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<html><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1"><title>Chapter�5.�Backup Domain Control</title><link rel="stylesheet" href="../samba.css" type="text/css"><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL Stylesheets V1.75.2"><link rel="home" href="index.html" title="The Official Samba 3.5.x HOWTO and Reference Guide"><link rel="up" href="type.html" title="Part�II.�Server Configuration Basics"><link rel="prev" href="samba-pdc.html" title="Chapter�4.�Domain Control"><link rel="next" href="domain-member.html" title="Chapter�6.�Domain Membership"></head><body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="navheader"><table width="100%" summary="Navigation header"><tr><th colspan="3" align="center">Chapter�5.�Backup Domain Control</th></tr><tr><td width="20%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="samba-pdc.html">Prev</a>�</td><th width="60%" align="center">Part�II.�Server Configuration Basics</th><td width="20%" align="right">�<a accesskey="n" href="domain-member.html">Next</a></td></tr></table><hr></div><div class="chapter" title="Chapter�5.�Backup Domain Control"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title"><a name="samba-bdc"></a>Chapter�5.�Backup Domain Control</h2></div><div><div class="author"><h3 class="author"><span class="firstname">John</span> <span class="othername">H.</span> <span class="surname">Terpstra</span></h3><div class="affiliation"><span class="orgname">Samba Team<br></span><div class="address"><p><code class="email">&lt;<a class="email" href="mailto:jht@samba.org">jht@samba.org</a>&gt;</code></p></div></div></div></div><div><div class="author"><h3 class="author"><span class="firstname">Volker</span> <span class="surname">Lendecke</span></h3><div class="affiliation"><span class="orgname">Samba Team<br></span><div class="address"><p><code class="email">&lt;<a class="email" href="mailto:Volker.Lendecke@SerNet.DE">Volker.Lendecke@SerNet.DE</a>&gt;</code></p></div></div></div></div><div><div class="author"><h3 class="author"><span class="firstname">Guenther</span> <span class="surname">Deschner</span></h3><span class="contrib">LDAP updates</span>�<div class="affiliation"><span class="orgname">Samba Team<br></span><div class="address"><p><code class="email">&lt;<a class="email" href="mailto:gd@samba.org">gd@samba.org</a>&gt;</code></p></div></div></div></div></div></div><div class="toc"><p><b>Table of Contents</b></p><dl><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="samba-bdc.html#id336899">Features and Benefits</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="samba-bdc.html#id337275">Essential Background Information</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="samba-bdc.html#id337339">MS Windows NT4-style Domain Control</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="samba-bdc.html#id337967">LDAP Configuration Notes</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="samba-bdc.html#id338300">Active Directory Domain Control</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="samba-bdc.html#id338354">What Qualifies a Domain Controller on the Network?</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="samba-bdc.html#id338437">How Does a Workstation find its Domain Controller?</a></span></dt></dl></dd><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="samba-bdc.html#id338595">Backup Domain Controller Configuration</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="samba-bdc.html#id339066">Example Configuration</a></span></dt></dl></dd><dt><span class="sect1"><a href="samba-bdc.html#id339500">Common Errors</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="samba-bdc.html#id339540">Machine Accounts Keep Expiring</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="samba-bdc.html#id339588">Can Samba Be a Backup Domain Controller to an NT4 PDC?</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="samba-bdc.html#id339639">How Do I Replicate the smbpasswd File?</a></span></dt><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="samba-bdc.html#id339736">Can I Do This All with LDAP?</a></span></dt></dl></dd></dl></div><p>
Before you continue reading this section, please make sure that you are comfortable
with configuring a Samba domain controller as described in <a class="link" href="samba-pdc.html" title="Chapter�4.�Domain Control">Domain Control</a>.
