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# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.

# This file also includes Pacific islands.

# Notes are at the end of this file

###############################################################################

# Australia

# Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Aus	1917	only	-	Jan	 1	0:01	1:00	D
Rule	Aus	1917	only	-	Mar	25	2:00	0	S
Rule	Aus	1942	only	-	Jan	 1	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Aus	1942	only	-	Mar	29	2:00	0	S
Rule	Aus	1942	only	-	Sep	27	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Aus	1943	1944	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Aus	1943	only	-	Oct	 3	2:00	1:00	D
# Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which
# says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944.  Ignore Whitman's claim that
# 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944.

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
# Northern Territory
Zone Australia/Darwin	 8:43:20 -	LMT	1895 Feb
			 9:00	-	ACST	1899 May
			 9:30	Aus	AC%sT
# Western Australia
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	AW	1974	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AW	1975	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AW	1983	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AW	1984	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AW	1991	only	-	Nov	17	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AW	1992	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AW	2006	only	-	Dec	 3	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AW	2007	2009	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AW	2007	2008	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Zone Australia/Perth	 7:43:24 -	LMT	1895 Dec
			 8:00	Aus	AW%sT	1943 Jul
			 8:00	AW	AW%sT
Zone Australia/Eucla	 8:35:28 -	LMT	1895 Dec
			 8:45	Aus	ACW%sT	1943 Jul
			 8:45	AW	ACW%sT

# Queensland
#
# From Alex Livingston (1996-11-01):
# I have heard or read more than once that some resort islands off the coast
# of Queensland chose to keep observing daylight-saving time even after
# Queensland ceased to.
#
# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
# IATA SSIM (1993-02/1994-09) say that the Holiday Islands (Hayman, Lindeman,
# Hamilton) observed DST for two years after the rest of Queensland stopped.
# Hamilton is the largest, but there is also a Hamilton in Victoria,
# so use Lindeman.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	AQ	1971	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AQ	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AQ	1989	1991	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AQ	1990	1992	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	Holiday	1992	1993	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	Holiday	1993	1994	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Zone Australia/Brisbane	10:12:08 -	LMT	1895
			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1971
			10:00	AQ	AE%sT
Zone Australia/Lindeman  9:55:56 -	LMT	1895
			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1971
			10:00	AQ	AE%sT	1992 Jul
			10:00	Holiday	AE%sT

# South Australia
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	AS	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AS	1986	only	-	Oct	19	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AS	1987	2007	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AS	1972	only	-	Feb	27	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AS	1973	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AS	1986	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AS	1991	only	-	Mar	3	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AS	1992	only	-	Mar	22	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AS	1993	only	-	Mar	7	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AS	1994	only	-	Mar	20	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AS	1995	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AS	2006	only	-	Apr	2	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AS	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AS	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AS	2008	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Australia/Adelaide	9:14:20 -	LMT	1895 Feb
			9:00	-	ACST	1899 May
			9:30	Aus	AC%sT	1971
			9:30	AS	AC%sT

# Tasmania
#
# From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16):
# http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml
# says King Island didn't observe DST from WWII until late 1971.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	AT	1967	only	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AT	1968	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AT	1968	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AT	1969	1971	-	Mar	Sun>=8	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AT	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AT	1973	1981	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AT	1982	1983	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AT	1984	1986	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AT	1986	only	-	Oct	Sun>=15	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AT	1987	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AT	1987	only	-	Oct	Sun>=22	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AT	1988	1990	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AT	1991	1999	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AT	1991	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AT	2000	only	-	Aug	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AT	2001	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AT	2006	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AT	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AT	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Australia/Hobart	9:49:16	-	LMT	1895 Sep
			10:00	-	AEST	1916 Oct  1  2:00
			10:00	1:00	AEDT	1917 Feb
			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1967
			10:00	AT	AE%sT
Zone Australia/Currie	9:35:28	-	LMT	1895 Sep
			10:00	-	AEST	1916 Oct  1  2:00
			10:00	1:00	AEDT	1917 Feb
			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1971 Jul
			10:00	AT	AE%sT

# Victoria
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	AV	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AV	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AV	1973	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AV	1986	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AV	1986	1987	-	Oct	Sun>=15	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AV	1988	1999	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AV	1991	1994	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AV	1995	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AV	2000	only	-	Aug	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AV	2001	2007	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AV	2006	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AV	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AV	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AV	2008	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 -	LMT	1895 Feb
			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1971
			10:00	AV	AE%sT

# New South Wales
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	AN	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AN	1972	only	-	Feb	27	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AN	1973	1981	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AN	1982	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AN	1983	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AN	1986	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AN	1986	only	-	Oct	19	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AN	1987	1999	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AN	1990	1995	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AN	1996	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AN	2000	only	-	Aug	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AN	2001	2007	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	AN	2006	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AN	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AN	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	AN	2008	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Australia/Sydney	10:04:52 -	LMT	1895 Feb
			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1971
			10:00	AN	AE%sT
Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 -	LMT	1895 Feb
			10:00	-	AEST	1896 Aug 23
			9:00	-	ACST	1899 May
			9:30	Aus	AC%sT	1971
			9:30	AN	AC%sT	2000
			9:30	AS	AC%sT

