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srecord 1.64-3
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Read Me(SRecord)                                              Read Me(SRecord)



NAME
       SRecord - manipulate EPROM load files

DESCRIPTION
       The SRecord package is a collection of powerful tools for manipulating
       EPROM load files.

       I wrote SRecord because when I was looking for programs to manipulate
       EPROM load files, I could not find very many.  The ones that I could
       find only did a few of the things I needed.  SRecord is written in C++
       and polymorphism is used to provide the file format flexibility and
       arbitrary filter chaining.  Adding more file formats and filters is
       relatively simple.

   The File Formats
       The SRecord package understands a number of file formats:

       Ascii-Hex
               The ascii-hex format is understood for both reading and
               writing.  (Also known as the ascii-space-hex format.)

       ASM     It is possible, for output only, to produce a serices of DB
               statements containing the data.  This can be useful for
               embedding data into assembler programs.  This format cannot be
               read.

       Atmel Generic
               This format is produced by the Atmel AVR assembler.  It is
               understood for both reading and writing.

       BASIC   It is possible, for output only, to produce a serices of DATA
               statements containing the data.  This can be useful for
               embedding data into BASIC programs.  This format cannot be
               read.

       Binary  Binary files can both be read and written.

       B-Record
               Files in Freescale Dragonball bootstrap b-record format can be
               read and written.

       C       It is also possible to write a C array declaration which
               contains the data.  This can be useful when you want to embed
               download data into C programs.  This format cannot be read.

       COE     The Xilinx Coefficient File Format (.coe) is understood for
               output only.

       Cosmac  The RCA Cosmac Elf format is understood for both reading and
               writing.

       DEC Binary
               The DEC Binary (XXDP) format is understood for both reading and
               writing.

       Elektor Monitor (EMON52)
               The EMON52 format is understood for both reading and writing.

       Fairchild Fairbug
               The Fairchild Fairbug format is understood for both reading and
               writing.

       Formatted Binary
               The Formatted Binary format is understood for both reading and
               writing.

       Four Packed Code (FPC)
               The FPC format is understood for both reading and writing.

       Hexdump It is possible to get a simple hexdump as output.

       IDT/sim The IDT/sim binary file format is understood for both reading
               and writing.

       Intel   The Intel hexadecimal format is understood for both reading and
               writing.  (Also known as the Intel MCS-86 Object format.)

       Intel AOMF
               The Intel Absolute Object Module Format (AOMF) is understood
               for both reading and writing.

       Intel 16
               The Intel hexadecimal 16 format is understood for both reading
               and writing.  (Also known as the INHX16 file format.)

       LSI Logic Fast Load
               The LSI Logic Fast Load format is understood for both reading
               and writing.  Logisim The Logisim format is understood for both
               reading and writing.  See srec_logisim(5) for more information.

       Memory Initialization Format
               The Memory Initialization Format (.mem) by Lattice
               Semiconductor is understood for writing only.

       MIF     The Memory Initialization File format by Altera is supported
               for both reading and writing.

       MOS Technology
               The MOS Technology hexadecimal format is understood for both
               reading and writing.

       MIPS-Flash
               The MIPS Flash file format is supported for both reading and
               writing.

       Motorola S-Record
               The Motorola hexadecimal S-Record format is understood for both
               reading and writing.  (Also known as the Exorciser, Exormacs or
               Exormax format.)

       MsBin   The Windows CE Binary Image Data Format is supported both for
               reading and writing.

       Needham The Needham Electronics ASCII file format is understood for
               both reading and writing.

       OS65V   The Ohio Scientific hexadecimal format is understood for both
               reading and writing.

       PPB     The Stag Prom Programmer binary format is understood for both
               reading and writing.

       PPX     The Stag Prom Programmer hexadecimal format is understood for
               both reading and writing.

       Signetics
               The Signetics format is understood for both reading and
               writing.

       SPASM   The SPASM format is used by a variety of PIC programmers; it is
               understood for both reading and writing.

       Spectrum
               The Spectrum format is understood for both reading and writing.

       Tektronix (Extended)
               The Tektronix hexadecimal format and the Tektronix Extended
               hexadecimal format are both understood for both reading and
               writing.

       Texas Instruments Tagged
               The Texas Instruments Tagged format is understood for both
               reading and writing (both 8 and 16 bit).  Also known as the TI-
               tagged or TI-SDSMAC format.

       Texas Instruments ti-txt
               The TI-TXT format is understood for reading and writing.  This
               format is used with the bootstrap loader of the Texas
               Instruments MSP430 family of processors.

       TRS-80  The Radio Shack TRS-80 object file format is understood for
               reading and writing.

       VHDL    It is possible to write VHDL file.  This is only supported for
               output.

       Verilog VMEM
               It is possible to write a Verilog VMEM file suitable for
               loading with $readmemh().  This format is supported for reading
               and writing.