</p><div class="sect1" title="Features and Benefits"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="id336899"></a>Features and Benefits</h2></div></div></div><p>
This is one of the most difficult chapters to summarize. It does not matter what we say here, for someone will
still draw conclusions and/or approach the Samba Team with expectations that are either not yet capable of
being delivered or that can be achieved far more effectively using a totally different approach. In the event
that you should have a persistent concern that is not addressed in this book, please email <a class="ulink" href="mailto:jht@samba.org" target="_top">John H. Terpstra</a> clearly setting out your requirements and/or question, and
we will do our best to provide a solution.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id336921"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id336930"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id336936"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id336943"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id336952"></a>
Samba-3 can act as a Backup Domain Controller (BDC) to another Samba Primary Domain Controller (PDC). A
Samba-3 PDC can operate with an LDAP account backend. The LDAP backend can be either a common master LDAP
server or a slave server. The use of a slave LDAP server has the benefit that when the master is down, clients
may still be able to log onto the network.  This effectively gives Samba a high degree of scalability and is
an effective solution for large organizations. If you use an LDAP slave server for a PDC, you will need to
ensure the master's continued availability  if the slave finds its master down at the wrong time,
you will have stability and operational problems.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id336971"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id336980"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id336989"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id336998"></a>
While it is possible to run a Samba-3 BDC with a non-LDAP backend, that backend must allow some form of
"two-way" propagation of changes from the BDC to the master.  At this time only LDAP delivers the capability
to propagate identity database changes from the BDC to the PDC. The BDC can use a slave LDAP server, while it
is preferable for the PDC to use as its primary an LDAP master server.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337011"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337020"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337030"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337041"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337048"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337054"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337061"></a>
The use of a non-LDAP backend SAM database is particularly problematic because domain member
servers and workstations periodically change the Machine Trust Account password. The new
password is then stored only locally. This means that in the absence of a centrally stored
accounts database (such as that provided with an LDAP-based solution) if Samba-3 is running
as a BDC, the BDC instance of the domain member trust account password will not reach the
PDC (master) copy of the SAM. If the PDC SAM is then replicated to BDCs, this results in 
overwriting the SAM that contains the updated (changed) trust account password with resulting
breakage of the domain trust.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337077"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337086"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337095"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337104"></a>
Considering the number of comments and questions raised concerning how to configure a BDC,
let's consider each possible option and look at the pros and cons for each possible solution.
<a class="link" href="samba-bdc.html#pdc-bdc-table" title="Table�5.1.�Domain Backend Account Distribution Options">The Domain Backend Account Distribution Options table below</a> lists 
possible design configurations for a PDC/BDC infrastructure.
</p><div class="table"><a name="pdc-bdc-table"></a><p class="title"><b>Table�5.1.�Domain Backend Account Distribution Options</b></p><div class="table-contents"><table summary="Domain Backend Account Distribution Options" border="1"><colgroup><col align="center"><col align="center"><col align="left"></colgroup><thead><tr><th align="center">PDC Backend</th><th align="center">BDC Backend</th><th align="left">Notes/Discussion</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td align="center"><p>Master LDAP Server</p></td><td align="center"><p>Slave LDAP Server</p></td><td align="left"><p>The optimal solution that provides high integrity. The SAM will be
		replicated to a common master LDAP server.</p></td></tr><tr><td align="center"><p>Single Central LDAP Server</p></td><td align="center"><p>Single Central LDAP Server</p></td><td align="left"><p>
	A workable solution without failover ability. This is a usable solution, but not optimal. 
	</p></td></tr><tr><td align="center"><p>tdbsam</p></td><td align="center"><p>tdbsam + <code class="literal">net rpc vampire</code></p></td><td align="left"><p>
	Does not work with Samba-3.0; Samba does not implement the
        server-side protocols required.
	</p></td></tr><tr><td align="center"><p>tdbsam</p></td><td align="center"><p>tdbsam + <code class="literal">rsync</code></p></td><td align="left"><p>
	Do not use this configuration.
	Does not work because the TDB files are live and data may not
        have been flushed to disk.  Furthermore, this will cause
        domain trust breakdown.
	</p></td></tr><tr><td align="center"><p>smbpasswd file</p></td><td align="center"><p>smbpasswd file</p></td><td align="left"><p>
	Do not use this configuration.
	Not an elegant solution due to the delays in synchronization
        and also suffers
        from the issue of domain trust breakdown.
	</p></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><br class="table-break"></div><div class="sect1" title="Essential Background Information"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="id337275"></a>Essential Background Information</h2></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337283"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337290"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337297"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337303"></a>
A domain controller is a machine that is able to answer logon requests from network
workstations. Microsoft LanManager and IBM LanServer were two early products that
provided this capability. The technology has become known as the LanMan Netlogon service.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337316"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337327"></a>
When MS Windows NT3.10 was first released, it supported a new style of Domain Control
and with it a new form of the network logon service that has extended functionality.
This service became known as the NT NetLogon Service. The nature of this service has
changed with the evolution of MS Windows NT and today provides a complex array of
services that are implemented over an intricate spectrum of technologies.
