File: hv3.man

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[TH hv3 n]

[Section Name]
	hv3 - Mega-widget building on Tkhtml.

	THIS IS A WORK IN PROGRESS. IT IS POSSIBLE TO USE THE HV3 WIDGET, BUT
	IT IS NOT YET PROPERLY PACKAGED. POST ON THE MAILING LIST IF YOU WISH
	TO USE IT NOW.

	Comments and feedback also welcome.

[Section Synopsis]
	[Code {
		package require snit
		package require hv3
		::hv3::hv3 pathName ?options?
	}]

[Section Description]

	The [SQ hv3] command creates a new window (given by the pathName
	argument) and makes it into hv3 widget. The hv3 command
	returns its pathName argument. At the time this command is invoked,
	there must not exist a window named pathName, but pathName's parent
	must exist. Hv3 is a pure Tcl widget implemented using Tkhtml3 and
	the excellent mega-widget framework Snit.

	An [SQ hv3] widget is not a web-browser. If it were to be used as
	a component in a web-browser application it would represent a single
	browser frame (or iframe). The API described in this document is
	not the whole API offered by the snit object ::hv3::hv3. Instead,
	it is the subset of that API that is expected not to change. No
	guarantees of course.

	There are two 'objects' involved in using the [SQ hv3] widget. One
	is the widget itself ([SQ ::hv3::hv3]). The other is the 
	request-handle ([SQ ::hv3::request]). A request-handle is the 
	interface between the hv3 widget and wherever it is getting its
	data from (i.e. your implementation of http://, https:// etc.).
	Many users will also wish to understand the Tkhtml3 "node-handle"
	interface, documented as part of the Tkhtml3 manpage.

	An [SQ hv3] widget provides the following features on top of the
	[SQ html] widget:

[Bulletlist {
		Built-in scrollbars.
} {
		Support for selecting text with the pointer.
} {
		Support for loading linked images and stylesheets from URIs.
} {
		Support for HTML forms and submission thereof.
} {
		Support for CSS configured hover (mouseover) effects.
} {
		Support for loading a new document by clicking on a hyper-link.
}]

	The two most important interfaces are the [SQ goto] method and the
	 _-requestcmd_ option. The [SQ goto] method tells the widget to
	load the document identified by the specified absolute or relative
	URI.

	The _-requestcmd_ option must be configured with a callback script that
	the widget invokes to request the requested document. It is the
	users responsibility to retrieve the document and pass it back to
	the widget. If the document contains links to external resources
	(images or CSS stylesheets), then the widget invokes the 
	 _-requestcmd_ script to request these. The _-requestcmd_ callback may
	choose to implement handling for one or more of http:// URIs, 
	file:// URIs or any other existing or invented URI scheme. See
	the "Example Usage" section below for an example.

[Section Standard Options]
	[Code {
		-height
		-width
	}]

[Section Html Options]
	The following Tkhtml options are exposed as public options of 
	this mega-widget.

	[Code {
		-fontscale
		-fonttable
		-forcefontmetrics
		-zoom
	}]

[Section Html Commands]
	The following Tkhtml commands are exposed as public options of 
	this mega-widget.

	[Code {
		node ? ?-index? _x_ _y_?
	}]

[Section Widget-Specific Options]

	[Option enableimages {
		Boolean option (default true). True for image support, false
		otherwise. If this option is set to false, then the 
		_-requestcmd_ script will never be invoked to request an
		image resource.
	}]
	[Option isvisitedcmd {
		If not an empty string, this option specifies a script for
		the widget to invoke to determine if a hyperlink (<A>) 
		node should be styled with the :link or :visited 
		pseudo-class. The script is invoked with the node handle 
		appended to it. If true is returned, :visited is used, 
		otherwise :link.
	}]
	[Option requestcmd {
		If this option is not set by the user code, then the Hv3
		widget will be unable to display anything.

		It should be set to a script that may be invoked by the hv3
		widget to request a resource required to display a URI 
		requested via the [SQ goto] method. Each time a resource
		is required, the _-requestcmd_ script is invoked with
		a single argument appended to it, the name of a request
		handle object. See section "Request Handles" for details.
	}]
	[Option targetcmd {
		If this option is not set to an empty string (the default),
		it should be set to a script that will be invoked each time
		a hyper-link is clicked or a form submitted in the hv3 widget
		by the end-user. A single argument is appended to the script
		before it is evaluated, the Tkhtml3 node-handle for the 
		relevant <FORM> (in the case of form submittal) or 
		<A> (if the end user clicked a hyperlink) node. The
		script should return the path of an hv3 widget into which
		the new resource should be loaded. This is useful for
		implementing browsers that support HTML frames and iframes.

		If the script returns an empty string the request is 
		abandoned and the new resource never loaded and the
		form data (if any) not submitted.