# Lord Howe Island
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	LH	1981	1984	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	LH	1982	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00	0	S
Rule	LH	1985	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0:30	D
Rule	LH	1986	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00	0	S
Rule	LH	1986	only	-	Oct	19	2:00	0:30	D
Rule	LH	1987	1999	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0:30	D
Rule	LH	1990	1995	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00	0	S
Rule	LH	1996	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	LH	2000	only	-	Aug	lastSun	2:00	0:30	D
Rule	LH	2001	2007	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0:30	D
Rule	LH	2006	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	0	S
Rule	LH	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	LH	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	0	S
Rule	LH	2008	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00	0:30	D
Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 -	LMT	1895 Feb
			10:00	-	AEST	1981 Mar
			10:30	LH	LH%sT

# Australian miscellany
#
# Ashmore Is, Cartier
# no indigenous inhabitants; only seasonal caretakers
# no times are set
#
# Coral Sea Is
# no indigenous inhabitants; only meteorologists
# no times are set
#
# Macquarie
# Permanent occupation (scientific station) 1911-1915 and since 25 March 1948;
# sealing and penguin oil station operated Nov 1899 to Apr 1919.  See the
# Tasmania Parks & Wildlife Service history of sealing at Macquarie Island
# http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1828
# http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1831
# Guess that it was like Australia/Hobart while inhabited before 2010.
#
# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-10):
# We got these changes from the Australian Antarctic Division:
# - Macquarie Island will stay on UTC+11 for winter and therefore not
# switch back from daylight savings time when other parts of Australia do
# on 4 April.
#
# From Arthur David Olson (2013-05-23):
# The 1919 transition is overspecified below so pre-2013 zics
# will produce a binary file with an [A]EST-type as the first 32-bit type;
# this is required for correct handling of times before 1916 by
# pre-2013 versions of localtime.
Zone Antarctica/Macquarie 0	-	zzz	1899 Nov
			10:00	-	AEST	1916 Oct  1  2:00
			10:00	1:00	AEDT	1917 Feb
			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1919 Apr  1  0:00s
			0	-	zzz	1948 Mar 25
			10:00	Aus	AE%sT	1967
			10:00	AT	AE%sT	2010 Apr  4  3:00
			11:00	-	MIST	# Macquarie I Standard Time

# Christmas
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Indian/Christmas	7:02:52 -	LMT	1895 Feb
			7:00	-	CXT	# Christmas Island Time

# Cocos (Keeling) Is
# These islands were ruled by the Ross family from about 1830 to 1978.
# We don't know when standard time was introduced; for now, we guess 1900.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Indian/Cocos	6:27:40	-	LMT	1900
			6:30	-	CCT	# Cocos Islands Time


# Fiji

# Milne gives 11:55:44 for Suva.

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-11-10):
# According to Fiji Broadcasting Corporation,  Fiji plans to re-introduce DST
# from November 29th 2009  to April 25th 2010.
#
# "Daylight savings to commence this month"
# http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html

# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-11-10):
# The Fiji Government has posted some more details about the approved
# amendments:
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml

# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-03):
# The Cabinet in Fiji has decided to end DST about a month early, on
# 2010-03-28 at 03:00.
# The plan is to observe DST again, from 2010-10-24 to sometime in March
# 2011 (last Sunday a good guess?).
#
# Official source:
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166
#
# A bit more background info here:
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-10-24):
# According to Radio Fiji and Fiji Times online, Fiji will end DST 3
# weeks earlier than expected - on March 6, 2011, not March 27, 2011...
# Here is confirmation from Government of the Republic of the Fiji Islands,
# Ministry of Information (fiji.gov.fj) web site:
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html

# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-10-03):
# Now the dates have been confirmed, and at least our start date
# assumption was correct (end date was one week wrong).
#
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
# which says
# Members of the public are reminded to change their time to one hour in
# advance at 2am to 3am on October 23, 2011 and one hour back at 3am to
# 2am on February 26 next year.

# From Ken Rylander (2011-10-24)
# Another change to the Fiji DST end date. In the TZ database the end date for
# Fiji DST 2012, is currently Feb 26. This has been changed to Jan 22.
#
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5017:amendments-to-daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
# states:
#
# The end of daylight saving scheduled initially for the 26th of February 2012
# has been brought forward to the 22nd of January 2012.
# The commencement of daylight saving will remain unchanged and start
# on the  23rd of October, 2011.

# From the Fiji Government Online Portal (2012-08-21) via Steffen Thorsen:
# The Minister for Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment Mr Jone Usamate
# today confirmed that Fiji will start daylight savings at 2 am on Sunday 21st
# October 2012 and end at 3 am on Sunday 20th January 2013.
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6702&catid=71&Itemid=155

# From the Fijian Government Media Center (2013-08-30) via David Wheeler:
# Fiji will start daylight savings on Sunday 27th October, 2013 ...
# move clocks forward by one hour from 2am
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVING-STARTS-ON-SUNDAY,-27th-OCTOBER-201.aspx

# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-01-10):
# Fiji will end DST on 2014-01-19 02:00:
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVINGS-TO-END-THIS-MONTH-%281%29.aspx

# From Ken Rylander (2014-10-20):
# DST will start Nov. 2 this year.
# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVING-STARTS-ON-SUNDAY,-NOVEMBER-2ND.aspx

# From a government order dated 2015-08-26 and published as Legal Notice No. 77
# in the Government of Fiji Gazette Supplement No. 24 (2015-08-28),
# via Ken Rylander (2015-09-02):
# the daylight saving period is 1 hour in advance of the standard time
# commencing at 2.00 am on Sunday 1st November, 2015 and ending at
# 3.00 am on Sunday 17th January, 2016.