       Wilson  The Wilson format is understood for both reading and writing.
               This mystery format was added for a mysterious type of EPROM
               writer.

   The Tools
       The primary tools of the package are srec_cat and srec_cmp.  All of the
       tools understand all of the file formats, and all of the filters.

       srec_cat
               The srec_cat program may be used to catenate (join) EPROM load
               files, or portions of EPROM load files, together.  Because it
               understands all of the input and output formats, it can also be
               used to convert files from one format to another.

       srec_cmp
               The srec_cmp program may be use to compare EPROM load files, or
               portions of EPROM load files, for equality.

       srec_info
               The srec_info program may be used to print summary information
               about EPROM load files.

   The Filters
       The SRecord package is made more powerful by the concept of input
       filters.  Wherever an input file may be specified, filters may also be
       applied to that input file.  The following filters are available:

       bit reverse
               The bit-reverse filter may be used to reverse the order of bits
               in each data byte.

       byte swap
               The byte swap filter may be used to swap pairs of add and even
               bytes.

       CRC     The various crc filters may be used to insert a CRC into the
               data.


       checksum
               The checksum filters may be used to insert a checksum
               into the data.  Positive, negative and bit-not checksums
               are available, as well as big-endian and little-endian
               byte orders.

       crop    The crop filter may be used to isolate an input address
               range, or ranges, and discard the rest.

       exclude The exclude filter may be used to exclude an input
               address range, or ranges, and keep the rest.

       fill    The fill filter may be used to fill any holes in the
               data with a nominated value.

       length  The length filter may be used to insert the data length
               into the data.

       maximum The maximum filter may be used to insert the maximum
               data address into the data.

       minimum The minimum filter may be used to insert the minimum
               data address into the data.

       offset  The offset filter may be used to offset the address of
               data records, both forwards and backwards.

       random fill
               The random fill filter may be used to fill holes in the
               data with random byte values.

       split   The split filter may be used to split EPROM images for
               wide data buses or other memory striping schemes.

       unfill  The unfill filter may be used to make holes in the data
               at bytes with a nominated value.

       unsplit The unsplit filter may be reverse the effects of the
               split filter.

       More than one filter may be applied to each input file.
       Different filters may be applied to each input file.  All
       filters may be applied to all file formats.

ARCHIVE SITE
       The latest version of SRecord is available on the Web from:

        URL:    http://srecord.sourceforge.net/
        File:   index.html            # the SRecord page
        File:   srecord-1.64.README   # Description, from the tar file
        File:   srecord-1.64.lsm      # Description, LSM format
        File:   srecord-1.64.spec     # RedHat package specification
        File:   srecord-1.64.tar.gz   # the complete source
        File:   srecord-1.64.pdf      # Reference Manual

BUILDING SRECORD
       Full instructions for building SRecord may be found in the
       BUILDING file included in this distribution.

       It is also possible to build SRecord on Windows using the Cygwin
       (www.cygwin.com) or DJGPP (www.delorie.com/djgpp) environments.
       Instructions are in the BUILDING file, including how to get
       native Windows binaries.

COPYRIGHT
       srecord version 1.64
       Copyright (C) Scott Finneran <scottfinneran@yahoo.com.au>
       Copyright (C) 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
       2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Peter
       Miller <pmiller@opensource.org.au>

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
       modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
       published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of
       the License, or (at your option) any later version.

       This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
       but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
       GNU General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public
       License along with this program. If not, see
       <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

       It should be in the LICENSE file included with this
       distribution.

AUTHOR
       Peter Miller   E-Mail:   pmiller@opensource.org.au
       /\/\*          WWW:      http://miller.emu.id.au/pmiller/

RELEASE NOTES
       This section details the various features and bug fixes of the
       various releases.  For excruciating and complete detail, and
       also credits for those of you who have generously sent me
       suggestions and bug reports, see the etc/CHANGES.* files.

   Version 1.64 (2014-Jun-22)
       * Cleaned up a few references to the maintainer's name.

       * Fixed some warnings in test 38

       * Fixed bugs discovered by Mike <russiane39@gmail.com> regarding
       the formatting of some of the examples where lines were wrapping
       the wrong way.

       * Added the ability to compile without libgcrypt if the user
       specifies the option --without-gcrypt to configure. If gcrypt is
       missing, the user is prompted to either install it or explicitly
       compile with it disabled.

       * Cleaned up a few recent compiler and doxygen warnings.

       * Added Sourceforge Patch #4 contributed by Stas Sergeev
       <stsp@sourceforge.net> which contributed get_upper_bound() and
       makes it and the lower equivalent public (for use from
       libsrecord).  Also fixed a bug in srec_memory::find_next_chunk()
       where it would fail to reset the find_next_chunk_index once it
       became equal to nchunks. After that, find_next_chunk() would
       always fail.

       * Added prefix and postfix strings to the C Array format which
       are applied at each end of the data array declaration. This
       allows the user to add various compiler directives such as
       location flags or non-standard load address specifiers.

