File: quasi_quotations.pl

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/*  Part of SWI-Prolog

    Author:        Jan Wielemaker
    E-mail:        J.Wielemaker@vu.nl
    WWW:           http://www.swi-prolog.org
    Copyright (c)  2013-2015, VU University Amsterdam
    All rights reserved.

    Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
    modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
    are met:

    1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
       notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

    2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
       notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
       the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
       distribution.

    THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
    "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
    LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
    FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
    COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
    INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING,
    BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES;
    LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER
    CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
    LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
    ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
    POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
*/

:- module(quasi_quotations,
          [ with_quasi_quotation_input/3,       % +Content, -Stream, :Goal
            phrase_from_quasi_quotation/2,      % :Grammar, +Content
            quasi_quotation_syntax_error/1,     % +Error
            quasi_quotation_syntax/1            % :Syntax
          ]).
:- use_module(library(error)).
:- use_module(library(pure_input)).

/** <module> Define Quasi Quotation syntax

Inspired                                                              by
[Haskell](http://www.haskell.org/haskellwiki/Quasiquotation), SWI-Prolog
support _quasi quotation_. Quasi quotation   allows for embedding (long)
strings using the syntax of an external   language  (e.g., HTML, SQL) in
Prolog text and syntax-aware  embedding  of   Prolog  variables  in this
syntax. At the same time,  quasi   quotation  provides an alternative to
represent long strings and atoms in Prolog.

The basic form of a quasi quotation  is defined below. Here, `Syntax` is
an arbitrary Prolog term that must  parse   into  a  _callable_ (atom or
compound) term and Quotation is an arbitrary sequence of characters, not
including the sequence =||}|=. If this sequence needs to be embedded, it
must be escaped according to the  rules   of  the target language or the
`quoter' must provide an escaping mechanism.

    ==
    {|Syntax||Quotation|}
    ==

While reading a Prolog term, and if   the  Prolog flag =quasi_quotes= is
set to =true= (which is the case if  this library is loaded), the parser
collects quasi quotations. After reading the final full stop, the parser
makes the call below. Here, `SyntaxName` is the functor name of `Syntax`
above and `SyntaxArgs` is a list   holding  the arguments, i.e., `Syntax
=.. [SyntaxName|SyntaxArgs]`. Splitting the  syntax   into  its name and
arguments is done to make the quasi  quotation parser a predicate with a
consistent arity 4, regardless of the number of additional arguments.

    ==
    call(+SyntaxName, +Content, +SyntaxArgs, +VariableNames, -Result)
    ==

The arguments are defined as

  - `SyntaxName` is the principal functor of the quasi quotation syntax.
  This must be declared using quasi_quotation_syntax/1 and there must be
  a predicate SyntaxName/4.

  - `Content` is an opaque term that carries the content of the quasi
  quoted material and position information about the source code. It is
  passed to with_quasi_quote_input/3.

  - `SyntaxArgs` carries the additional arguments of the `Syntax`. These are
  commonly used to make the parameter passing between the clause and the
  quasi quotation explicit. For example:

    ==
        ...,
        {|html(Name, Address)||
         <tr><td>Name<td>Address</tr>
         |}
    ==

  - `VariableNames` is the complete variable dictionary of the clause as
  it is made available throug read_term/3 with the option
  =variable_names=. It is a list of terms `Name = Var`.

  - `Result` is a variable that must be unified to resulting term.
  Typically, this term is structured Prolog tree that carries a
  (partial) representation of the abstract syntax tree with embedded
  variables that pass the Prolog parameters. This term is normally
  either passed to a predicate that serializes the abstract syntax tree,
  or a predicate that processes the result in Prolog. For example, HTML
  is commonly embedded for writing HTML documents (see
  library(http/html_write)). Examples of languages that may be embedded
  for processing in Prolog are SPARQL, RuleML or regular expressions.

The file library(http/html_quasiquotations) provides   the,  suprisingly
simple, quasi quotation parser for HTML.

@author Jan Wielemaker.  Introduction of Quasi Quotation was suggested
        by Michael Hendricks.
@see    [Why it's nice to be quoted: quasiquoting for
        haskell](http://www.cs.tufts.edu/comp/150FP/archive/geoff-mainland/quasiquoting.pdf)
*/


:- meta_predicate
    with_quasi_quotation_input(+, -, 0),
    quasi_quotation_syntax(4),
    phrase_from_quasi_quotation(//, +).

:- set_prolog_flag(quasi_quotations, true).

%!  with_quasi_quotation_input(+Content, -Stream, :Goal) is det.
%
%   Process the quasi-quoted Content using   Stream  parsed by Goal.
%   Stream is a temporary stream with the following properties:
%
%       - Its initial _position_ represents the position of the
%         start of the quoted material.
%       - It is a text stream, using =utf8= _encoding_.
%       - It allows for repositioning
%       - It will be closed after Goal completes.
%
%   @arg Goal is executed as once(Goal).  Goal must succeed.
%        Failure or exceptions from Goal are interpreted as
%        syntax errors.
%   @see phrase_from_quasi_quotation/2 can be used to process a
%        quotation using a grammar.

with_quasi_quotation_input(Content, Stream, Goal) :-
    functor(Content, '$quasi_quotation', 3),
    !,
    setup_call_cleanup(
        '$qq_open'(Content, Stream),
        (   call(Goal)
        ->  true
        ;   quasi_quotation_syntax_error(
                quasi_quotation_parser_failed,
                Stream)
        ),
        close(Stream)).