# From Paul Eggert (2015-09-01):
# For now, guess DST from 02:00 the first Sunday in November to
# 03:00 the third Sunday in January.  Although ad hoc, it matches
# transitions since late 2014 and seems more likely to match future
# practice than guessing no DST.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Fiji	1998	1999	-	Nov	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Fiji	1999	2000	-	Feb	lastSun	3:00	0	-
Rule	Fiji	2009	only	-	Nov	29	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Fiji	2010	only	-	Mar	lastSun	3:00	0	-
Rule	Fiji	2010	2013	-	Oct	Sun>=21	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Fiji	2011	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	-
Rule	Fiji	2012	2013	-	Jan	Sun>=18	3:00	0	-
Rule	Fiji	2014	only	-	Jan	Sun>=18	2:00	0	-
Rule	Fiji	2014	max	-	Nov	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Fiji	2015	max	-	Jan	Sun>=15	3:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Pacific/Fiji	11:55:44 -	LMT	1915 Oct 26 # Suva
			12:00	Fiji	FJ%sT	# Fiji Time

# French Polynesia
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Pacific/Gambier	 -8:59:48 -	LMT	1912 Oct # Rikitea
			 -9:00	-	GAMT	# Gambier Time
Zone	Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 -	LMT	1912 Oct
			 -9:30	-	MART	# Marquesas Time
Zone	Pacific/Tahiti	 -9:58:16 -	LMT	1912 Oct # Papeete
			-10:00	-	TAHT	# Tahiti Time
# Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;
# it is uninhabited.

# Guam
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Pacific/Guam	-14:21:00 -	LMT	1844 Dec 31
			 9:39:00 -	LMT	1901        # Agana
			10:00	-	GST	2000 Dec 23 # Guam
			10:00	-	ChST	# Chamorro Standard Time
Link Pacific/Guam Pacific/Saipan # N Mariana Is

# Kiribati
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Tarawa	 11:32:04 -	LMT	1901 # Bairiki
			 12:00	-	GILT	# Gilbert Is Time
Zone Pacific/Enderbury	-11:24:20 -	LMT	1901
			-12:00	-	PHOT	1979 Oct # Phoenix Is Time
			-11:00	-	PHOT	1995
			 13:00	-	PHOT
Zone Pacific/Kiritimati	-10:29:20 -	LMT	1901
			-10:40	-	LINT	1979 Oct # Line Is Time
			-10:00	-	LINT	1995
			 14:00	-	LINT

# N Mariana Is
# See Pacific/Guam.

# Marshall Is
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Majuro	11:24:48 -	LMT	1901
			11:00	-	MHT	1969 Oct # Marshall Islands Time
			12:00	-	MHT
Zone Pacific/Kwajalein	11:09:20 -	LMT	1901
			11:00	-	MHT	1969 Oct
			-12:00	-	KWAT	1993 Aug 20 # Kwajalein Time
			12:00	-	MHT

# Micronesia
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Chuuk	10:07:08 -	LMT	1901
			10:00	-	CHUT	# Chuuk Time
Zone Pacific/Pohnpei	10:32:52 -	LMT	1901 # Kolonia
			11:00	-	PONT	# Pohnpei Time
Zone Pacific/Kosrae	10:51:56 -	LMT	1901
			11:00	-	KOST	1969 Oct # Kosrae Time
			12:00	-	KOST	1999
			11:00	-	KOST

# Nauru
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Pacific/Nauru	11:07:40 -	LMT	1921 Jan 15 # Uaobe
			11:30	-	NRT	1942 Mar 15 # Nauru Time
			9:00	-	JST	1944 Aug 15
			11:30	-	NRT	1979 May
			12:00	-	NRT

# New Caledonia
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	NC	1977	1978	-	Dec	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	NC	1978	1979	-	Feb	27	0:00	0	-
Rule	NC	1996	only	-	Dec	 1	2:00s	1:00	S
# Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.
Rule	NC	1997	only	-	Mar	 2	2:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Pacific/Noumea	11:05:48 -	LMT	1912 Jan 13 # Nouméa
			11:00	NC	NC%sT


###############################################################################

# New Zealand

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	NZ	1927	only	-	Nov	 6	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	NZ	1928	only	-	Mar	 4	2:00	0	M
Rule	NZ	1928	1933	-	Oct	Sun>=8	2:00	0:30	S
Rule	NZ	1929	1933	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00	0	M
Rule	NZ	1934	1940	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	0	M
Rule	NZ	1934	1940	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0:30	S
Rule	NZ	1946	only	-	Jan	 1	0:00	0	S
# Since 1957 Chatham has been 45 minutes ahead of NZ, but there's no
# convenient single notation for the date and time of this transition
# so we must duplicate the Rule lines.
Rule	NZ	1974	only	-	Nov	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	Chatham	1974	only	-	Nov	Sun>=1	2:45s	1:00	D
Rule	NZ	1975	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
Rule	Chatham	1975	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:45s	0	S
Rule	NZ	1975	1988	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	Chatham	1975	1988	-	Oct	lastSun	2:45s	1:00	D
Rule	NZ	1976	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	Chatham	1976	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:45s	0	S
Rule	NZ	1989	only	-	Oct	Sun>=8	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	Chatham	1989	only	-	Oct	Sun>=8	2:45s	1:00	D
Rule	NZ	1990	2006	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	Chatham	1990	2006	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:45s	1:00	D
Rule	NZ	1990	2007	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	S
Rule	Chatham	1990	2007	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:45s	0	S
Rule	NZ	2007	max	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	Chatham	2007	max	-	Sep	lastSun	2:45s	1:00	D
Rule	NZ	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	Chatham	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:45s	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Auckland	11:39:04 -	LMT	1868 Nov  2
			11:30	NZ	NZ%sT	1946 Jan  1
			12:00	NZ	NZ%sT
Zone Pacific/Chatham	12:13:48 -	LMT	1868 Nov  2
			12:15	-	CHAST	1946 Jan  1
			12:45	Chatham	CHA%sT