</p><div class="sect2" title="MS Windows NT4-style Domain Control"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id337339"></a>MS Windows NT4-style Domain Control</h3></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337347"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337353"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337360"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337367"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337374"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337380"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337389"></a>
Whenever a user logs into a Windows NT4/200x/XP Professional workstation,
the workstation connects to a domain controller (authentication server) to validate that
the username and password the user entered are valid. If the information entered
does not match account information that has been stored in the domain
control database (the SAM, or Security Account Manager database), a set of error
codes is returned to the workstation that has made the authentication request.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337406"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337412"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337419"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337426"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337433"></a>
When the username/password pair has been validated, the domain controller
(authentication server) will respond with full enumeration of the account information
that has been stored regarding that user in the user and machine accounts database
for that domain. This information contains a complete network access profile for
the user but excludes any information that is particular to the user's desktop profile,
or for that matter it excludes all desktop profiles for groups that the user may
belong to. It does include password time limits, password uniqueness controls,
network access time limits, account validity information, machine names from which the
user may access the network, and much more. All this information was stored in the SAM
in all versions of MS Windows NT (3.10, 3.50, 3.51, 4.0).
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337457"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337466"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337472"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337479"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337486"></a>
The account information (user and machine) on domain controllers is stored in two files,
one containing the security information and the other the SAM. These are stored in files
by the same name in the <code class="filename">%SystemRoot%\System32\config</code> directory. 
This normally translates to the path <code class="filename">C:\WinNT\System32\config</code>. These
are the files that are involved in replication of the SAM database where BDCs are present
on the network.
</p><p>
There are two situations in which it is desirable to install BDCs:
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id337518"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id337524"></a>
	On the local network that the PDC is on, if there are many
	workstations and/or where the PDC is generally very busy. In this case the BDCs
	will pick up network logon requests and help to add robustness to network services.
	</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id337537"></a>
	At each remote site, to reduce wide-area network traffic and to add stability to
	remote network operations. The design of the network, and the strategic placement of
	BDCs, together with an implementation that localizes as much of network to client
	interchange as possible, will help to minimize wide-area network bandwidth needs
	(and thus costs).
	</p></li></ul></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337554"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337560"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337567"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337574"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337580"></a>
The interoperation of a PDC and its BDCs in a true Windows NT4 environment is worth
mentioning here. The PDC contains the master copy of the SAM. In the event that an
administrator makes a change to the user account database while physically present
on the local network that has the PDC, the change will likely be made directly to
the PDC instance of the master copy of the SAM. In the event that this update may
be performed in a branch office, the change will likely be stored in a delta file
on the local BDC. The BDC will then send a trigger to the PDC to commence the process
of SAM synchronization. The PDC will then request the delta from the BDC and apply
it to the master SAM. The PDC will then contact all the BDCs in the domain and
trigger them to obtain the update and then apply that to their own copy of the SAM.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337597"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337606"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337615"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337622"></a>
Samba-3 cannot participate in true SAM replication and is therefore not able to
employ precisely the same protocols used by MS Windows NT4. A Samba-3 BDC will
not create SAM update delta files. It will not interoperate with a PDC (NT4 or Samba)
to synchronize the SAM from delta files that are held by BDCs.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337634"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337641"></a>
Samba-3 cannot function as a BDC to an MS Windows NT4 PDC, and Samba-3 cannot
function correctly as a PDC to an MS Windows NT4 BDC. Both Samba-3 and MS Windows
NT4 can function as a BDC to its own type of PDC.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337652"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337659"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337665"></a>
The BDC is said to hold a <span class="emphasis"><em>read-only</em></span> of the SAM from which
it is able to process network logon requests and authenticate users. The BDC can
continue to provide this service, particularly while, for example, the wide-area
network link to the PDC is down. A BDC plays a very important role in both the
maintenance of domain security as well as in network integrity.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337682"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337689"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337695"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337702"></a>
In the event that the NT4 PDC should need to be taken out of service, or if it dies, one of the NT4 BDCs can
be promoted to a PDC. If this happens while the original NT4 PDC is online, it is automatically demoted to an
NT4 BDC. This is an important aspect of domain controller management. The tool that is used to effect a
promotion or a demotion is the Server Manager for Domains. It should be noted that Samba-3 BDCs cannot be
promoted in this manner because reconfiguration of Samba requires changes to the <code class="filename">smb.conf</code> file. It is easy
enough to manuall change the <code class="filename">smb.conf</code> file and then restart relevant Samba network services.