       * when converting from AOMF Fixed Sourceforge bug 11 raised by
       patryks. In the analysis, it was discovered that a start address
       (of zero) was being generated when converting from AOMF. AOMF
       does not support the concept of an execution start address.

       * The Windows build instructions have been updated by Jens
       Heilig <jens@familie-heilig.net>.

       * Fixed the length field description in extended tektronix
       documentation. The implementation was already correct.

       * Added a regression test for calculated address for CRC
       (Sourceforge bug 19).

   Version 1.63 (2014-Apr-07)
       * The srec_tools now understand how to read and write Logisim
       formt.

       * Daniel Anselmi <danselmi@gmx.ch> fixed a bug with generating
       Lattice Memory init files.

       * This change set generalises the code that handles redundant
       byte settings and contradictory byte settings. The defcon_t type
       describes what to do: ignore, warn or error.  The --multiple
       option is no more.

       * Daniel Anselmi <danselmi@gmx.ch> discovered that the "mem"
       output format was malformed. The lines now break every "width"
       bits.

       * Hanspeter Niederstrasser disoverd some false negatives in the
       test suite, when used on OSX.  Thank you for the bug report.
       This has been fixed.

       * Simplification of selection code to choose which CRC16
       implmentation is used.

       * Juliano Mouro Vieira <juliano@utfpr.edu.br> discovered a
       problem with the srec_mif.5 description. This mistake is not
       present in the code.

       * Liju Prasanth Nivas (RBEI/ECA1)
       <Liju.PrasanthNivas@in.bosch.com> suggsted another use case for
       the examples. In the case of "joining" files that are meant to
       be "stacked in layers".  Contributions for the examples are
       always appreciated. Thank you.

       * Added more comments to the code, so that the use of URL_deode
       for the command line is better explained. And comment to explain
       why not to do turl_encode when building header records.

       * Added URL quoting to the command line. There are times you
       need to be able to insert unprintable characters on the command
       line. The immediate use case prompting this was a user wanting
       to put a NUL in the header string. So now you can, as "%00". The
       other choice was quoted printable encoding, but that was a bit
       obscure.

       * Fixed new warnings when building with g++ 4.8.1

       * Added more links to the windows files on SourceForge, maybe it
       will boost download numbers.

   Version 1.62 (2013-Jun-05)
       * Luc Steynen <LucSteynen@edna.be> discovered that the -hecksum-
         big-endian opion was a counter-intuitive alias for the the
         -checksum-bitnot-big-endian option.  The -checksum-big-endian
         option is now deprecated, in favor of the -checksum-bitnot-
         big-endian option; the code will warn uers of the old option
         they will need to change.  Ditto little-endian variants

       * Alin Pilkington <apilkington@moog.com> found that the
         Tektronics Extended format was calculating the record length
         incorrectory.  Thanks you for the bug report.  This has been
         fixed for both reading and writing.

       * Dr. Benedikt Schmitt <Benedikt.Schmitt@safeintrain.de>
         suggested being able to inject arbitrary data into the file
         header (such as NUL termination characters). This change set
         adds URL-style escapes (e.g. %25) to the string on he command
         line. For example: -header or -generate -string

   Version 1.61 (2013-Jan-04)
       * Izzet Ozcelik <izzetozcelik@cscope.co.uk> discovered a bug in
         the Tektronix-Extenden format line checksum calculations. The
         comparison should have been in 8 bits, not int.

       * Daniel Anselmi <danselmi@gmx.ch> contributed a Memory
         Initialization Format by Lattice Semiconductor, for output
         only.

       * Daniel Anselmi <danselmi@gmx.ch> contributed a Xilinx
         Coefficient File Format (.coe) output class.

   Version 1.60 (2012-May-19)
       * There are now several additional CRC-16 polynomials, plus the
       ability to select a polynomial by name, rather than by value.
       See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclic_redundancy_check for a
       table of names and values.

   Version 1.59 (2012-Feb-10)
       * A number of additional CRC-16 polynomials have been added, as
         well as the ability to select a polynomial by name, rather
         than by value.  See srec_input(1) for more information.

   Version 1.58 (2011-Dec-18)
       * The -guess command line option, for guessing the file format,
         now also tells you the command line option you could have used
         instead of -guess for the exact format.

       * The Intergated Device Technology (IDT) system integration
         manager (IDT/sim) binary format is now understood for both
         reading and writing.

       * The Stag Prom Programmer binary format is now supported for
         both reading and writing.

       * The Stag Prom Programer hexadecimal format is now understood
         for both reading and writing.

       * The MIPS-Flash fiel format is now supported for both reading
         and writing.

       * Bernhard Weirich <Bernhard.Weirich@riedel.net> discovered that
         a backward compatible option had been omitted when the
         -INtel_16 option was renamed -INtel_HeX_16 to more closely
         match the usual abbreviation (INHX16) for this format.  The
         backwards compatible option name has been reintroduced.