		If the option is set to an empty string the new resource is
		always loaded into the hv3 widget itself.
	}]

[Section Widget Command]
	The [SQ hv3] command creates a new Tcl command whose name is
	pathName. This command may be used to invoke various operations on
	the widget as follows:

[Subcommand {
	pathName cget _option_
		Returns the current value of the configuration option given
		by option. Option may have any of the values accepted by
		the [SQ hv3] command.
}]

[Subcommand {
	pathName configure _?option?_ _?value?_
		Query or modify the configuration options of the widget. If
		no option is specified, returns a list describing all of
		the available options for pathName (see Tk_ConfigureInfo
		for information on the format of this list). If option is
		specified with no value, then the command returns a list
		describing the one named option (this list will be
		identical to the corresponding sublist of the value
		returned if no option is specified). If one or more
		option-value pairs are specified, then the command modifies
		the given widget option(s) to have the given value(s); in
		this case the command returns an empty string. Option may
		have any of the values accepted by the [SQ hv3] command.
}]

[Subcommand {
	pathName goto _uri_
		Load the resource at _uri_ into the widget. If _uri_ is 
		not an absolute URI, it is resolved with respect to 
		the widget's current document URI (or <BASE> element
		contents, if present).
}]

[Subcommand {
	pathName stop
		Abandon all pending requests. All request handle objects 
		that are still outstanding are destroyed (it is an error
		to use such a request handle after calling [SQ stop]).
}]

[Section Request Handles]
	To be useful, the user must provide the hv3 with some way to
	request resources ((X)HTML documents, CSS stylesheets and binary 
	image files) identified by URI for display. To this end, the
	user configures a _-requestcmd_ script with the hv3 widget.
	Each time a resource is required, the _-requestcmd_ script
	is evaluated with a single argument, a request handle object
	identifier, appended to it.

	A request handle object is a snit object. The _-requestcmd_
	script can query the object to determine the parameters of the
	request and then invoke object methods to return data and
	meta data. The key APIs are the _-uri_ option and the 
	[SQ finish] method.

	Data may be returned asynchronously. That is, it is not necessary
	to return data from within the _-requestcmd_ evaluation, the
	request handle may be stored and data returned at some later time.

[Subsection Request Handle Options]

[Option enctype {
	This option is used by "POST" requests, which may be made by an
	hv3 widget if the loaded document contains a form and the end-user
	submits it. For a "GET" request (all other requests, the usual
	case) it is set to an empty string.

	The cannonical test to check if a given request is a POST or GET
	request is:
	
	[Code {
		if {[$handle cget -postdata] ne ""} {
		  # This is a POST request.
		} else {
		  # This is a GET request.
		}
	}]

	For POST requests, this option may be set by the Hv3 widget to
	contain the Content-Type of the data stored in the _-postdata_
	option. For example "application/x-www-form-urlencoded".
}]

[Option header {
	The Hv3 widget sets this option to an empty string before passing
	the request handle to the user code.

	The user code may set this option to a list containing data to
	be handled by the hv3 widget as if it had been returned as the
	HTTP header for an HTTP request. The list consists of alternating
	HTTP header-names and values. This is the same format as the 
	"meta" element of the "state array" interface used by Tcl's 
	built-in http package. 

	The Hv3 widget interprets the following HTTP headers:

[Bulletlist {
		TODO.
}]
}]
[Option mimetype {
	The Hv3 widget sets this option to the expected mime type of the
	resource requested.

	If the user code knows the mime type of the resource being returned,
	it should set this option before the first invocation of the 
	[SQ append] method. Useful values recognized by the hv3 widget 
	include "text/xhtml" and "image/gif".
}]
[Option postdata {
	This option is used by "POST" requests, which may be made by an
	hv3 widget if the loaded document contains a form and the end-user
	submits it.

	It contains the data to be posted.
}]
[Option requestheader {
	The Hv3 widget sets this option to a list of HTTP header-names and
	values to be handled as request parameters for an HTTP request (i.e.
	the "referrer" header). 

	The user code should not change the value of this option.
}]
[Option uri {
	This option is always set by the Hv3 widget before passing the
	request handle to the user code. It contains the absolute URI
	of the resource required by the widget.

	The user code should not change the value of this option.
}]

[Subsection Request Handle Methods]

[Subcommand {
	requestHandle append _data_
		This method should be invoked one or more times to return 
		data to the hv3 widget. 

		The data passed to this method should always be binary data.
		If the data is actually text data for a document or stylesheet,
		it's encoding is determined based on either a HTTP header
		returned via the [SQ header] option, or a <meta> 
		element in the header section of an HTML or XHTML document.
		If neither of these are present, the assumed encoding is
		either the document encoding in the case of linked CSS
		stylesheet, or the value returned by [SQ encoding system] for
		an HTML or XHTML document.
}]

[Subcommand {
	requestHandle finish
		This method should be called after all data has been 
		obtained. The request handle object is deleted by the
		system from within this call, so the object may not be used
		after this method has been invoked.
}]

[Section Examples ]

[Subsection Custom URI Schemes]

	The hv3 widget may seem a little unusual at first in that there
	is no interface to feed data directly from the users script to
	the widget. Instead, the widget requests the required data by
	invoking the _-requestcmd_ script. Data is identified by
	the _-uri_ option of the request handle passed as an argument.