</p><div class="sect3" title="Example PDC Configuration"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="id337727"></a>Example PDC Configuration</h4></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337735"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337742"></a>
Beginning with Version 2.2, Samba officially supports domain logons for all current Windows clients, including
Windows NT4, 2003, and XP Professional. For Samba to be enabled as a PDC, some parameters in the
<em class="parameter"><code>[global]</code></em> section of the <code class="filename">smb.conf</code> have to be set.  Refer to <a class="link" href="samba-bdc.html#minimalPDC" title="Example�5.1.�Minimal smb.conf for a PDC in Use with a BDC LDAP Server on PDC">the Minimal smb.conf for a PDC in Use with a BDC  LDAP Server on PDC
section</a> for an example of the minimum required settings.
</p><div class="example"><a name="minimalPDC"></a><p class="title"><b>Example�5.1.�Minimal smb.conf for a PDC in Use with a BDC  LDAP Server on PDC</b></p><div class="example-contents"><table border="0" summary="Simple list" class="simplelist"><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id337792"></a><em class="parameter"><code>workgroup = MIDEARTH</code></em></td></tr><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id337803"></a><em class="parameter"><code>passdb backend = ldapsam://localhost:389</code></em></td></tr><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id337815"></a><em class="parameter"><code>domain master = yes</code></em></td></tr><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id337826"></a><em class="parameter"><code>domain logons = yes</code></em></td></tr><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id337838"></a><em class="parameter"><code>ldap suffix = dc=quenya,dc=org</code></em></td></tr><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id337849"></a><em class="parameter"><code>ldap user suffix = ou=Users</code></em></td></tr><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id337861"></a><em class="parameter"><code>ldap group suffix = ou=Groups</code></em></td></tr><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id337873"></a><em class="parameter"><code>ldap machine suffix = ou=Computers</code></em></td></tr><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id337884"></a><em class="parameter"><code>ldap idmap suffix = ou=Idmap</code></em></td></tr><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id337896"></a><em class="parameter"><code>ldap admin dn = cn=sambadmin,dc=quenya,dc=org</code></em></td></tr></table></div></div><br class="example-break"><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337911"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337918"></a>
Several other things like a <em class="parameter"><code>[homes]</code></em> and a <em class="parameter"><code>[netlogon]</code></em> share
also need to be set along with settings for the profile path, the user's home drive, and so on. This is not
covered in this chapter; for more information please refer to <a class="link" href="samba-pdc.html" title="Chapter�4.�Domain Control">Domain Control</a>.
Refer to <a class="link" href="samba-pdc.html" title="Chapter�4.�Domain Control">the Domain Control chapter</a> for specific recommendations for PDC
configuration. Alternately, fully documented working example network configurations using OpenLDAP and Samba
as available in the <a class="ulink" href="http://www.samba.org/samba/docs/Samba3-ByExample" target="_top">book</a> <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">Samba-3
by Example</span>&#8221;</span> that may be obtained from local and on-line book stores.
</p></div></div><div class="sect2" title="LDAP Configuration Notes"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id337967"></a>LDAP Configuration Notes</h3></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337974"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337984"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id337993"></a>
When configuring a master and a slave LDAP server, it is advisable to use the master LDAP server
for the PDC and slave LDAP servers for the BDCs. It is not essential to use slave LDAP servers; however,
many administrators will want to do so in order to provide redundant services. Of course, one or more BDCs
may use any slave LDAP server. Then again, it is entirely possible to use a single LDAP server for the
entire network.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338006"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338016"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338025"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338031"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338038"></a>
When configuring a master LDAP server that will have slave LDAP servers, do not forget to configure this in
the <code class="filename">/etc/openldap/slapd.conf</code> file. It must be noted that the DN of a server certificate
must use the CN attribute to name the server, and the CN must carry the servers' fully qualified domain name.
Additional alias names and wildcards may be present in the subjectAltName certificate extension. More details
on server certificate names are in RFC2830.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338058"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338065"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338071"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338078"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338088"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338094"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338101"></a>
It does not really fit within the scope of this document, but a working LDAP installation is basic to
LDAP-enabled Samba operation. When using an OpenLDAP server with Transport Layer Security (TLS), the machine
name in <code class="filename">/etc/ssl/certs/slapd.pem</code> must be the same as in
<code class="filename">/etc/openldap/sldap.conf</code>. The Red Hat Linux startup script creates the
<code class="filename">slapd.pem</code> file with hostname <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">localhost.localdomain.</span>&#8221;</span> It is impossible to
access this LDAP server from a slave LDAP server (i.e., a Samba BDC) unless the certificate is re-created with
a correct hostname.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338137"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338143"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338150"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338157"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338164"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338171"></a>
Do not install a Samba PDC so that is uses an LDAP slave server. Joining client machines to the domain
will fail in this configuration because the change to the machine account in the LDAP tree must take place on
the master LDAP server. This is not replicated rapidly enough to the slave server that the PDC queries. It
therefore gives an error message on the client machine about not being able to set up account credentials. The
machine account is created on the LDAP server, but the password fields will be empty.  Unfortunately, some
sites are unable to avoid such configurations, and these sites should review the <a class="link" href="smb.conf.5.html#LDAPREPLICATIONSLEEP" target="_top">ldap replication sleep</a> parameter, intended to slow down Samba sufficiently for the replication to catch up.