       * The windows build instructions have been greatly imptoved,
         based on the experiences of Jens Heilig <jens@familie-
         heilig.net> which he has generously shared.

       * The documentation in the manual about sequence warnings has
         been improved.  The -disable-sequence-warnings option must
         come before the input file on the command line.  My thanks to
         Emil Gracic <emil_kruki@yahoo.com> for reporting this problem.

   Version 1.57 (2011-Jun-09)
       * The byte order of the fletcher16 output has been reversed.

       * The meaning of the -address-length option has been change for
         the Intel output format. Previously, 2 meant using i16hex
         20-bit segmented addressing, and >2 meant using i32hex
         extended addressing. This has been changed: a value of 2
         requests i8hex 16-bit addressing, a value of 3 requests i16hex
         20-bit segment addressing, and a value >=4 requests i32hex
         32-bit addressing.  My thanks to Stephen R. Phillips
         <srp@CSECorporation.com> for reporting the absence of i8hex
         support.

       * The -generate -repeat-string option is now able to take a
         string that looks like a number as the text to be repeated. My
         thanks to Stephen R. Phillips <srp@CSECorporation.com> for
         reporting this problem.

       * Luca Giancristofaro <luca.giancristofaro@prosa.com> discovered
         a WinAVR linker that is a sandwich short of a picnic: it
         generated non-conforming Intel hex end-of-file records.  This
         is no longer an error, but only a warning.

       * There were some problems with the RPM spec file, these have
         been improved.  My thanks to Galen Seitz
         <galens@seitzassoc.com> for reporting this problem.

   Version 1.56 (2010-Sep-15)
       * A bug has been fixed in the MsBin output, it now concatenates
         records correctly, and calaulate checksums appropriately.

       * It is now possible to ask the Fletcher 16 filter to give you a
         specific answer, and adjusting the checksum to achieve that
         result. It is also possible to specify different seed values
         for the sums.

       * There is a new srec_cat -enable=optional-address option to
         cause output formats capable of omitting addresses, to omit a
         leading zero address, as those formats usually default the
         address to zero, if no address information is seen before the
         first data record.  Defaults to false (disabled).

       * There is a new srec_cat(1) -output-block-packing option, that
         may be used to pack output records even when they cross
         internal SRecord boundaries.

       * There is a new srec_cat(1) -output-block-size so that you can
         specify the block size exactly, rather than implying it with
         the line length option.

   Version 1.55 (2010-Feb-10)
       * The Makefile.in has been improved, it now copes with non-
         standard --prefix options.

       * The rpm.spec file has been improved, it now separates the
         commands, shared libraries and development files.

   Version 1.54 (2010-Jan-29)
       * There is now a shared library installed, including the
         necessary header files so that you can use all of the file
         formats and filters in your own projects.

       * The license on the shared library code is GNU Lesser General
         Public License, version 3.0 or later.

       * The code can cope with older versions of GNU Libgcrypt.  In
         the case of very old versions, by ignoring it.

       * A number of build problems have been fixed.

   Version 1.53 (2009-Nov-10)
       * There is a new MsBin (Windows CE Binary Image Data) file
         format, supported for both reading and writing.

       * The lintian(1) warning about hyphen in the manual pages has
         been silenced, by careful use of -, - and - as appropriate.
         Sure makes some of the sources ugly, tho.  The lintian(1)
         warning about the undefined .XX macro has been silenced, by
         making it conditional.

       * The code will build without libgcrypt.

   Version 1.52 (2009-Sep-17)
       * There is a new srec_cat -generator -l-e-constant data
         generator (and also -b-e-const) that may be used to insert
         multi-byte constants into your data.  See srec_input(1) for
         more information.

   Version 1.51 (2009-Sep-13)
       * A number of gcc 4.4 build problems have been fixed.

       * A bugs has been fixed in the Intel output format. When using
         the segemented format (address-length=2) records that span the
         end of segment boundary are tricky. The code now carefully
         splits such output records, to ensure the two parts are
         explicitly placed into separate segments.

   Version 1.50 (2009-Jul-09)
       * The CRC16 code has been enhanced to provide low-to-high bit
         order, in addition to the previous high-to-low bit order.  It
         is also possible to specify the polynomial, with the default
         the CCITT standard polynomial, as was in the previous code.
         See srec_input(1) for more information.

       * The MD5, RipeMD-160, SHA1, SHA224, SHA256, SHA384, SHA 512 and
         Whirlpool message digests are now supported.  See
         srec_input(1) for more information.

       * There is a new srec_cat -bit-reverse filter, that may be used
         to reverse the bits in each data byte.  See srec_input(1) for
         more information.

   Version 1.49 (2009-May-17)
       * A typo in the srec_input(1) man page has been fixed.

