File: groupadd.8.xml

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!--
   Copyright (c) 1991       , Julianne Frances Haugh
   Copyright (c) 2007 - 2011, Nicolas François
   All rights reserved.
  
   Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
   modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
   are met:
   1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
      notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
   2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
      notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
      documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
   3. The name of the copyright holders or contributors may not be used to
      endorse or promote products derived from this software without
      specific prior written permission.
  
   THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
   ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
   LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
   PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT
   HOLDERS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
   SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT
   LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
   DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
   THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
   (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
   OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-->
<!DOCTYPE refentry PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook V4.5//EN"
  "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
<!ENTITY GID_MAX               SYSTEM "login.defs.d/GID_MAX.xml">
<!ENTITY MAX_MEMBERS_PER_GROUP SYSTEM "login.defs.d/MAX_MEMBERS_PER_GROUP.xml">
<!ENTITY SYS_GID_MAX           SYSTEM "login.defs.d/SYS_GID_MAX.xml">
<!-- SHADOW-CONFIG-HERE -->
]>
<refentry id='groupadd.8'>
  <!-- $Id$ -->
  <refentryinfo>
    <author>
      <firstname>Julianne Frances</firstname>
      <surname>Haugh</surname>
      <contrib>Creation, 1991</contrib>
    </author>
    <author>
      <firstname>Thomas</firstname>
      <surname>Kłoczko</surname>
      <email>kloczek@pld.org.pl</email>
      <contrib>shadow-utils maintainer, 2000 - 2007</contrib>
    </author>
    <author>
      <firstname>Nicolas</firstname>
      <surname>François</surname>
      <email>nicolas.francois@centraliens.net</email>
      <contrib>shadow-utils maintainer, 2007 - now</contrib>
    </author>
  </refentryinfo>
  <refmeta>
    <refentrytitle>groupadd</refentrytitle>
    <manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
    <refmiscinfo class="sectdesc">System Management Commands</refmiscinfo>
    <refmiscinfo class="source">shadow-utils</refmiscinfo>
    <refmiscinfo class="version">&SHADOW_UTILS_VERSION;</refmiscinfo>
  </refmeta>
  <refnamediv id='name'>
    <refname>groupadd</refname>
    <refpurpose>create a new group</refpurpose>
  </refnamediv>
  <!-- body begins here -->
  <refsynopsisdiv id='synopsis'>
    <cmdsynopsis>
      <command>groupadd</command>
      <arg choice='opt'>
	<replaceable>options</replaceable>
      </arg>
      <arg choice='plain'>
	<replaceable>group</replaceable>
      </arg>
    </cmdsynopsis>
  </refsynopsisdiv>

  <refsect1 id='description'>
    <title>DESCRIPTION</title>
    <para>The <command>groupadd</command> command creates a new group
      account using the values specified on the command line plus the default
      values from the system. The new group will be entered into the system
      files as needed.
    </para>
  </refsect1>

  <refsect1 id='options'>
    <title>OPTIONS</title>
    <para>
      The options which apply to the <command>groupadd</command> command
      are:
    </para>
    <variablelist remap='IP'>
      <varlistentry>
	<term>
	  <option>-f</option>, <option>--force</option>
	</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    This option causes the command to simply exit with success
	    status if the specified group already exists. When used with
	    <option>-g</option>, and the specified GID already exists,
	    another (unique) GID is chosen (i.e. <option>-g</option> is
	    turned off).
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
      <varlistentry>
	<term>
	  <option>-g</option>, <option>--gid</option>&nbsp;<replaceable>GID</replaceable>
	</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>The numerical value of the group's ID. This value must be
	    unique, unless the <option>-o</option> option is used. The value
	    must be non-negative. The default is to use the smallest ID
	    value greater than or equal to <option>GID_MIN</option> and
	    greater than every other group.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	    See also the <option>-r</option> option and the
	    <option>GID_MAX</option> description.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
      <varlistentry>
	<term><option>-h</option>, <option>--help</option></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>Display help message and exit.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
      <varlistentry>
	<term>
	  <option>-K</option>, <option>--key</option>&nbsp;<replaceable>KEY</replaceable>=<replaceable>VALUE</replaceable>
	</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Overrides <filename>/etc/login.defs</filename> defaults 
	    (GID_MIN, GID_MAX and others). Multiple
	    <option>-K</option> options can be specified.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	     Example: <option>-K</option>&nbsp;<replaceable>GID_MIN</replaceable>=<replaceable>100</replaceable>&nbsp;
	    <option>-K</option>&nbsp;<replaceable>GID_MAX</replaceable>=<replaceable>499</replaceable>
	  </para>
	  <para>
	    Note: <option>-K</option>&nbsp;<replaceable>GID_MIN</replaceable>=<replaceable>10</replaceable>,<replaceable>GID_MAX</replaceable>=<replaceable>499</replaceable>
	    doesn't work yet.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
      <varlistentry>
	<term>
	  <option>-o</option>, <option>--non-unique</option>
	</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    This option permits to add a group with a non-unique GID.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
      <varlistentry>
	<term>
	  <option>-p</option>, <option>--password</option>&nbsp;<replaceable>PASSWORD</replaceable>
	</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    The encrypted password, as returned by <citerefentry>
	    <refentrytitle>crypt</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum>
	    </citerefentry>. The default is to disable the password.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	    <emphasis role="bold">Note:</emphasis> This option is not
	    recommended because the password (or encrypted password) will
	    be visible by users listing the processes.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	    You should make sure the password respects the system's
	    password policy.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
      <varlistentry>
	<term>
	  <option>-r</option>, <option>--system</option>
	</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Create a system group.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	    The numeric identifiers of new system groups are chosen in
	    the <option>SYS_GID_MIN</option>-<option>SYS_GID_MAX</option>
	    range, defined in <filename>login.defs</filename>, instead of
	    <option>GID_MIN</option>-<option>GID_MAX</option>.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
      <varlistentry>
	<term>
	  <option>-R</option>, <option>--root</option>&nbsp;<replaceable>CHROOT_DIR</replaceable>
	</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Apply changes in the <replaceable>CHROOT_DIR</replaceable>
	    directory and use the configuration files from the
	    <replaceable>CHROOT_DIR</replaceable> directory.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
    </variablelist>
  </refsect1>