This is a kludge, and one that the administrator must manually duplicate in any scripts (such as the
<a class="link" href="smb.conf.5.html#ADDMACHINESCRIPT" target="_top">add machine script</a>) that they use.
</p><p>
Possible PDC/BDC plus LDAP configurations include:
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
	PDC+BDC -&gt; One Central LDAP Server.
	</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
	PDC -&gt; LDAP master server, BDC -&gt; LDAP slave server.
	</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
	PDC -&gt; LDAP master, with secondary slave LDAP server.
	</p><p>
	BDC -&gt; LDAP master, with secondary slave LDAP server.
	</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
	PDC -&gt; LDAP master, with secondary slave LDAP server.
	</p><p>
	BDC -&gt; LDAP slave server, with secondary master LDAP server.
	</p></li></ul></div><p>
In order to have a fallback configuration (secondary) LDAP server, you would specify
the secondary LDAP server in the <code class="filename">smb.conf</code> file as shown in <a class="link" href="samba-bdc.html#mulitldapcfg" title="Example�5.2.�Multiple LDAP Servers in smb.conf">the Multiple LDAP
Servers in <code class="filename">smb.conf</code> example</a>.
</p><div class="example"><a name="mulitldapcfg"></a><p class="title"><b>Example�5.2.�Multiple LDAP Servers in <code class="filename">smb.conf</code></b></p><div class="example-contents"><table border="0" summary="Simple list" class="simplelist"><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id338287"></a><em class="parameter"><code>passdb backend = ldapsam:"ldap://master.quenya.org ldap://slave.quenya.org"</code></em></td></tr></table></div></div><br class="example-break"></div><div class="sect2" title="Active Directory Domain Control"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id338300"></a>Active Directory Domain Control</h3></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338308"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338315"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338321"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338328"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338335"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338342"></a>
As of the release of MS Windows 2000 and Active Directory, this information is now stored
in a directory that can be replicated and for which partial or full administrative control
can be delegated. Samba-3 is not able to be a domain controller within an Active Directory
tree, and it cannot be an Active Directory server. This means that Samba-3 also cannot
act as a BDC to an Active Directory domain controller.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="What Qualifies a Domain Controller on the Network?"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id338354"></a>What Qualifies a Domain Controller on the Network?</h3></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338362"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338369"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338375"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338382"></a>
Every machine that is a domain controller for the domain MIDEARTH has to register the NetBIOS
group name MIDEARTH&lt;1C&gt; with the WINS server and/or by broadcast on the local network.
The PDC also registers the unique NetBIOS name MIDEARTH&lt;1B&gt; with the WINS server.
The name type &lt;1B&gt; name is normally reserved for the Domain Master Browser (DMB), a role
that has nothing to do with anything related to authentication, but the Microsoft domain
implementation requires the DMB to be on the same machine as the PDC.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338398"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338405"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338412"></a>
Where a WINS server is not used, broadcast name registrations alone must suffice. Refer to
<a class="link" href="NetworkBrowsing.html" title="Chapter�10.�Network Browsing">Network Browsing</a>,<a class="link" href="NetworkBrowsing.html#netdiscuss" title="Discussion">Discussion</a>
for more information regarding TCP/IP network protocols and how SMB/CIFS names are handled.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="How Does a Workstation find its Domain Controller?"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id338437"></a>How Does a Workstation find its Domain Controller?</h3></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338445"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338452"></a>
There are two different mechanisms to locate a domain controller: one method is used when
NetBIOS over TCP/IP is enabled and the other when it has been disabled in the TCP/IP
network configuration.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338463"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338470"></a>
Where NetBIOS over TCP/IP is disabled, all name resolution involves the use of DNS, broadcast
messaging over UDP, as well as Active Directory communication technologies. In this type of
environment all machines require appropriate DNS entries. More information may be found in
<a class="link" href="NetworkBrowsing.html#adsdnstech" title="DNS and Active Directory">DNS and Active Directory</a>.
