File: README.database

package info (click to toggle)
snort 2.3.2-3
  • links: PTS
  • area: main
  • in suites: sarge
  • size: 22,244 kB
  • ctags: 11,282
  • sloc: ansic: 70,376; sh: 4,364; makefile: 744; perl: 478; sql: 212
file content (355 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 14,849 bytes parent folder | download | duplicates (2)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
I. Summary

The database output plug-in enables snort to log to 

  - Postgresql, 
  - MySQL,
  - any unixODBC database, 
  - MS SQL Server and 
  - Oracle. 

This README contains some quick information about how to set up and 
configure database logging with in snort.  More complete and
update to date documentation about this plugin can be found at:

 Documentation:

 http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/~rdanyliw/snort/snortdb/snortdb.html

 FAQ:

 http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/~rdanyliw/snort/snortdb/snortdb_faq.html

Questions or comments about the database plugin can be directed to 
Roman Danyliw <roman@danyliw.com> or to the snort-users mailing
list.

II. Database Setup

To get this plug-in working you must have a database set up and 
configured properly. Take the the following steps to get things
working.

   1) Install MySQL, Postgresql, Oracle, MS SQL Server or 
      (unixODBC + some other RDBMS)
        MySQL      => http://www.mysql.org
        Postgresql => http://www.postgesql.org
        unixODBC   => http://www.unixodbc.org
        Oracle     => http://www.oracle.com
        SQL Server => http://www.microsoft.com

   2) Follow directions from your database vendor to be sure your 
      RDBMS is properly configured and secured.

   3) Follow directions from your vendor to create a database for 
      snort.

         MySQL example 
         % echo "CREATE DATABASE snort;" | mysql -u root -p

   4) Create a user that has privileges to INSERT and SELECT
      on that database. 

      example 
         - First create a user - for this example we will use "snortusr"
         - now grant the right privileges for that user 
         > grant INSERT,SELECT on snort.* to snortusr@localhost;
         - In addition, grant that user the UPDATE privilege on the
           'sensor' table
         > grant INSERT,SELECT,UPDATE on snort.sensor to snortusr@localhost;

   5) Build the structure of the database according to files supplied
      with snort in the "contrib" directory as the user created in 
      step 4.

      Do this while in the snort source directory.

      For MySQL
      % mysql -D snort -u root -p < ./contrib/create_mysql

      For Postgresql
      % psql snort < ./contrib/create_postgresql

      For Oracle
      The file "./contrib/create_oracle.sql" contains the database 
      structure.

      For MS SQL Server
      The file "./contrib/create_mssql" contains the database
      structure.

      If you are using unixODBC, be sure to properly configure and
      test that you can connect to your data source (DSN) with isql
      before trying to run snort.

      For RDBMS other than MySQL and Postgresql that are accessed
      through ODBC you will need to create the database
      structure yourself because data types vary for different
      databases. You will need to have the same column names and
      functionality for each column as in the mysql and
      postgresql examples. The mysql file is the best example to
      follow since it is optimized (given that mysql supports tiny
      ints and unsigned ints). I intend to document this process 
      better in the future to make this process easier.

      As you create database structure files for new RDBMS mail 
      them in so they can be included as part of the distribution.

III. Plugin Configuration

You must add some information to the snort configuration file 
to enable database logging. The configuration file distributed
with snort has some sample configuration lines.

The configuration line will be of the following format:

   output database: [log | alert], [type of database], [parameter list]

Arguments:

   [log | alert] - specify log or alert to connect the database
       plugin to the log or alert facility. In most cases you will
       likely want to use the log facility.

   [type of database] - You must supply the type of database. The
       possible values are mysql, postgresql, odbc, mssql, and oracle.

   [parameter list] - The parameter list consists of key value
       pairs. The proper format is a list of key=value pairs each
       separated a space.