Link Pacific/Auckland Antarctica/McMurdo

# Auckland Is
# uninhabited; Māori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers,
# and scientific personnel have wintered

# Campbell I
# minor whaling stations operated 1909/1914
# scientific station operated 1941/1995;
# previously whalers, sealers, pastoralists, and scientific personnel wintered
# was probably like Pacific/Auckland

# Cook Is
# From Shanks & Pottenger:
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Cook	1978	only	-	Nov	12	0:00	0:30	HS
Rule	Cook	1979	1991	-	Mar	Sun>=1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Cook	1979	1990	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00	0:30	HS
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Rarotonga	-10:39:04 -	LMT	1901        # Avarua
			-10:30	-	CKT	1978 Nov 12 # Cook Is Time
			-10:00	Cook	CK%sT

###############################################################################


# Niue
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Pacific/Niue	-11:19:40 -	LMT	1901        # Alofi
			-11:20	-	NUT	1951        # Niue Time
			-11:30	-	NUT	1978 Oct  1
			-11:00	-	NUT

# Norfolk
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Pacific/Norfolk	11:11:52 -	LMT	1901 # Kingston
			11:12	-	NMT	1951 # Norfolk Mean Time
			11:30	-	NFT	1974 Oct 27 02:00 # Norfolk T.
			11:30	1:00	NFST	1975 Mar  2 02:00
			11:30	-	NFT	2015 Oct  4 02:00
			11:00	-	NFT

# Palau (Belau)
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Palau	8:57:56 -	LMT	1901 # Koror
			9:00	-	PWT	# Palau Time

# Papua New Guinea
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 -	LMT	1880
			9:48:32	-	PMMT	1895 # Port Moresby Mean Time
			10:00	-	PGT	# Papua New Guinea Time
#
# From Paul Eggert (2014-10-13):
# Base the Bougainville entry on the Arawa-Kieta region, which appears to have
# the most people even though it was devastated in the Bougainville Civil War.
#
# Although Shanks gives 1942-03-15 / 1943-11-01 for JST, these dates
# are apparently rough guesswork from the starts of military campaigns.
# The World War II entries below are instead based on Arawa-Kieta.
# The Japanese occupied Kieta in July 1942,
# according to the Pacific War Online Encyclopedia
# http://pwencycl.kgbudge.com/B/o/Bougainville.htm
# and seem to have controlled it until their 1945-08-21 surrender.
#
# The Autonomous Region of Bougainville plans to switch from UTC+10 to UTC+11
# on 2014-12-28 at 02:00.  They call UTC+11 "Bougainville Standard Time";
# abbreviate this as BST.  See:
# http://www.bougainville24.com/bougainville-issues/bougainville-gets-own-timezone/
#
Zone Pacific/Bougainville 10:22:16 -	LMT	1880
			 9:48:32 -	PMMT	1895
			10:00	-	PGT	1942 Jul
			 9:00	-	JST	1945 Aug 21
			10:00	-	PGT	2014 Dec 28  2:00
			11:00	-	BST

# Pitcairn
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Pitcairn	-8:40:20 -	LMT	1901        # Adamstown
			-8:30	-	PNT	1998 Apr 27  0:00
			-8:00	-	PST	# Pitcairn Standard Time

# American Samoa
Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago	 12:37:12 -	LMT	1879 Jul  5
			-11:22:48 -	LMT	1911
			-11:00	-	NST	1967 Apr    # N=Nome
			-11:00	-	BST	1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering
			-11:00	-	SST	            # S=Samoa
Link Pacific/Pago_Pago Pacific/Midway # in US minor outlying islands

# Samoa (formerly and also known as Western Samoa)

# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-16):
# We have been in contact with the government of Samoa again, and received
# the following info:
#
# "Cabinet has now approved Daylight Saving to be effected next year
# commencing from the last Sunday of September 2010 and conclude first
# Sunday of April 2011."
#
# Background info:
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html
#
# Samoa's Daylight Saving Time Act 2009 is available here, but does not
# contain any dates:
# http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf

# From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2010-10-07):
# Please see
# http://www.mcil.gov.ws
# the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Labour (sideframe) "Last Sunday
# September 2010 (26/09/10) - adjust clocks forward from 12:00 midnight
# to 01:00am and First Sunday April 2011 (03/04/11) - adjust clocks
# backwards from 1:00am to 12:00am"

# From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-03-07):
# [http://www.mcil.gov.ws/ftcd/daylight_saving_2011.pdf]
#
# ... when the standard time strikes the hour of four o'clock (4.00am
# or 0400 Hours) on the 2nd April 2011, then all instruments used to
# measure standard time are to be adjusted/changed to three o'clock
# (3:00am or 0300Hrs).

