
	exists with NT4-style policy files.
	</p><div class="sect3" title="Administration of Windows 200x/XP Policies"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="id423192"></a>Administration of Windows 200x/XP Policies</h4></div></div></div><p>
		<a class="indexterm" name="id423200"></a>
		<a class="indexterm" name="id423205"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423212"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423219"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423226"></a>
		Instead of using the tool called <span class="application">the System Policy Editor</span>, commonly called Poledit (from the
		executable name <code class="literal">poledit.exe</code>), <acronym class="acronym">GPOs</acronym> are created and managed using a 
		<span class="application">Microsoft Management Console</span> <acronym class="acronym">(MMC)</acronym> snap-in as follows:</p><div class="procedure"><ol class="procedure" type="1"><li class="step" title="Step 1"><p>
			Go to the Windows 200x/XP menu <span class="guimenu">Start-&gt;Programs-&gt;Administrative Tools</span>
			and select the MMC snap-in called <span class="guimenuitem">Active Directory Users and Computers</span>
			</p></li><li class="step" title="Step 2"><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423286"></a>
			Select the domain or organizational unit (OU) that you wish to manage, then right-click
			to open the context menu for that object, and select the <span class="guibutton">Properties</span>.
			</p></li><li class="step" title="Step 3"><p>
			Left-click on the <span class="guilabel">Group Policy</span> tab, then
			left-click on the New tab. Type a name
			for the new policy you will create.
			</p></li><li class="step" title="Step 4"><p>
			 Left-click on the <span class="guilabel">Edit</span> tab to commence the steps needed to create the GPO.
			</p></li></ol></div><p>
		All policy configuration options are controlled through the use of policy administrative
		templates. These files have an .adm extension, both in NT4 as well as in Windows 200x/XP.
		Beware, however, the .adm files are not interchangeable across NT4 and Windows 200x.
		The latter introduces many new features as well as extended definition capabilities. It is
		well beyond the scope of this documentation to explain how to program .adm files; for that,
		refer to the Microsoft Windows Resource Kit for your particular
		version of MS Windows.
		</p><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423344"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423351"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423358"></a>
		The MS Windows 2000 Resource Kit contains a tool called <code class="literal">gpolmig.exe</code>. This tool can be used
		to migrate an NT4 <code class="filename">NTConfig.POL</code> file into a Windows 200x style GPO. Be VERY careful how you
		use this powerful tool. Please refer to the resource kit manuals for specific usage information.
		</p></div></div><div class="sect3" title="Custom System Policy Templates"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="id423382"></a>Custom System Policy Templates</h4></div></div></div><p>
		Over the past year, there has been a bit of talk regarding the creation of customized
		templates for the Windows Sytem Policy Editor. A recent announcement on the Samba mailing
		list is worthy of mention.
		</p><p>
		Mike Petersen has announced the availability of a template file he has created. This custom System Policy
		Editor Template will allow you to successfully control Microsoft Windows workstations from an SMB server, such
		as Samba. This template has been tested on a few networks, although if you find any problems with any of these
		policies, or have any ideas for additional policies, let me know at mailto:mgpeter@pcc-services.com.  This
		Template includes many policies for Windows XP to allow it to behave better in a professional environment.
		</p><p>
		For further information please see the <a class="ulink" href="http://www.pcc-services.com/custom_poledit.html" target="_top">Petersen</a> Computer Consulting web site. There is
		a download link for the template file.
		</p></div></div></div><div class="sect1" title="Managing Account/User Policies"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="id423414"></a>Managing Account/User Policies</h2></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423422"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423429"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423436"></a>
Policies can define a specific user's settings or the settings for a group of users. The resulting
policy file contains the registry settings for all users, groups, and computers that will be using
the policy file. Separate policy files for each user, group, or computer are not necessary.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423448"></a>
If you create a policy that will be automatically downloaded from validating domain controllers,
you should name the file <code class="filename">NTConfig.POL</code>. As system administrator, you have the option of renaming the
policy file and, by modifying the Windows NT-based workstation, directing the computer to update
the policy from a manual path. You can do this by either manually changing the registry or by using
the System Policy Editor. This can even be a local path such that each machine has its own policy file,
but if a change is necessary to all machines, it must be made individually to each workstation.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423469"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423476"></a>
When a Windows NT4/200x/XP machine logs onto the network, the client looks in the NETLOGON share on
the authenticating domain controller for the presence of the <code class="filename">NTConfig.POL</code> file. If one exists, it is 
downloaded, parsed, and then applied to the user's part of the registry.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423494"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423501"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423508"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423514"></a>
MS Windows 200x/XP clients that log onto an MS Windows Active Directory security domain may additionally
acquire policy settings through GPOs that are defined and stored in Active Directory
itself. The key benefit of using AD GPOs is that they impose no registry <span class="emphasis"><em>spoiling</em></span> effect.
This has considerable advantage compared with the use of <code class="filename">NTConfig.POL</code> (NT4) style policy updates.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423537"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423544"></a>
In addition to user access controls that may be imposed or applied via system and/or group policies
in a manner that works in conjunction with user profiles, the user management environment under
MS Windows NT4/200x/XP allows per-domain as well as per-user account restrictions to be applied.
Common restrictions that are frequently used include:
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423557"></a>
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>Logon hours</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Password aging</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Permitted logon from certain machines only</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Account type (local or global)</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>User rights</p></li></ul></div><p>
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423593"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423600"></a>
Samba-3.0.20 does not yet implement all account controls that are common to MS Windows NT4/200x/XP.