   Version 1.48 (2009-Apr-19)
       * There are new Fletcher Checksum filters, both 32-bits and
         16-bits, both little-endian and big-endian.

       * There are new Adler Checksum filters, both 32-bits and
         16-bits, both little-endian and big-endian.

   Version 1.47 (2009-Feb-19)
       * Memory Initialzation File (MIF) format by Altera is now
         supported for reading and writing.

   Version 1.46 (2009-Jan-13)
       * There is a new option for the --x-e-length filters, they can
         now accept a width, and this is divided into the byte lenght,
         so that you can insert the length in units of words (2) or
         longs (4).

       * Some small corrections have been made to the documentation.

       * The -minimum and -maximum options have been renamed -minimum-
         address and -maximum-address, to avoid a command line grammar
         syntax problem.

   Version 1.45 (2008-Sep-30)
       * A bug has been fixed in the srec_cat(1) command.  You are now
         able to specify several inputs within parentheses, instead of
         just one.  This allows filters to be applied to the
         concatenation of several inputs.

       * The srec_cat(1) command is now able to write FORTH output.

   Version 1.44 (2008-Aug-29)
       * Some compilers issue a warning when const appears before
         extern.  "warning: storage class is not first".  The C output
         has been updated to conform to this expectation.

       * The manual page for srec_cat(1) has been enhanced to describe
         the in-memory data model, and the resulting output data order.

       * The -motorola optional width argument now produces a better
         error message when it is out of range.

       * The -fill filter now checks the size, and fails for absurdly
         large fills, with a -big override if they really want >1GB
         fills.

       * A bug in the .spec file for rpmbuild has been fixed, it now
         takes notice of $RPM_BUILD_ROOT

       * There is a new -line-termination option, which may be used to
         select the desired line termination of output text files.

   Version 1.43 (2008-Jul-06)
       * The srec-cat -data-only option has been broken down into four
         separate controls.  It is now possible to -enable and -disable
         individual features, such as "header", "data-count",
         "execution-start-address" and "footer".  See srec_cat(1) for
         more information.

       * The srec_cat -start-address option has been renamed
         -execution-start-address to remove any confusion with the
         -offset filter.  The documentation now explicitly explains the
         difference between the two.

       * Examples of converting to and from binary files have been
         added to the srec_examples(1) man page.

       * A bug has been fixed in the MOS Tech format, it now emits an
         end record even when there is no execution start address
         passed in.

   Version 1.42 (2008-Jun-01)
       * The MOS Technology format was not reading and writing end
         records correctly, this has been fixed.  The name of the
         company has been corrected.

       * Some examples of how to insert constant or scripted data into
         your EPROM load files have been added to the srec_examples(1)
         man page.

   Version 1.41 (2008-May-12)
       * False negative being reported by tests on Cygwin have been
         fixed.

       * There are six new filters (-be-exclusive-length, -le-
         exclusive-length, -be-exclusive-maximum, -le-exclusive-
         maximum, -be-exclusive-minimum and -le-exclusive-minimum)
         which are very similar to their non-exclusive equivalents,
         except that they do not include the adress range covered by
         their output in their output.

       * A bug has been fixed in the C word-array output.  It was
         getting offsets and lengths wrong in some cases.

       * A bug has been fixed in the generated C array header file, it
         no longer omits the section descriptor arrays.

       * A problem with building RPM packages with the names of the
         executables in the .spec file has been fixed, and the
         BuildRequires has been updated.

   Version 1.40 (2008-Mar-13)
       * An RPM build problem has been fixed.

       * The dependency on the Boost library is now documented in the
         BUILDING file.

       * Some build problems with g++ 4.3 have been fixed

       * A bug has been fixed in the calculation of ranges on the
         command line, it no longer goes into an infinite loop for
         "-fill 0xFF -over { foo.hex -exclude -within foo.hex }"
         construct, which should have been calculating an empty fill
         set, but was instead calculating a 4GB fill set.

       * The CRC32 filters now take an -xmodem option, to use an
         xmodem-like (all bit zero) initial state, rather than the
         default CCITT (all bits on) initial state.

   Version 1.39 (2008-Feb-04)
       * A bug has been fixed in the use of parentheses to group
         filters and override the default precedences.

   Version 1.38 (2008-Jan-14)
       * The CRC16 filters now support a -Broken option, to perform a
         common-but-broken CRC16 calculation, in addition to the CCITT
         and XMODEM calculations.

       * A link has been added to the CRC16 man page section to the
         www.joegeluso.com/software/articles/ccitt.htm web page, to
         explain the difficulties in seeding CRC16 calculations.

       * A buglet has been fixed in the srec_motorola(5) man page, it
         now includes S6 in the list of things that can appear in the
         type field.

       * The ability to negate expressions is now mentioned in the
         srec_examples(1) man page.

   Version 1.37 (2007-Oct-29)
       * It is now possible to have negative expressions on the command
         line, to facilitate "--offset - -minimum foo" usages.