# From David Zülke (2011-05-09):
# Subject: Samoa to move timezone from east to west of international date line
#
# http://www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/markets/newsfeeditem.aspx?id=138501958347963

# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-27):
# The International Date Line Act 2011
# http://www.parliament.gov.ws/images/ACTS/International_Date_Line_Act__2011_-_Eng.pdf
# changed Samoa from UTC-11 to UTC+13, effective "12 o'clock midnight, on
# Thursday 29th December 2011".  The International Date Line was adjusted
# accordingly.

# From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-09-02):
# http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
#
# here is the official website publication for Samoa DST and dateline change
#
# DST
# Year  End      Time              Start        Time
# 2011  - - -    - - -             24 September 3:00am to 4:00am
# 2012  01 April 4:00am to 3:00am  - - -        - - -
#
# Dateline Change skip Friday 30th Dec 2011
# Thursday 29th December 2011	23:59:59 Hours
# Saturday 31st December 2011	00:00:00 Hours
#
# From Nicholas Pereira (2012-09-10):
# Daylight Saving Time commences on Sunday 30th September 2012 and
# ends on Sunday 7th of April 2013....
# http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
#
# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08):
# That web page currently lists transitions for 2012/3 and 2013/4.
# Assume the pattern instituted in 2012 will continue indefinitely.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	WS	2010	only	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	1	D
Rule	WS	2011	only	-	Apr	Sat>=1	4:00	0	S
Rule	WS	2011	only	-	Sep	lastSat	3:00	1	D
Rule	WS	2012	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	4:00	0	S
Rule	WS	2012	max	-	Sep	lastSun	3:00	1	D
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Apia	 12:33:04 -	LMT	1879 Jul  5
			-11:26:56 -	LMT	1911
			-11:30	-	WSST	1950
			-11:00	WS	S%sT	2011 Dec 29 24:00 # S=Samoa
			 13:00	WS	WS%sT

# Solomon Is
# excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 -	LMT	1912 Oct # Honiara
			11:00	-	SBT	# Solomon Is Time

# Tokelau Is
#
# From Gwillim Law (2011-12-29)
# A correspondent informed me that Tokelau, like Samoa, will be skipping
# December 31 this year ...
#
# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-07-25)
# ... we double checked by calling hotels and offices based in Tokelau asking
# about the time there, and they all told a time that agrees with UTC+13....
# Shanks says UTC-10 from 1901 [but] ... there is a good chance the change
# actually was to UTC-11 back then.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2012-07-25)
# A Google Books snippet of Appendix to the Journals of the House of
# Representatives of New Zealand, Session 1948,
# <http://books.google.com/books?id=ZaVCAQAAIAAJ>, page 65, says Tokelau
# was "11 hours slow on G.M.T."  Go with Thorsen and assume Shanks & Pottenger
# are off by an hour starting in 1901.

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Pacific/Fakaofo	-11:24:56 -	LMT	1901
			-11:00	-	TKT	2011 Dec 30 # Tokelau Time
			13:00	-	TKT

# Tonga
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Tonga	1999	only	-	Oct	 7	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Tonga	2000	only	-	Mar	19	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Tonga	2000	2001	-	Nov	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Tonga	2001	2002	-	Jan	lastSun	2:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Tongatapu	12:19:20 -	LMT	1901
			12:20	-	TOT	1941 # Tonga Time
			13:00	-	TOT	1999
			13:00	Tonga	TO%sT

# Tuvalu
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Funafuti	11:56:52 -	LMT	1901
			12:00	-	TVT	# Tuvalu Time


# US minor outlying islands

# Howland, Baker
# Howland was mined for guano by American companies 1857-1878 and British
# 1886-1891; Baker was similar but exact dates are not known.
# Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; U.S. military bases 1943-1944;
# uninhabited thereafter.
# Howland observed Hawaii Standard Time (UT-10:30) in 1937;
# see page 206 of Elgen M. Long and Marie K. Long,
# Amelia Earhart: the Mystery Solved, Simon & Schuster (2000).
# So most likely Howland and Baker observed Hawaii Time from 1935
# until they were abandoned after the war.

# Jarvis
# Mined for guano by American companies 1857-1879 and British 1883?-1891?.
# Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; IGY scientific base 1957-1958;
# uninhabited thereafter.
# no information; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati

# Johnston
#
# From Paul Eggert (2014-03-11):
# Sometimes Johnston kept Hawaii time, and sometimes it was an hour behind.
# Details are uncertain.  We have no data for Johnston after 1970, so
# treat it like Hawaii for now.
#
# In his memoirs of June 6th to October 4, 1945
# <http://www.315bw.org/Herb_Bach.htm> (2005), Herbert C. Bach writes,
# "We started our letdown to Kwajalein Atoll and landed there at 5:00 AM
# Johnston time, 1:30 AM Kwajalein time."  This was in June 1945, and
# confirms that Johnston kept the same time as Honolulu in summer 1945.
#
# From Lyle McElhaney (2014-03-11):
# [W]hen JI was being used for that [atomic bomb] testing, the time being used
# was not Hawaiian time but rather the same time being used on the ships,
# which had a GMT offset of -11 hours.  This apparently applied to at least the
# time from Operation Newsreel (Hardtack I/Teak shot, 1958-08-01) to the last
# Operation Fishbowl shot (Tightrope, 1962-11-04).... [See] Herman Hoerlin,
# "The United States High-Altitude Test Experience: A Review Emphasizing the
# Impact on the Environment", Los Alamos LA-6405, Oct 1976.
# http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/docs1/00322994.pdf
# See the table on page 4 where he lists GMT and local times for the tests; a
# footnote for the JI tests reads that local time is "JI time = Hawaii Time
# Minus One Hour".
#
# See 'northamerica' for Pacific/Johnston.