</p><div class="sect3" title="NetBIOS Over TCP/IP Enabled"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="id338488"></a>NetBIOS Over TCP/IP Enabled</h4></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338496"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338503"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338509"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338516"></a>
An MS Windows NT4/200x/XP Professional workstation in the domain MIDEARTH that wants a
local user to be authenticated has to find the domain controller for MIDEARTH. It does this
by doing a NetBIOS name query for the group name MIDEARTH&lt;1C&gt;. It assumes that each
of the machines it gets back from the queries is a domain controller and can answer logon
requests. To not open security holes, both the workstation and the selected domain controller
authenticate each other. After that the workstation sends the user's credentials (name and
password) to the local domain controller for validation.
</p></div><div class="sect3" title="NetBIOS Over TCP/IP Disabled"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a name="id338539"></a>NetBIOS Over TCP/IP Disabled</h4></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338547"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338554"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338561"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338567"></a>
An MS Windows NT4/200x/XP Professional workstation in the realm <code class="constant">quenya.org</code>
that has a need to affect user logon authentication will locate the domain controller by 
re-querying DNS servers for the <code class="constant">_ldap._tcp.pdc._msdcs.quenya.org</code> record.
More information regarding this subject may be found in <a class="link" href="NetworkBrowsing.html#adsdnstech" title="DNS and Active Directory">DNS and Active Directory</a>.
</p></div></div></div><div class="sect1" title="Backup Domain Controller Configuration"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="id338595"></a>Backup Domain Controller Configuration</h2></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id338603"></a>
The creation of a BDC requires some steps to prepare the Samba server before
<span class="application">smbd</span> is executed for the first time. These steps are as follows:
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338623"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338629"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338636"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338642"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338649"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338656"></a>
	The domain SID has to be the same on the PDC and the BDC. In Samba versions pre-2.2.5, the domain SID was
	stored in the file <code class="filename">private/MACHINE.SID</code>.  For all versions of Samba released since 2.2.5
	the domain SID is stored in the file <code class="filename">private/secrets.tdb</code>. This file is unique to each
	server and cannot be copied from a PDC to a BDC; the BDC will generate a new SID at startup. It will overwrite
	the PDC domain SID with the newly created BDC SID.  There is a procedure that will allow the BDC to acquire the
	domain SID. This is described here.
	</p><p>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338682"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338689"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338695"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338702"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338709"></a>
	To retrieve the domain SID from the PDC or an existing BDC and store it in the
	<code class="filename">secrets.tdb</code>, execute:
	</p><pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">root# </code><strong class="userinput"><code>net rpc getsid</code></strong>
</pre></li><li class="listitem"><p>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338748"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338755"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338761"></a>
	Specification of the <a class="link" href="smb.conf.5.html#LDAPADMINDN" target="_top">ldap admin dn</a> is obligatory.
	This also requires the LDAP administration password to be set in the <code class="filename">secrets.tdb</code>
	using the <code class="literal">smbpasswd -w <em class="replaceable"><code>mysecret</code></em></code>.
	</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
	The <a class="link" href="smb.conf.5.html#LDAPSUFFIX" target="_top">ldap suffix</a> parameter and the <a class="link" href="smb.conf.5.html#LDAPIDMAPSUFFIX" target="_top">ldap idmap suffix</a>
	parameter must be specified in the <code class="filename">smb.conf</code> file.
	</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338833"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338842"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338849"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338856"></a>
	The UNIX user database has to be synchronized from the PDC to the
	BDC. This means that both the <code class="filename">/etc/passwd</code> and
	<code class="filename">/etc/group</code> have to be replicated from the PDC
	to the BDC. This can be done manually whenever changes are made. 
	Alternately, the PDC is set up as an NIS master server and the BDC as an NIS slave
	server. To set up the BDC as a mere NIS client would not be enough,
	as the BDC would not be able to access its user database in case of
	a PDC failure. NIS is by no means the only method to synchronize
	passwords. An LDAP solution would also work.
	</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338884"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338891"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338897"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338904"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338910"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338917"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338924"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338931"></a>
	The Samba password database must be replicated from the PDC to the BDC.
	Although it is possible to synchronize the <code class="filename">smbpasswd</code>
	file with <code class="literal">rsync</code> and <code class="literal">ssh</code>, this method
	is broken and flawed, and is therefore not recommended. A better solution
	is to set up slave LDAP servers for each BDC and a master LDAP server for the PDC.
	The use of rsync is inherently flawed by the fact that the data will be replicated
	at timed intervals. There is no guarantee that the BDC will be operating at all
	times with correct and current machine and user account information. This means that
	this method runs the risk of users being inconvenienced by discontinuity of access
	to network services due to inconsistent security data. It must be born in mind that
	Windows workstations update (change) the machine trust account password at regular
	intervals  administrators are not normally aware that this is happening
	or when it takes place.