  <refsect1 id='configuration'>
    <title>CONFIGURATION</title>
    <para>
      The following configuration variables in
      <filename>/etc/login.defs</filename> change the behavior of this
      tool:
    </para>
    <variablelist>
      &GID_MAX; <!-- documents also GID_MIN -->
      &MAX_MEMBERS_PER_GROUP;
      &SYS_GID_MAX; <!-- documents also SYS_GID_MIN -->
    </variablelist>
  </refsect1>

  <refsect1 id='files'>
    <title>FILES</title>
    <variablelist>
      <varlistentry>
	<term><filename>/etc/group</filename></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>Group account information.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
      <varlistentry condition="gshadow">
	<term><filename>/etc/gshadow</filename></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>Secure group account information.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
      <varlistentry>
	<term><filename>/etc/login.defs</filename></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>Shadow password suite configuration.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
    </variablelist>
  </refsect1>

   <refsect1 id='caveats'>
     <title>CAVEATS</title>
     <para>
       It is usually recommended to only use groupnames that begin with a lower case letter or an underscore,
       followed by lower case letters, digits, underscores, or dashes.
       They can end with a dollar sign.
       In regular expression terms: [a-z_][a-z0-9_-]*[$]?
     </para>
     <para>
       On Debian, the only constraints are that groupnames must neither start
       with a dash ('-') nor plus ('+') nor tilde ('~') nor contain a
       colon (':'), a comma (','), or a whitespace (space:' ',
       end of line: '\n', tabulation: '\t', etc.).
     </para>
     <para>
       Groupnames may only be up to &GROUP_NAME_MAX_LENGTH; characters long.
     </para>
     <para>
       You may not add a NIS or LDAP group. This must be performed on the
       corresponding server.
     </para>
     <para>
       If the groupname already exists in an external group database such
       as NIS or LDAP, <command>groupadd</command> will deny the group
       creation request.
     </para>
   </refsect1>

  <refsect1 id='exit_values'>
    <title>EXIT VALUES</title>
    <para>
      The <command>groupadd</command> command exits with the following values:
      <variablelist>
	<varlistentry>
	  <term><replaceable>0</replaceable></term>
	  <listitem>
	    <para>success</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
	<varlistentry>
	  <term><replaceable>2</replaceable></term>
	  <listitem>
	    <para>invalid command syntax</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
	<varlistentry>
	  <term><replaceable>3</replaceable></term>
	  <listitem>
	    <para>invalid argument to option</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
	<varlistentry>
	  <term><replaceable>4</replaceable></term>
	  <listitem>
	    <para>GID not unique (when <option>-o</option> not used)</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
	<varlistentry>
	  <term><replaceable>9</replaceable></term>
	  <listitem>
	    <para>group name not unique</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
	<varlistentry>
	  <term><replaceable>10</replaceable></term>
	  <listitem>
	    <para>can't update group file</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
      </variablelist>
    </para>
  </refsect1>

  <refsect1 id='see_also'>
    <title>SEE ALSO</title>
    <para><citerefentry>
	<refentrytitle>chfn</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum>
      </citerefentry>,
      <citerefentry>
	<refentrytitle>chsh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum>
      </citerefentry>,
      <citerefentry>
	<refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum>
      </citerefentry>,
      <citerefentry>
	<refentrytitle>gpasswd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
      </citerefentry>,
      <citerefentry>
	<refentrytitle>groupdel</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
      </citerefentry>,
      <citerefentry>
	<refentrytitle>groupmod</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
      </citerefentry>,
      <citerefentry>
	<refentrytitle>login.defs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum>
      </citerefentry>,
      <citerefentry>
	<refentrytitle>useradd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
      </citerefentry>,
      <citerefentry>
	<refentrytitle>userdel</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
      </citerefentry>,
      <citerefentry>
	<refentrytitle>usermod</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
      </citerefentry>.
    </para>
  </refsect1>
</refentry>