	The reason for this is that the widget often deals with documents
	that contain linked resources (external CSS stylesheets or images). 
	The resources are not always known when the user script initiates
	loading the document. For example, if the following document is
	to be loaded from URI "http://tkhtml.tcl.tk":

	[Code {
		<HTML>
		  <BODY>
		    <IMG src="image.gif">
		  </BODY>
		</HTML>
	}]

	then the _-requestcmd_ must implement the HTTP protocol. The
	user calls:

	[Code {
		$hv3 goto http://tkhtml.tcl.tk
	}]

	which causes the _-requestcmd_ script to be invoked with a
	request handle argument specifying the URI "http://tkhtml.tcl.tk".

	When the _-requestcmd_ returns the data for the URI 
	"http://tkhtml.tcl.tk", the widget invokes the _-requestcmd_ a
	second time, with a request handle argument specifying the URI
	"http://tkhtml.tcl.tk/image.gif". If the document contained links
	to CSS stylesheets or other images, the _-requestcmd- script would
	be invoked for each of these also.

	All this is fine if you are fetching data from http servers, but
	a little inconvenient if the user script already has the document
	to display ready in a Tcl variable (or variables). The solution 
	here is to invent a custom URI scheme to use within the 
	application. For example, the following example demonstrates a
	 _-requestcmd_ script that implements the "tclvar:", URI scheme
	for refering to global Tcl variables.
	
	[Code {
		proc tclvar_requestcmd {R} {
		  # Get the URI from the request handle. The URI should look 
		  # something like:
		  #
		  #   tclvar:///<global varname>
		  #
		  set uri \[$R cget -uri]

		  # Strip "tclvar:///" from the start of the URI.
		  set var \[string range $uri 10 end]

		  # Return the data in the global variable $var to the widget.
		  global $var
		  $R finish \[set $var]
		}
	}]

	And a simple script for using this _-requestcmd_:

	[Code {
		set my_document {
		  <HTML>
		    <LINK rel="stylesheet" href="my_stylesheet">
		    <BODY>
		      <P>Some red text.</P>
		    </BODY>
		  </HTML>
		}
		set my_stylesheet {
		  P { color : red }
		}
		
		::hv3::hv3 .hv3 
		pack .hv3 -fill both -expand true

		.hv3 configure -requestcmd tclvar_requestcmd
		.hv3 goto tclvar:///my_document
	}]

	Note the complication in the code above - the string "tclvar:///" is
	found at the start of each URI passed to [SQ tclvar_requestcmd]. This
	is because Hv3 resolves and escapes all URIs against the base URI 
	of the currently loaded document before passing them to the 
	 _-requestcmd_. This means you need to be careful with special
	characters. If the name of the variable storing the stylesheet
	document in the above example were _::css::my_stylesheet_, then
	markup like this:

	[Code {
		<LINK rel="stylesheet" href="::css::my_stylesheet">
	}]

	would not work. The string "::css::my_stylesheet" is not a valid
	relative or absolute URI, so the results of resolving it against 
	the base URI of the document, "tclvar:///my_document", are not 
	defined. The solution is to escape the variable names using URI
	escapes. The Tkhtml3 package provides the [SQ ::tkhtml::encode]
	and [SQ ::tkhtml::decode] commands for escaping and unescaping
	strings, respectively. After modifying the _-requestcmd_ proc
	to support escaped strings, it looks like this:

	[Code {
		proc tclvar_requestcmd {R} {
		  # Get the URI from the request handle. The URI should look 
		  # something like:
		  #
		  #   tclvar:///<global varname>
		  #
		  set uri \[$R cget -uri]

		  # Strip "tclvar:///" from the start of the URI.
		  set var \[::thtml::decode \[string range $uri 10 end]]

		  # Return the data in the global variable $var to the widget.
		  global $var
		  $R finish \[set $var]
		}
	}]

	This could be used with a script like this:

	[Code {
		set my/document {
		  <HTML>
		    <LINK rel="stylesheet" href="%3A%3Acss%3A%3Amy_stylesheet">
		    <BODY>
		      <P>Some red text.</P>
		    </BODY>
		  </HTML>
		}
		namespace eval ::css {
		  set my_stylesheet {
		    P { color : red }
		  }
		}
		
		::hv3::hv3 .hv3
		pack .hv3 -fill both -expand true
		
		.hv3 configure -requestcmd tclvar_requestcmd
		.hv3 goto tclvar:///\[::tkhtml::encode my/document]
	}]

	In this case the two invocation of tclvar_requestcmd are made with
	request handle arguments with the following _-uri_ option values:

	[Code {
		tclvar:///my%2Fdocument
		tclvar:///%3A%3Acss%3A%3Amy_stylesheet
	}]

	Other custom URI scheme handlers could retrieve data by evaluating
	Tcl scripts, querying a database or accessing any other part of the
	application.