	</p><p>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338968"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338975"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338982"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id338989"></a>
	The use of LDAP for both the POSIX (UNIX user and group) accounts and for the
	SambaSAMAccount data automatically ensures that all account change information
	will be written to the shared directory. This eliminates the need for any special
	action to synchronize account information because LDAP will meet that requirement.
	</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id339003"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id339010"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id339016"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id339023"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id339029"></a>
	<a class="indexterm" name="id339036"></a>
	The netlogon share has to be replicated from the PDC to the BDC. This can be done manually whenever login
	scripts are changed, or it can be done automatically using a <code class="literal">cron</code> job that will replicate
	the directory structure in this share using a tool like <code class="literal">rsync</code>. The use of
	<code class="literal">rsync</code> for replication of the netlogon data is not critical to network security and is one
	that can be manually managed given that the administrator will make all changes to the netlogon share as part
	of a conscious move.
	</p></li></ul></div><div class="sect2" title="Example Configuration"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id339066"></a>Example Configuration</h3></div></div></div><p>
Finally, the BDC has to be capable of being found by the workstations. This can be done by configuring the
Samba <code class="filename">smb.conf</code> file <em class="parameter"><code>[global]</code></em> section as shown in <a class="link" href="samba-bdc.html#minim-bdc" title="Example�5.3.�Minimal Setup for Being a BDC">Minimal
Setup for Being a BDC</a>.
</p><div class="example"><a name="minim-bdc"></a><p class="title"><b>Example�5.3.�Minimal Setup for Being a BDC</b></p><div class="example-contents"><table border="0" summary="Simple list" class="simplelist"><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id339110"></a><em class="parameter"><code>workgroup = MIDEARTH</code></em></td></tr><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id339121"></a><em class="parameter"><code>passdb backend = ldapsam:ldap://slave-ldap.quenya.org</code></em></td></tr><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id339133"></a><em class="parameter"><code>domain master = no</code></em></td></tr><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id339144"></a><em class="parameter"><code>domain logons = yes</code></em></td></tr><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id339156"></a><em class="parameter"><code>ldap suffix = dc=abmas,dc=biz</code></em></td></tr><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id339167"></a><em class="parameter"><code>ldap user suffix = ou=Users</code></em></td></tr><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id339179"></a><em class="parameter"><code>ldap group suffix = ou=Groups</code></em></td></tr><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id339191"></a><em class="parameter"><code>ldap machine suffix = ou=Computers</code></em></td></tr><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id339202"></a><em class="parameter"><code>ldap idmap suffix = ou=Idmap</code></em></td></tr><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id339214"></a><em class="parameter"><code>ldap admin dn = cn=sambadmin,dc=quenya,dc=org</code></em></td></tr><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id339226"></a><em class="parameter"><code>idmap backend = ldap:ldap://master-ldap.quenya.org</code></em></td></tr><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id339237"></a><em class="parameter"><code>idmap uid = 10000-20000</code></em></td></tr><tr><td><a class="indexterm" name="id339249"></a><em class="parameter"><code>idmap gid = 10000-20000</code></em></td></tr></table></div></div><br class="example-break"><p>
Fully documented working example network configurations using OpenLDAP and Samba
as available in the <a class="ulink" href="http://www.samba.org/samba/docs/Samba3-ByExample" target="_top">book</a> <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">Samba-3
by Example</span>&#8221;</span> that may be obtained from local and on-line book stores.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339278"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339284"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339291"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339298"></a>
This configuration causes the BDC to register only the name MIDEARTH&lt;1C&gt; with the WINS server. This is
not a problem, as the name MIDEARTH&lt;1C&gt; is a NetBIOS group name that is meant to be registered by more
than one machine. The parameter <a class="link" href="smb.conf.5.html#DOMAINMASTER" target="_top">domain master = no</a> forces the BDC not to
register MIDEARTH&lt;1B&gt;, which is a unique NetBIOS name that is reserved for the PDC.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339324"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339330"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339337"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339344"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339351"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339358"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339365"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339372"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339378"></a>
The <em class="parameter"><code>idmap backend</code></em> will redirect the <code class="literal">winbindd</code> utility to use the LDAP
database to store all mappings for Windows SIDs to  UIDs and GIDs for UNIX accounts in a repository that is
shared. The BDC will however depend on local resolution of UIDs and GIDs via NSS and the
<code class="literal">nss_ldap</code> utility.