       * The srec_cat(1) command now has a simple hexadecimal dump
         output format.

       * The use of uudecode(1) in the tests has been removed, so
         sharutils is no longer a build dependency.

   Version 1.36 (2007-Aug-07)
       * A bug has been fixed in the CRC-16 CCITT calculation; the
         algorithm was correct but the start value was incorrect,
         leading to incorrect results.

       * The CRC16 filters have a new --no-augment option, to omit the
         16 zero bits augmenting the message.  This is not CCITT
         standard conforming, but some implementations do this.

       * A problem has been fixed in the generated Makefile.in file
         found in the tarball.

       * The license has been changed to GNU GPL version 3.

   Version 1.35 (2007-Jun-23)
       * A major build problem with the generated makefile has been
       fixed.

   Version 1.34 (2007-Jun-22)
       * The C and ASM output formats have been improved in the word
         mode.

       * Several build problems have been fixed.

   Version 1.33 (2007-May-18)
       * More examples have been added to the documentation.

       * It is now possible to perform set intersection and set
         difference on address ranges on the command line.

       * There is a new category of data source: generators.  You can
         generate constant data, random data and repeating data.

       * The assembler and C-Array outputs now support additional
         options to facilitate MSP430 systems.  They can also
         optionally write shorts rather than bytes.

       * You can now round address ranges on the command line to be
         whole multiples of a number of bytes.

   Version 1.32 (2007-Apr-24)
       * The TI-TXT format output has been improved; it is less spec
         conforming but more reality conforming.  It now allows odd
         alignment without padding.  It also ends with a q instead of a
         Q.

       * The warning for odd input addresses has been dropped.  The
         spec didn't like them, but the MSP430 handles them without a
         hiccup.

   Version 1.31 (2007-Apr-03)
       * The Verilog format now suppresses comments when you specify
         the --data-only option.

       * The Texas Instruments ti-txt (MSP430) format is now understood
         for reading and writing.

   Version 1.30 (2007-Mar-21)
       * The ascii-hex output format has been improved.

       * The ti-tagged 16-bit format is now understood for reading and
         writing.

       * The Intel format no longer warns about missing optional
         records.

       * A bug in the ti-tagged format has been fixed, it now
         understands the '0' tag.

   Version 1.29 (2007-Mar-13)
       * A serious bug has been fixed in the generated Makefile.

   Version 1.28 (2007-Mar-08)
       * It is now possible to read and write files in the Freescale
         MC68EZ328 Dragonball bootstrap b-record format

   Version 1.27 (2006-Dec-21)
       * [SourceForge Feature Request 1597637] There is a new warning
         issued when input data records are not in strictly ascending
         address order.  There is a new command line option to silence
         the warning.

       * [SourceForge  Feature Request 1592348] The command line
         processing of all srecord commands now understands @file
         command line options, filled with additional space separated
         strings witch will be treated as of they were command line
         options.  This gets around absurdly short command line length
         limits in some operating systems.

   Version 1.26 (2006-May-26)
       * It is now possible to place parentheses on the command line in
         more places to clarify your intent.

       * This change prepares SRecord for the next public release.

   Version 1.25 (2006-May-18)
       * The assembler output has been enhanced to produce ORG
         directives, if necessary, to change the data address.

       * The srec_cat(1) command now only writes an execution start
         address into the output if there was an execution start
         address present in the input.

   Version 1.24 (2006-Mar-08)
       * Additional information has been added to the lseek error when
         they try to seek to addresses >= 2**31

       * The CRC 16 filters have been enhanced to accept an argument to
         specify whether CCITT or XMODEM calculations are to be
         performed.

   Version 1.23 (2005-Sep-23)
       * A segfault has been fixed on x86_64 when running the
         regression test suite.

       * A compile problem with the lib/srec/output/file/c.cc file has
         been fixed.

   Version 1.22 (2005-Aug-12)
       * The -byte-swap filter now has an optional width argument, to
         specify the address width to swap.  The default is two bytes.

       * The motorola file format now accepts an additional 'width'
         command line argument, so you can have 16-bit and 32-bit
         address multiples.

       * A bug has been fixed in the VMEM output format. It was failing
         to correctly set the next address in some cases.  This fixes
         SourceForge bug 1119786.

       * The -C-Array output format now uses the const keyword by
         default, you can turn it off with the -no-const option.  The
         -C-Array output format can now generate an additional include
         file if you use the -INClude option.  This answers SourceForge
         feature request 942132.

       * A fix for the "undefined symbols" problem when using g++ 3.x
         on Cygwin and MacOsX has been added to the ./configure script.

       * There is a new -ignore-checksum command line option.  The
         -ignore-checksums option may be used to disable checksum
         validation of input files, for those formats which have
         checksums at all.  Note that the checksum values are still
         read in and parsed (so it is still an error if they are
         missing) but their values are not checked.