# Kingman
# uninhabited

# Midway
# See Pacific/Pago_Pago.

# Palmyra
# uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati

# Wake
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Pacific/Wake	11:06:28 -	LMT	1901
			12:00	-	WAKT	# Wake Time


# Vanuatu
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Vanuatu	1983	only	-	Sep	25	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Vanuatu	1984	1991	-	Mar	Sun>=23	0:00	0	-
Rule	Vanuatu	1984	only	-	Oct	23	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Vanuatu	1985	1991	-	Sep	Sun>=23	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Vanuatu	1992	1993	-	Jan	Sun>=23	0:00	0	-
Rule	Vanuatu	1992	only	-	Oct	Sun>=23	0:00	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Pacific/Efate	11:13:16 -	LMT	1912 Jan 13 # Vila
			11:00	Vanuatu	VU%sT	# Vanuatu Time

# Wallis and Futuna
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Pacific/Wallis	12:15:20 -	LMT	1901
			12:00	-	WFT	# Wallis & Futuna Time

###############################################################################

# NOTES

# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.

# From Paul Eggert (2014-10-31):
#
# Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
# Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
#
# Gwillim Law writes that a good source
# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
# of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
# IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
#
# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
# I found in the UCLA library.
#
# For data circa 1899, a common source is:
# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
# http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
#
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
#
# I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
# Corrections are welcome!
#		std	dst
#		LMT		Local Mean Time
#	  8:00	AWST	AWDT	Western Australia
#	  8:45	ACWST	ACWDT	Central Western Australia*
#	  9:00	JST		Japan
#	  9:30	ACST	ACDT	Central Australia
#	 10:00	AEST	AEDT	Eastern Australia
#	 10:00	ChST		Chamorro
#	 10:30	LHST	LHDT	Lord Howe*
#	 11:00	BST		Bougainville*
#	 11:30	NZMT	NZST	New Zealand through 1945
#	 12:00	NZST	NZDT	New Zealand 1946-present
#	 12:15	CHAST		Chatham through 1945*
#	 12:45	CHAST	CHADT	Chatham 1946-present*
#	 13:00	WSST	WSDT	(western) Samoa 2011-present*
#	-11:30	WSST		Western Samoa through 1950*
#	-11:00	SST		Samoa
#	-10:00	HST		Hawaii
#	- 8:00	PST		Pitcairn*
#
# See the 'northamerica' file for Hawaii.
# See the 'southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galápagos Is.

###############################################################################

# Australia

# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
# Daylight saving time has long been controversial in Australia, pitting
# region against region, rural against urban, and local against global.
# For example, in her review of Graeme Davison's _The Unforgiving
# Minute: how Australians learned to tell the time_ (1993), Perth native
# Phillipa J Martyr wrote, "The section entitled 'Saving Daylight' was
# very informative, but was (as can, sadly, only be expected from a
# Melbourne-based study) replete with the usual chuckleheaded
# Queenslanders and straw-chewing yokels from the West prattling fables
# about fading curtains and crazed farm animals."
# Electronic Journal of Australian and New Zealand History (1997-03-03)
# http://www.jcu.edu.au/aff/history/reviews/davison.htm

# From Paul Eggert (2005-12-08):
# Implementation Dates of Daylight Saving Time within Australia
# http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml
# summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia.

# From Arthur David Olson (2005-12-12):
# Lawlink NSW:Daylight Saving in New South Wales
# http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/Corporate/ll_agdinfo.nsf/pages/community_relations_daylight_saving
# covers New South Wales in particular.

# From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
# We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as 'daylight' time.
# It is called 'summer' time.  Now by a happy coincidence, 'summer'
# and 'standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the
# abbreviation does _not_ change...
# The legislation does not actually define abbreviations, at least
# in this State, but the abbreviation is just commonly taken to be the
# initials of the phrase, and the legislation here uniformly uses
# the phrase 'summer time' and does not use the phrase 'daylight
# time'.
# Announcers on the Commonwealth radio network, the ABC (for Australian
# Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases 'Eastern Standard Time'
# or 'Eastern Summer Time'.  (Note, though, that as I say in the
# current australasia file, there is really no such thing.)  Announcers
# on its overseas service, Radio Australia, use the same phrases
# prefixed by the word 'Australian' when referring to local times;
# time announcements on that service, naturally enough, are made in UTC.

# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
#
# Inspired by Mackin's remarks quoted above, earlier versions of this
# file used "EST" for both Eastern Standard Time and Eastern Summer
# Time in Australia, and similarly for "CST", "CWST", and "WST".
# However, these abbreviations were confusing and were not common
# practice among Australians, and there were justifiable complaints
# about them, so I attempted to survey current Australian usage.
# For the tz database, the full English phrase is not that important;
# what matters is the abbreviation.  It's difficult to survey the web
# directly for abbreviation usage, as there are so many false hits for
# strings like "EST" and "EDT", so I looked for pages that defined an
# abbreviation for eastern or central DST in Australia, and got the
# following numbers of unique hits for the listed Google queries:
#
#   10 "Eastern Daylight Time AEST" site:au [some are false hits]
#   10 "Eastern Summer Time AEST" site:au
#   10 "Summer Time AEDT" site:au
#   13 "EDST Eastern Daylight Saving Time" site:au
#   18 "Summer Time ESST" site:au
#   28 "Eastern Daylight Saving Time EDST" site:au
#   39 "EDT Eastern Daylight Time" site:au [some are false hits]
#   53 "Eastern Daylight Time EDT" site:au [some are false hits]
#   54 "AEDT Australian Eastern Daylight Time" site:au
#  182 "Eastern Daylight Time AEDT" site:au
#
#   17 "Central Daylight Time CDT" site:au [some are false hits]
#   46 "Central Daylight Time ACDT" site:au
#
# I tried several other variants (e.g., "Eastern Summer Time EST") but
# they all returned fewer than 10 unique hits.  I also looked for pages
# mentioning both "western standard time" and an abbreviation, since
# there is no WST in the US to generate false hits, and found:
#
#  156 "western standard time" AWST site:au
#  226 "western standard time" WST site:au
#
# I then surveyed the top ten newspapers in Australia by circulation as
# listed in Wikipedia, using Google queries like "AEDT site:heraldsun.com.au"
# and obtaining estimated counts from the initial page of search results.
# All ten papers greatly preferred "AEDT" to "EDT".  The papers
# surveyed were the Herald Sun, The Daily Telegraph, The Courier-Mail,
# The Sydney Morning Herald, The West Australian, The Age, The Advertiser,
# The Australian, The Financial Review, and The Herald (Newcastle).
#
# I also searched for historical usage, to see whether abbreviations
# like "AEDT" are new.  A Trove search <http://trove.nla.gov.au/>
# found only one newspaper (The Canberra Times) with a house style
# dating back to the 1970s, I expect because other newspapers weren't
# fully indexed.  The Canberra Times strongly preferred abbreviations
# like "AEDT".  The first occurrence of "AEDT" was a World Weather
# column (1971-11-17, page 24), and of "ACDT" was a Scoreboard column
# (1993-01-24, p 16).  The style was the typical usage but was not
# strictly enforced; for example, "Welcome to the twilight zones ..."
# (1994-10-29, p 1) uses the abbreviations AEST/AEDT, CST/CDT, and
# WST, and goes on to say, "The confusion and frustration some feel
# about the lack of uniformity among Australia's six states and two
# territories has prompted one group to form its very own political
# party -- the Sydney-based Daylight Saving Extension Party."
#
# I also surveyed federal government sources.  They did not agree:
#
#   The Australian Government (2014-03-26)
#   http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/our-country/time
#   (This document was produced by the Department of Finance.)
#   AEST ACST AWST AEDT ACDT
#
#   Bureau of Meteorology (2012-11-08)
#   http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/daysavtm.shtml
#   EST CST WST EDT CDT
#
#   Civil Aviation Safety Authority (undated)
#   http://services.casa.gov.au/outnback/inc/pages/episode3/episode-3_time_zones.shtml
#   EST CST WST (no abbreviations given for DST)
#
#   Geoscience Australia (2011-11-24)
#   http://www.ga.gov.au/geodesy/astro/sunrise.jsp
#   AEST ACST AWST AEDT ACDT
#
#   Parliamentary Library (2008-11-10)
#   http://www.aph.gov.au/binaries/library/pubs/rp/2008-09/09rp14.pdf
#   EST CST WST preferred for standard time; AEST AEDT ACST ACDT also used
#
#   The Transport Safety Bureau has an extensive series of accident reports,
#   and investigators seem to use whatever abbreviation they like.
#   Googling site:atsb.gov.au found the following number of unique hits:
#   311 "ESuT", 195 "EDT", 26 "AEDT", 83 "CSuT", 46 "CDT".
#   "_SuT" tended to appear in older reports, and "A_DT" tended to
#   appear in reports of events with international implications.
#
# From the above it appears that there is a working consensus in
# Australia to use trailing "DT" for daylight saving time; although
# some sources use trailing "SST" or "ST" or "SuT" they are by far in
# the minority.  The case for leading "A" is weaker, but since it
# seems to be preferred in the overall web and is preferred in all
# the leading newspaper websites and in many government departments,
# it has a stronger case than omitting the leading "A".  The current
# version of the database therefore uses abbreviations like "AEST" and
# "AEDT" for Australian time zones.

# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
# Shanks & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
# Mark Prior writes that his newspaper
# reports that NSW's fall 1995 change will occur at 2:00,
# but Robert Elz says it's been 3:00 in Victoria since 1970
# and perhaps the newspaper's '2:00' is referring to standard time.
# For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960.