</p><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339409"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339418"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339425"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339432"></a>
Samba-3 has introduced a new ID mapping facility. One of the features of this facility is that it
allows greater flexibility in how user and group IDs are handled in respect to NT domain user and group
SIDs. One of the new facilities provides for explicitly ensuring that UNIX/Linux UID and GID values
will be consistent on the PDC, all BDCs, and all domain member servers. The parameter that controls this
is called <em class="parameter"><code>idmap backend</code></em>. Please refer to the man page for <code class="filename">smb.conf</code> for more information
regarding its behavior.
</p></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339461"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339468"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339475"></a>
The use of the <a class="link" href="smb.conf.5.html#IDMAPBACKEND" target="_top">idmap backend = ldap:ldap://master.quenya.org</a>
option on a BDC only makes sense where ldapsam is used on a PDC. The purpose of an LDAP-based idmap backend is
also to allow a domain member (without its own passdb backend) to use winbindd to resolve Windows network users
and groups to common UID/GIDs. In other words, this option is generally intended for use on BDCs and on domain
member servers.
</p></div></div><div class="sect1" title="Common Errors"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="id339500"></a>Common Errors</h2></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339508"></a>
Domain control was a new area for Samba, but there are now many examples that we may refer to.
Updated information will be published as they become available and may be found in later Samba releases or
from the Samba Web <a class="ulink" href="http://samba.org" target="_top">site</a>; refer in particular to the
<code class="filename">WHATSNEW.txt</code> in the Samba release tarball. The book, <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">Samba-3 by Example</span>&#8221;</span>
documents well tested and proven configuration examples. You can obtain a copy of this
<a class="ulink" href="http://www.samba.org/samba/docs/Samba3-ByExample.pdf" target="_top">book</a> for the Samba web site.
</p><div class="sect2" title="Machine Accounts Keep Expiring"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id339540"></a>Machine Accounts Keep Expiring</h3></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339548"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339555"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339562"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339568"></a>
This problem will occur when the passdb (SAM) files are copied  from a central
server but the local BDC is acting as a PDC. This results in the application of
Local Machine Trust Account password updates to the local SAM. Such updates 
are not copied back to the central server. The newer machine account password is then
overwritten when the SAM is recopied from the PDC. The result is that the domain member machine
on startup will find that its passwords do not match the one now in the database, and
since the startup security check will now fail, this machine will not allow logon attempts
to proceed and the account expiry error will be reported.
</p><p>
The solution is to use a more robust passdb backend, such as the ldapsam backend, setting up
a slave LDAP server for each BDC and a master LDAP server for the PDC.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="Can Samba Be a Backup Domain Controller to an NT4 PDC?"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id339588"></a>Can Samba Be a Backup Domain Controller to an NT4 PDC?</h3></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339596"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339605"></a>
No. The native NT4 SAM replication protocols have not yet been fully implemented.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339614"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339621"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339627"></a>
Can I get the benefits of a BDC with Samba?  Yes, but only to a Samba PDC.The
main reason for implementing a BDC is availability. If the PDC is a Samba
machine, a second Samba machine can be set up to service logon requests whenever
the PDC is down.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="How Do I Replicate the smbpasswd File?"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id339639"></a>How Do I Replicate the smbpasswd File?</h3></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339646"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339655"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339662"></a>
Replication of the smbpasswd file is sensitive. It has to be done whenever changes
to the SAM are made. Every user's password change is done in the smbpasswd file and
has to be replicated to the BDC. So replicating the smbpasswd file very often is necessary.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339674"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339681"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339688"></a>
As the smbpasswd file contains plaintext password equivalents, it must not be
sent unencrypted over the wire. The best way to set up smbpasswd replication from
the PDC to the BDC is to use the utility rsync. rsync can use ssh as a transport.
<code class="literal">ssh</code> itself can be set up to accept <span class="emphasis"><em>only</em></span>
<code class="literal">rsync</code> transfer without requiring the user to type a password.
</p><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339715"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339722"></a>
As said a few times before, use of this method is broken and flawed. Machine trust 
accounts will go out of sync, resulting in a broken domain. This method is
<span class="emphasis"><em>not</em></span> recommended. Try using LDAP instead.
</p></div><div class="sect2" title="Can I Do This All with LDAP?"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id339736"></a>Can I Do This All with LDAP?</h3></div></div></div><p>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339744"></a>
<a class="indexterm" name="id339751"></a>
The simple answer is yes. Samba's pdb_ldap code supports binding to a replica
LDAP server and will also follow referrals and rebind to the master if it ever
needs to make a modification to the database. (Normally BDCs are read-only, so
this will not occur often).
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