   Version 1.21 (2005-Feb-07)
       * More Doxygen comments have been added to the class header
         files.

       * There is a new srec_cat --crlf option, which may be used for
         force CRLF output on operating systems which don't use that
         style of line termination.

       * A number of problems with GCC, particularly with the early 3.x
         series.

       * There is a new "Stewie" format, an undocumented format loosely
         based on the Motorola S-Record format, apparently used in
         mobile phones.  More information would be most welcome.

       * A number of build problems have been fixed.

   Version 1.20 (2004-Feb-08)
       * The AOMF format now accepts (and ignores) more record types.

   Version 1.19 (2004-Jan-03)
       * It is now possible to set the execution start address in the
         output using the srec_cat -Execution_Start_Address command
         line option.

       * The Intel Absolute Object Module Format (AOMF) is now
         supported for reading and writing.

       * There is a new srec_cat -Random_Fill filter, like the srec_cat
         -Fill filter except that it uses random values.

   Version 1.18 (2004-Jan-01)
       * The VMEM format is now able to output data for 64 and 128 bits
         wide memories.

       * A bug in the SRecord reference manuals has been fixed; the
         CRCxx had a copy-and-paste glitch and always said big-endian
         where little endian was intended half the time.

   Version 1.17 (2003-Oct-12)
       * There is now support for Intel Extended Segment addressing
         output, via the --address-length=2 option.

       * There is now support for output of Verilog VMEM format.  See
         srec_vmem(5) for more information.

       * There is now support for reading and writing the INHX16
         format, used in various PIC programmers.  It looks just like
         the Intel Hex format, except that the bytes counts and the
         addresses refer to words (hi,lo) rather than bytes.  See
         srec_intel16(5) for more information.

   Version 1.16 (2003-Jul-28)
       * Some updates have been made to cope with GCC 3.2

   Version 1.15 (2003-Jun-16)
       * The ASCII-Hex implementation is now slightly more complete.  I
         still haven't found a definitive description.

       * The Fairchild Fairbug format has been added for reading and
         writing.  See srec_fairchild(5) for more information.

       * The Spectrum format has been added for reading and writing.
         See srec_spectrum(5) for more information.

       * The Formatted Binary format has been added for reading and
         writing.  See srec_formatted_binary(5) for more information.

       * The RCA Cosmac Elf format has been added for reading and
         writing.  See srec_cosmac(5) for more information.

       * The Needham EMP programmer format has been added for reading
         and writing.  See srec_needham(5) for more information.

   Version 1.14 (2003-Mar-11)
       * Numerous fixes have been made to header handling.  It is now
         possible to specify an empty header with the -header command
         line option.

       * Some more GCC 3.2 build problems have been fixed.

   Version 1.13 (2003-Feb-05)
       * Bugs have been fixed in the Texas Instruments Tagged and VHDL
         formats, which produced inconsistent output.

       * A couple of build problems have been fixed.

       * There are two new output formats for ASM and BASIC.

   Version 1.12 (2002-Dec-06)
       * It is now possible to put -minimum input.spec (also -maximum
         and -length) almost anywhere on the command line that you can
         put a number.  It allows, for example, the -offset value to be
         calculated from the maximum of the previous file.  The values
         calculated by -Minimum, -Maximum and -Length may also be
         rounded to arbitrary boundaries, using -Round_Down,
         -Round_Nearest and -Round_Up.

       * The malformed Motorola S5 records output by the Green Hills
         tool chain are now understood.

   Version 1.11 (2002-Oct-21)
       * The Ohio Scientific OS65V audio tape format has been added for
         reading and writing.  See srec_os65v(5) for more information.

       * Some build problems have been fixed.

   Version 1.10 (2002-Jun-14)
       * The Intel format now emits the redundant extended linear
         address record at the start of the file; some loaders couldn't
         cope without it.

       * The Binary format now copes with writing to pipes.

       * The Motorola format now understands the S6 (24-bit data record
         count) records for reading and writing.

       * The DEC Binary format now works correctly on Windows machines.

       * The LSI Logic Fast Load format is now understood for both
         reading and writing.  See srec_fastload(5) for more
         information.

   Version 1.9 (2001-Nov-27)
       * The DEC Binary (XXDP) format is now understood for both
         reading and writing.  See srec_dec_binary(5) for more
         information.

       * The Elektor Monitor (EMON52) format is now understood for both
         reading and writing.  See srec_emon52(5) for more information.

       * The Signetics format is now understood for both reading and
         writing.  See srec_signetics(5) for more information.

       * The Four Packed Code (FPC) format is now understood for both
         reading and writing.  See srec_fpc(5) for more information.

       * Wherever possible, header data is now passed through by
         srec_cat(1).  There is also a new srec_cat -header option, so
         that you can set the header comment from the command line.

       * The Atmel Generic format for Atmel AVR programmers is now
         understood for both reading and writing.  See
         srec_atmel_generic(5) for more information.