       The only parameter that is absolutely necessary is "dbname".
       All other parameters are optional but may be necessary
       depending on how you have configured your RDBMS.

       dbname - the name of the database you are connecting to 

       host - the host the RDBMS is on

       port - the port number the RDBMS is listening on 

       user - connect to the database as this user

       password - the password for given user 

       sensor_name - specify your own name for this snort
             sensor. If you do not specify a name one will be
             generated automatically.

       encoding - Because the packet payload and option data is
             binary, there is no one simple and portable way to
             store it in a database. BLOBS are not used because they
             are not portable across databases. So I leave the
             encoding option to you. You can choose from the
             following options. Each has its own advantages and
             disadvantages:

           hex: (default) Represent binary data as a hex string.

                storage requirements - 2x the size of the binary

                searchability....... - very good

                human readability... - not readable unless you 
                                         are a true geek
                                       requires post processing

           base64: Represent binary data as a base64 string.

                storage requirements - ~1.3x the size of the binary

                searchability....... - impossible without post 
                                         processing

                human readability... - not readable
                                       requires post processing

           ascii: Represent binary data as an ascii string. This is
                the only option where you will actually loose data.
                Non ascii data is represented as a ".". If you choose
                this option then data for ip and tcp options will
                still be represented as "hex" because it does not
                make any sense for that data to be ascii. 

                storage requirements - Slightly larger than the
                                       binary because some characters
                                       are escaped (&,<,>)

                searchability....... - very good for searching for 
                                         a text string
                                       impossible if you want to 
                                         search for binary

                human readability... - very good

       detail - How much detailed data do you want to store? The options
                are:

                full: (default) log all details of a packet that 
                      caused an alert (including ip/tcp options and 
                      the payload)

                fast: log only a minimum amount of data. You severely 
                      limit the potential of some analysis
                      applications if you choose this option, but
                      this is still the best choice for some
                      applications. The following fields are logged
                      - (timestamp, signature, source ip,
                      destination ip, source port, destination
                      port, tcp flags, and protocol)

       ignore_bpf - Do we want to create a new sensor definition every time
                the BPF filter is changed? The options are:

                [no|0]: (default) Create a new sensor definition if BPF
                        filter has been modified

                [yes|1]: Ignore the BPF part when looking for the server
                         definition

   The configuration I am currently using is MySQL with the database
   name of "snort". The user "snortusr@localhost" has INSERT and SELECT
   privileges on the "snort" database and requires a password of
   "xyz". The following line enables snort to log to this database.

   output database: alert, mysql, dbname=snort user=snortusr host=localhost \
                    password=xyz