While it is possible to set many controls using the Domain User Manager for MS Windows NT4, only password
expiry is functional today. Most of the remaining controls at this time have only stub routines
that may eventually be completed to provide actual control. Do not be misled by the fact that a
parameter can be set using the NT4 Domain User Manager or in the <code class="filename">NTConfig.POL</code>.
</p></div><div class="sect1" title="Management Tools"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="id423619"></a>Management Tools</h2></div></div></div><p>
Anyone who wishes to create or manage Group Policies will need to be familiar with a number of tools.
The following sections describe a few key tools that will help you to create a low-maintenance user
environment.
</p><div class="sect2" title="Samba Editreg Toolset"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id423630"></a>Samba Editreg Toolset</h3></div></div></div><p>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id423637"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id423644"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id423651"></a>
	A new tool called <code class="literal">editreg</code> is under development. This tool can be used
	to edit registry files (called <code class="filename">NTUser.DAT</code>) that are stored in user
	and group profiles. <code class="filename">NTConfig.POL</code> files have the same structure as the
	<code class="filename">NTUser.DAT</code> file and can be edited using this tool. <code class="literal">editreg</code>
	is being built with the intent to enable <code class="filename">NTConfig.POL</code> files to be saved in text format and to
	permit the building of new <code class="filename">NTConfig.POL</code> files with extended capabilities. It is proving difficult
	to realize this capability, so do not be surprised if this feature does not materialize. Formal
	capabilities will be announced at the time that this tool is released for production use.
	</p></div><div class="sect2" title="Windows NT4/200x"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id423706"></a>Windows NT4/200x</h3></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423714"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423721"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423727"></a>
	The tools that may be used to configure these types of controls from the MS Windows environment are
	the NT4 User Manager for Domains, the NT4 System and Group Policy Editor, and the Registry Editor (regedt32.exe).
	Under MS Windows 200x/XP, this is done using the MMC with appropriate
	<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">snap-ins,</span>&#8221;</span> the registry editor, and potentially also the NT4 System and Group Policy Editor.
	</p></div><div class="sect2" title="Samba PDC"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id423743"></a>Samba PDC</h3></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423751"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423757"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423764"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423771"></a>
	With a Samba domain controller, the new tools for managing user account and policy information include:
	<code class="literal">smbpasswd</code>, <code class="literal">pdbedit</code>, <code class="literal">net</code>, and <code class="literal">rpcclient</code>. 
	The administrator should read the man pages for these tools and become familiar with their use.
	</p></div></div><div class="sect1" title="System Startup and Logon Processing Overview"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="id423806"></a>System Startup and Logon Processing Overview</h2></div></div></div><p>
The following attempts to document the order of processing the system and user policies following a system
reboot and as part of the user logon:
</p><div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1"><li class="listitem"><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423826"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423835"></a>
	Network starts, then Remote Procedure Call System Service (RPCSS) and multiple universal naming
	convention provider (MUP) start.
	</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423850"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id423857"></a>
	Where Active Directory is involved, an ordered list of GPOs is downloaded
	and applied. The list may include GPOs that:
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>Apply to the location of machines in a directory.</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Apply only when settings have changed.</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Depend on configuration of the scope of applicability: local,
	site, domain, organizational unit, and so on.</p></li></ul></div><p>
	No desktop user interface is presented until the above have been processed.
	</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
	Execution of startup scripts (hidden and synchronous by default).
	</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
	A keyboard action to effect start of logon (Ctrl-Alt-Del).
	</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
	User credentials are validated, user profile is loaded (depends on policy settings).
	</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
	An ordered list of user GPOs is obtained. The list contents depends on what is configured in respect of:

</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>Is the user a domain member, thus subject to particular policies?</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Loopback enablement, and the state of the loopback policy (merge or replace).</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Location of the Active Directory itself.</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Has the list of GPOs changed? No processing is needed if not changed.</p></li></ul></div><p>
	</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
	User policies are applied from Active Directory. Note: There are several types.
	</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
	Logon scripts are run. New to Windows 200x and Active Directory, logon scripts may be obtained based on GPOs
	(hidden and executed synchronously). NT4-style logon scripts are then run in a normal
	window.
	</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
	The user interface as determined from the GPOs is presented. Note: In a Samba domain (like an NT4
	domain), machine (system) policies are applied at startup; user policies are applied at logon.
	</p></li></ol></div></div><div class="sect1" title="Common Errors"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="id423947"></a>Common Errors</h2></div></div></div><p>
Policy-related problems can be quite difficult to diagnose and even more difficult to rectify. The following
collection demonstrates only basic issues.
</p><div class="sect2" title="Policy Does Not Work"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id423958"></a>Policy Does Not Work</h3></div></div></div><p>
<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">We have created the <code class="filename">Config.POL</code> file and put it in the <span class="emphasis"><em>NETLOGON</em></span> share.
It has made no difference to our Win XP Pro machines, they just do not see it. It worked fine with Win 98 but does not
work any longer since we upgraded to Win XP Pro. Any hints?</span>&#8221;</span>
</p><p>
Policy files are not portable between Windows 9x/Me and MS Windows NT4/200x/XP-based platforms. You need to
use the NT4 Group Policy Editor to create a file called <code class="filename">NTConfig.POL</code> so it is in the
correct format for your MS Windows XP Pro clients.
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