File: pairs.pl

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/*  Part of SWI-Prolog

    Author:        Jan Wielemaker
    E-mail:        J.Wielemaker@vu.nl
    WWW:           http://www.swi-prolog.org
    Copyright (c)  2006-2015, University of Amsterdam
                              VU University Amsterdam
    All rights reserved.

    Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
    modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
    are met:

    1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
       notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

    2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
       notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
       the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
       distribution.

    THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
    "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
    LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
    FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
    COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
    INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING,
    BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES;
    LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER
    CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
    LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
    ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
    POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
*/

:- module(pairs,
          [ pairs_keys_values/3,
            pairs_values/2,
            pairs_keys/2,
            group_pairs_by_key/2,
            transpose_pairs/2,
            map_list_to_pairs/3
          ]).

/** <module> Operations on key-value lists

This module implements common operations on  Key-Value lists, also known
as  _Pairs_.  Pairs  have  great  practical  value,  especially  due  to
keysort/2 and the library assoc.pl.

This library is based  on  disussion   in  the  SWI-Prolog  mailinglist,
including specifications from Quintus and a  library proposal by Richard
O'Keefe.

@see    keysort/2, library(assoc)
@author Jan Wielemaker
*/

%!  pairs_keys_values(?Pairs, ?Keys, ?Values) is det.
%
%   True if Keys holds the keys of Pairs and Values the values.
%
%   Deterministic if any argument is instantiated   to a finite list
%   and the others are either free or  finite lists. All three lists
%   are in the same order.
%
%   @see pairs_values/2 and pairs_keys/2.

pairs_keys_values(Pairs, Keys, Values) :-
    (   nonvar(Pairs) ->
        pairs_keys_values_(Pairs, Keys, Values)
    ;   nonvar(Keys) ->
        keys_values_pairs(Keys, Values, Pairs)
    ;   values_keys_pairs(Values, Keys, Pairs)
    ).

pairs_keys_values_([], [], []).
pairs_keys_values_([K-V|Pairs], [K|Keys], [V|Values]) :-
    pairs_keys_values_(Pairs, Keys, Values).

keys_values_pairs([], [], []).
keys_values_pairs([K|Ks], [V|Vs], [K-V|Pairs]) :-
    keys_values_pairs(Ks, Vs, Pairs).

values_keys_pairs([], [], []).
values_keys_pairs([V|Vs], [K|Ks], [K-V|Pairs]) :-
    values_keys_pairs(Vs, Ks, Pairs).

%!  pairs_values(+Pairs, -Values) is det.
%
%   Remove the keys  from  a  list   of  Key-Value  pairs.  Same  as
%   pairs_keys_values(Pairs, _, Values)

pairs_values([], []).
pairs_values([_-V|T0], [V|T]) :-
    pairs_values(T0, T).


%!  pairs_keys(+Pairs, -Keys) is det.
%
%   Remove the values  from  a  list   of  Key-Value  pairs.  Same  as
%   pairs_keys_values(Pairs, Keys, _)

pairs_keys([], []).
pairs_keys([K-_|T0], [K|T]) :-
    pairs_keys(T0, T).


%!  group_pairs_by_key(+Pairs, -Joined:list(Key-Values)) is det.
%
%   Group  values  with  equivalent  (==/2)  consecutive  keys.  For
%   example:
%
%     ==
%     ?- group_pairs_by_key([a-2, a-1, b-4, a-3], X).
%
%     X = [a-[2,1], b-[4], a-[3]]
%     ==
%
%   Sorting the list of pairs before grouping   can be used to group
%   _all_ values associated with a  key.   For  example, finding all
%   values associated with the largest key:
%
%     ==
%     ?- sort(1, @>=, [a-1, b-2, c-3, a-4, a-5, c-6], Ps),
%        group_pairs_by_key(Ps, [K-Vs|_]).
%     K = c,
%     Vs = [3, 6].
%     ==
%
%   In this example, sorting by key   only (first argument of sort/4
%   is 1) ensures that the order of  the values in the original list
%   of pairs is maintained.
%
%   @param  Pairs   Key-Value list
%   @param  Joined  List of Key-Group, where Group is the
%                   list of Values associated with equivalent
%                   consecutive Keys in the same order as they
%                   appear in Pairs.

group_pairs_by_key([], []).
group_pairs_by_key([M-N|T0], [M-[N|TN]|T]) :-
    same_key(M, T0, TN, T1),
    group_pairs_by_key(T1, T).

same_key(M0, [M-N|T0], [N|TN], T) :-
    M0 == M,
    !,
    same_key(M, T0, TN, T).
same_key(_, L, [], L).


%!  transpose_pairs(+Pairs, -Transposed) is det.
%
%   Swap Key-Value to Value-Key. The resulting  list is sorted using
%   keysort/2 on the new key.

transpose_pairs(Pairs, Transposed) :-
    flip_pairs(Pairs, Flipped),
    keysort(Flipped, Transposed).

flip_pairs([], []).
flip_pairs([Key-Val|Pairs], [Val-Key|Flipped]) :-
    flip_pairs(Pairs, Flipped).


%!  map_list_to_pairs(:Function, +List, -Keyed)
%
%   Create a Key-Value list by mapping each element of List.
%   For example, if we have a list of lists we can create a
%   list of Length-List using
%
%   ==
%           map_list_to_pairs(length, ListOfLists, Pairs),
%   ==

:- meta_predicate
    map_list_to_pairs(2, +, -).

map_list_to_pairs(Function, List, Pairs) :-
    map_list_to_pairs2(List, Function, Pairs).

map_list_to_pairs2([], _, []).
map_list_to_pairs2([H|T0], Pred, [K-H|T]) :-
    call(Pred, H, K),
    map_list_to_pairs2(T0, Pred, T).