IV. Changelog

2002-10-16: Escape the signature name before trying to write it to the
                 signature.sig_name field
2002-10-14: Transaction abstraction functions (Begin/Commit/Rollback)
            Fixed transaction SQL for MS-SQL
            Fixed incorrect return value for MS-SQL Insert()
2002-10-12: Fixed (PostgreSQL) sensor initialization to the sensor table 
                 by setting a default last_cid value
            Fixed schema detection bug on MS-SQL enabled builds
2002-09-17: Make sure that a packet payload larger than those supported
                 in the SQL INSERT are properly terminated
2002-09-12: Made the updating of the sensor.last_cid more efficient by
                 only storing the new cid value at shutdown
2002-09-05: Added ignore_bpf option <michael.boman@securecirt.com>
2002-09-03: New schema v106
            The database now remembers the last used cid for a given sensor
                 (via the sensor.last_cid field).  Cids will no longer ever
                 be re-used (even if an alert are deleted).
2002-08-13: Fixed logic to detect the DB schema version correctly when support 
            for MS-SQL and another database are present
2002-08-12: Fixed length bug in code that generates the SQL INSERT statement 
                 into signature table
2002-06-05: Fixed memory leak occurring when a signature is seen for the
            first time (Dirk Geschke)
2002-04-13: Fixed memory leak with query results structure under PostgreSQL
2002-04-15: Detect and use correct OCI library (v8 or 9) (Chad Kreimendahl) 
            Improved debugging messages on Oracle connection failure
                (Imran Smith)
2002-02-28: New schema v105
            Added support for native Oracle date format
2002-01-16: Fixed double-free of signature if it could not be inserted into
                the database
2002-01-13: Properly escaped database fields with a quote character
2001-10-23: Truncate reference names larger than the underlying database 
                schema will support
2001-10-04: Catch condition where the iphdr is NULL
2001-09-26: New schema v104
2001-09-06: Made Oracle error reporting more verbose
2001-08-29: Properly chose unique signatures from the database using
                 the signature name, ID, and revision number
2001-08-28: Cleaned up semi-colon use in SQL for Oracle
2001-08-11: Made ODBC error reporting more verbose
            Incorporated changes to create_oracle.sql from Andrew Stubbs
            Chris Reid contributed MSSQL support! Sweet!
            Fixed a couple FatalError() calls that should have been
                  ErrorMessage() calls.
2001-06-15: New schema v103
            Removed support for schema v0, v100-v102
            Removed duplicate logging of IP addresses as 4-byte octets
            Removed classification level priorities
            Removed classification description from schema
            Removed hard-coded classifications from the create_* scripts.
               Classification information is now logged like a reference;
               on the first instance of a rule, log its classification
            Added support for the 'priority', 'rev', 'sid' rule options
2001-02-16: Added "INSERT DELAYED" for MySQL
2001-01-18: Incorporated fragment logging patch.
2000-12-31: Incorporated Oracle Patch.
2000-10-05: Created README.database and removed documentation from
               spo_database.c
2000-10-03: Added sensor_name configuration option
2000-09-29: Added configuration option enabling user to connect
               the plugin to the alert or log facility
            Changed name from spo_log_database to spo_database
            Removed all old references to the log facility
            Fixed a logic error that prevented messages from 
               the portscan preprocessor to be logged.
2000-08-24: Fixed the full logging of tcp fields
            Added encoding and detail to sensor table
            Added escaping for the ascii character '
            Added hex binary logging support
            Added detail and encoding to sensor table
            Slightly changed data table to make more sense
            Added encoding option so you can select hex, base64,
               or ascii for logging binary data
            Added the "detail" option so you can choose between
               full and fast logging. 
2000-08-23: A lot of code cleanup. 
            Added linked list to store queries before they are
               executed.
            Added all tcp, udp, and icmp fields
            Added support for tcp and ip options
            Added support for logging the packet payload
2000-08-14: Added usage, very verbose error messages and other
               small fixes. No real functional changes. This update
               is focused on making the plugin easier to install 
               and configure.
2000-06-06: Multiple instantiations is now working
2000-06-06: Added restart and cleanexit functions
2000-06-02: Bugfixes, better error reporting
2000-05-09: Bugfixes, documentation fixes, and added some 
            better error reporting
2000-04-13: Bugfixes
2000-04-03: Updated database structure
2000-03-28: Added unixODBC support
            Added MySQL support
            Changed database structure
2000-03-08: Added new table "sensor" and a new field to event
            table to represent the sensor
2000-03-08: Added locking on inserts to eliminate concurrency
               problem 
2000-03-08: Changed "type" and "code" in icmphdr to int2 instead
               of char
2000-03-01: Added extra argument to RegisterOutputPlugin
2000-02-28: First release

V. Changelog of Database schema

2002-09-03 -- v106
  + ALL: added sensor.last_cid to store the last used cid for a 
         given sid

2002-02-28 -- v105
  + ORACLE: event.timestamp redefined as a DATE

2001-09-26 -- v104
  + ALL: enlarged reference.reg_tag field ( TEXT or VARCHAR(100) )

2001-06-15 -- v103
  + ALL: removed 4-octet representation from iphdr
  + ALL: removed all classification/priority definitions from the 
         DDL scripts
  + ALL: added support for signature priorities, ID, and revision ID

2001-05-12 -- v102
  + ALL: added support for signature classification

2001-05-07 -- v101
  + POSTGRESQL: fixed bug from v100 to properly define event.signature

2001-03-16 -- v100
  + ALL: normalization of the signature representation
  + ALL: created schema table to self-document the schema version
  + ALL: added support for signature references

2000-02-08 -- v0
  + initial release