       * The handling of termination records has been improved.  It
         caused problems for a number of filters, including the -fill
         filter.

       * A bug has been fixed in the checksum calculations for the
         Tektronix format.

       * There is a new SPASM format for PIC programmers.  See
         srec_spasm(5) for more information.

   Version 1.8 (2001-Apr-20)
       * There is a new "unfill" filter, which may be used to perform
         the reverse effect of the "fill" filter.

       * There is a new bit-wise NOT filter, which may be used to
         invert the data.

       * A couple of bugs have been fixed in the CRC filters.

   Version 1.7 (2001-Mar-19)
       * The documentation is now in PDF format.  This was in order to
         make it more accessible to a wider range of people.

       * There is a new srec_cat --address-length option, so that you
         can set the length of the address fields in the output file.
         For example, if you always want S3 data records in a Motorola
         hex file, use the --address-length=4 option.  This helps when
         talking to brain-dead EPROM programmers which do not fully
         implement the format specification.

       * There is a new --multiple option to the commands, which
         permits an input file to contain multiple (contradictory)
         values for some memory locations.  The last value in the file
         will be used.

       * A problem has been fixed which stopped SRecord from building
         under Cygwin.

       * A bug has been fixed in the C array output.  It used to
         generate invalid output when the input had holes in the data.

   Version 1.6 (2000-Dec-03)
       * A bug has been fixed in the C array output.  (Holes in the
         input caused an invalid C file to be produced.)

       * There is are new CRC input filters, both 16-bit and 32-bit,
         both big and little endian.  See srec_cat(1) for more
         information.

       * There is a new VHDL output format.

       * There are new checksum filters: in addition to the existing
         one's complement (bit not) checksum filter, there are now
         negative and positive checksum filters.  See srec_cat(1) for
         more information.

       * The checksum filters are now able to sum over 16-bit and
         32-bit values, in addition to the existing byte sums.

       * The srec_cmp program now has a --verbose option, which gives
         more information about how the two inputs differ.  See
         srec_cmp(1) for more information.

   Version 1.5 (2000-Mar-06)
       * There is now a command line option to guess the input file
         format; all of the tools understand this option.

       * The "MOS Technologies" file format is now understood for
         reading and writing.  See srec_mos_tech(5) for more
         information.

       * The "Tektronix Extended" file format is now understood for
         reading and writing.  See srec_tektronix_extended(5) for more
         information.

       * The "Texas Instruments Tagged" file format is now understood
         for reading and writing.  (Also known as the TI-Tagged or
         SDSMAC format.)  See srec_ti_tagged(5) for more information.

       * The "ascii-hex" file format is now understood for reading and
         writing.  (Also known as the ascii-space-hex format.)  See
         srec_ascii_hex(5) for more information.

       * There is a new byte swap input filter, allowing pairs of odd
         and even input bytes to be swapped.  See srec_cat(1) for more
         information.

       * The "wilson" file format is now understood for reading and
         writing.  This mystery format was added for a mysterious type
         of EPROM writer.  See srec_wilson(5) for more information.

       * The srec_cat program now has a -data-only option, which
         suppresses all output except for the data records.  This helps
         when talking to brain-dead EPROM programmers which barf at
         anything but data.  See srec_cat(1) for more information.

       * There is a new -Line-Length option for the srec_cat program,
         allowing you to specify the maximum width of output lines.
         See srec_cat(1) for more information.

   Version 1.4 (2000-Jan-13)
       * SRecord can now cope with CRLF sequences in Unix files.  This
         was unfortunately common where the file was generated on a PC,
         but SRecord was being used on Unix.

   Version 1.3 (1999-May-12)
       * A bug has been fixed which would cause the crop and exclude
         filters to dump core sometimes.

       * A bug has been fixed where binary files were handled
         incorrectly on Windows NT (actually, any system in which text
         files aren't the same as binary files).

       * There are three new data filters.  The --OR filter, which may
         be used to bit-wise OR a value to each data byte; the --AND
         filter, which may be used to bit-wise AND a value to each data
         byte; and the --eXclusive-OR filter, which may be used to bit-
         wise XOR a value to each data byte.  See srec_cat(1) for more
         information.

   Version 1.2 (1998-Nov-04)
       * This release includes file format man pages.  The web page
         also includes a PostScript reference manual, containing all of
         the man pages.

       * The Intel hex format now has full 32-bit support.  See
         srec_intel(5) for more information.

       * The Tektronix hex format is now supported (only the 16-bit
         version, Extended Tektronix hex is not yet supported).  See
         srec_tektronix(5) for more information.

       * There is a new split filter, useful for wide data buses and
         memory striping, and a complementary unsplit filter to reverse
         it.  See srec_cat(1) for more information.

   Version 1.1 (1998-Mar-22)
       First public release.



Reference Manual                    SRecord                   Read Me(SRecord)