%!  phrase_from_quasi_quotation(:Grammar, +Content) is det.
%
%   Process the quasi quotation using the   DCG  Grammar. Failure of
%   the grammar is interpreted as a syntax error.
%
%   @see    with_quasi_quotation_input/3 for processing quotations from
%           stream.

phrase_from_quasi_quotation(Grammar, Content) :-
    functor(Content, '$quasi_quotation', 3),
    !,
    setup_call_cleanup(
        '$qq_open'(Content, Stream),
        phrase_quasi_quotation(Grammar, Stream),
        close(Stream)).

phrase_quasi_quotation(Grammar, Stream) :-
    set_stream(Stream, buffer_size(512)),
    stream_to_lazy_list(Stream, List),
    phrase(Grammar, List),
    !.
phrase_quasi_quotation(_, Stream) :-
    quasi_quotation_syntax_error(
        quasi_quotation_parser_failed,
        Stream).

%!  quasi_quotation_syntax(:SyntaxName) is det.
%
%   Declare the predicate SyntaxName/4  to   implement  the  the quasi
%   quote syntax SyntaxName.  Normally used as a directive.

quasi_quotation_syntax(M:Syntax) :-
    must_be(atom, Syntax),
    '$set_predicate_attribute'(M:Syntax/4, quasi_quotation_syntax, true).

%!  quasi_quotation_syntax_error(+Error)
%
%   Report syntax_error(Error) using the  current   location  in the
%   quasi quoted input parser.
%
%   @throws error(syntax_error(Error), Position)

quasi_quotation_syntax_error(Error) :-
    quasi_quotation_input(Stream),
    quasi_quotation_syntax_error(Error, Stream).

quasi_quotation_syntax_error(Error, Stream) :-
    stream_syntax_error_context(Stream, Context),
    throw(error(syntax_error(Error), Context)).

quasi_quotation_input(Stream) :-
    '$input_context'(Stack),
    memberchk(input(quasi_quoted, _File, _Line, StreamVar), Stack),
    Stream = StreamVar.


%!  stream_syntax_error_context(+Stream, -Position) is det.
%
%   Provide syntax error  location  for   the  current  position  of
%   Stream.

stream_syntax_error_context(Stream, file(File, LineNo, LinePos, CharNo)) :-
    stream_property(Stream, file_name(File)),
    position_context(Stream, LineNo, LinePos, CharNo),
    !.
stream_syntax_error_context(Stream, stream(Stream, LineNo, LinePos, CharNo)) :-
    position_context(Stream, LineNo, LinePos, CharNo),
    !.
stream_syntax_error_context(_, _).

position_context(Stream, LineNo, LinePos, CharNo) :-
    stream_property(Stream, position(Pos)),
    !,
    stream_position_data(line_count,    Pos, LineNo),
    stream_position_data(line_position, Pos, LinePos),
    stream_position_data(char_count,    Pos, CharNo).


                 /*******************************
                 *         SYSTEM HOOK          *
                 *******************************/

%       system:'$parse_quasi_quotations'(+Quotations:list, +Module) is
%       det.
%
%       @arg    Quotations is a list of terms
%
%                   quasi_quotation(Syntax, Quotation, VarNames, Result)

:- public
    system:'$parse_quasi_quotations'/2.

system:'$parse_quasi_quotations'([], _).
system:'$parse_quasi_quotations'([H|T], M) :-
    qq_call(H, M),
    system:'$parse_quasi_quotations'(T, M).

qq_call(quasi_quotation(Syntax, Content, VariableNames, Result), M) :-
    current_prolog_flag(sandboxed_load, false),
    Syntax =.. [SyntaxName|SyntaxArgs],
    setup_call_cleanup(
        '$push_input_context'(quasi_quoted),
        call(M:SyntaxName, Content, SyntaxArgs, VariableNames, Result),
        '$pop_input_context'),
    !.
qq_call(quasi_quotation(Syntax, Content, VariableNames, Result), M) :-
    current_prolog_flag(sandboxed_load, true),
    Syntax =.. [SyntaxName|SyntaxArgs],
    Expand =.. [SyntaxName, Content, SyntaxArgs, VariableNames, Result],
    QExpand = M:Expand,
    '$expand':allowed_expansion(QExpand),
    setup_call_cleanup(
        '$push_input_context'(quasi_quoted),
        call(QExpand),
        '$pop_input_context'),
    !.
qq_call(quasi_quotation(_Syntax, Content, _VariableNames, _Result), _M) :-
    setup_call_cleanup(
        '$push_input_context'(quasi_quoted),
        with_quasi_quotation_input(
            Content, Stream,
            quasi_quotation_syntax_error(quasi_quote_parser_failed, Stream)),
        '$pop_input_context'),
    !.


                 /*******************************
                 *             MESSAGES         *
                 *******************************/

:- multifile
    prolog:error_message//1.

prolog:error_message(syntax_error(unknown_quasi_quotation_syntax(Syntax, M))) -->
    { functor(Syntax, Name, _) },
    [ 'Quasi quotation syntax ~q:~q is not defined'-[M, Name] ].
prolog:error_message(syntax_error(invalid_quasi_quotation_syntax(Syntax))) -->
    [ 'Quasi quotation syntax must be a callable term.  Found ~q'-[Syntax] ].