# From Eric Ulevik (1998-01-05):
#
# Here are some URLs to Australian time legislation. These URLs are stable,
# and should probably be included in the data file. There are probably more
# relevant entries in this database.
#
# NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill):
# Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04)
# http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html
# ACT
# Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972
# http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html
# SA
# Standard Time Act, 1898
# http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html

# From David Grosz (2005-06-13):
# It was announced last week that Daylight Saving would be extended by
# one week next year to allow for the 2006 Commonwealth Games.
# Daylight Saving is now to end for next year only on the first Sunday
# in April instead of the last Sunday in March.
#
# From Gwillim Law (2005-06-14):
# I did some Googling and found that all of those states (and territory) plan
# to extend DST together in 2006.
# ACT: http://www.cmd.act.gov.au/mediareleases/fileread.cfm?file=86.txt
# New South Wales: http://www.thecouriermail.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,15538869%255E1702,00.html
# South Australia: http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15555031-1246,00.html
# Tasmania: http://www.media.tas.gov.au/release.php?id=14772
# Victoria: I wasn't able to find anything separate, but the other articles
# allude to it.
# But not Queensland
# http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15564030-1248,00.html

# Northern Territory

# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
# # The NORTHERN TERRITORY..  [ Courtesy N.T. Dept of the Chief Minister ]
# #					[ Nov 1990 ]
# #	N.T. have never utilised any DST due to sub-tropical/tropical location.
# ...
# Zone        Australia/North         9:30    -       CST

# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
# the Northern Territory do[es] not have daylight saving.

# Western Australia

# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
# #  The state of WESTERN AUSTRALIA..  [ Courtesy W.A. dept Premier+Cabinet ]
# #						[ Nov 1990 ]
# #	W.A. suffers from a great deal of public and political opposition to
# #	DST in principle. A bill is brought before parliament in most years, but
# #	usually defeated either in the upper house, or in party caucus
# #	before reaching parliament.
# ...
# Zone	Australia/West		8:00	AW	%sST
# ...
# Rule	AW	1974	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	AW	1975	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	W
# Rule	AW	1983	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	AW	1984	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	W

# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
# Western Australia...do[es] not have daylight saving.

# From John D. Newman via Bradley White (1991-11-02):
# Western Australia is still on "winter time". Some DH in Sydney
# rang me at home a few days ago at 6.00am. (He had just arrived at
# work at 9.00am.)
# W.A. is switching to Summer Time on Nov 17th just to confuse
# everybody again.

# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
# The 1992 ending date used in the rules is a best guess;
# it matches what was used in the past.

# The Australian Bureau of Meteorology FAQ
# http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm
# (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses
# South Australian time even though it's located in Western Australia.

# Queensland
# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
# #   The state of QUEENSLAND.. [ Courtesy Qld. Dept Premier Econ&Trade Devel ]
# #						[ Dec 1990 ]
# ...
# Zone	Australia/Queensland	10:00	AQ	%sST
# ...
# Rule	AQ	1971	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	AQ	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	3:00	0	E
# Rule	AQ	1989	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	AQ	1990	max	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	E

# From Bradley White (1989-12-24):
# "Australia/Queensland" now observes daylight time (i.e. from
# October 1989).

# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
# ...Queensland...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
# at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...

# From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
# I can certainly confirm for my part that Daylight Saving in NSW did in fact
# end on Sunday, 3 March.  I don't know at what hour, though.  (It surprised
# me.)

# From Bradley White (1992-03-08):
# ...there was recently a referendum in Queensland which resulted
# in the experimental daylight saving system being abandoned. So, ...
# ...
# Rule	QLD	1989	1991	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	QLD	1990	1992	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	S
# ...

# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
# The chosen rules the union of the 1971/1972 change and the 1989-1992 changes.

# From Christopher Hunt (2006-11-21), after an advance warning
# from Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-11-01):
# WA are trialing DST for three years.
# http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament/bills.nsf/9A1B183144403DA54825721200088DF1/$File/Bill175-1B.pdf

# From Rives McDow (2002-04-09):
# The most interesting region I have found consists of three towns on the
# southern coast....  South Australia observes daylight saving time; Western
# Australia does not.  The two states are one and a half hours apart.  The
# residents decided to forget about this nonsense of changing the clock so
# much and set the local time 20 hours and 45 minutes from the
# international date line, or right in the middle of the time of South
# Australia and Western Australia....
#
# From Paul Eggert (2002-04-09):
# This is confirmed by the section entitled
# "What's the deal with time zones???" in
# http://www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/~awatkins/null.html
#
# From Alex Livingston (2006-12-07):
# ... it was just on four years ago that I drove along the Eyre Highway,
# which passes through eastern Western Australia close to the southern
# coast of the continent.
#
# I paid particular attention to the time kept there. There can be no
# dispute that UTC+08:45 was considered "the time" from the border
# village just inside the border with South Australia to as far west
# as just east of Caiguna. There can also be no dispute that Eucla is
# the largest population centre in this zone....
#
# Now that Western Australia is observing daylight saving, the
# question arose whether this part of the state would follow suit. I
# just called the border village and confirmed that indeed they have,
# meaning that they are now observing UTC+09:45.
#
# (2006-12-09):
# I personally doubt that either experimentation with daylight saving
# in WA or its introduction in SA had anything to do with the genesis
# of this time zone.  My hunch is that it's been around since well
# before 1975.  I remember seeing it noted on road maps decades ago.

# From Paul Eggert (2006-12-15):
# For lack of better info, assume the tradition dates back to the
# introduction of standard time in 1895.


# southeast Australia
#
# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
# Starting autumn 2008 Victoria, NSW, South Australia, Tasmania and the ACT
# end DST the first Sunday in April and start DST the first Sunday in October.
# http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/daylight-savings-to-span-six-months/2007/06/27/1182623966703.html


# South Australia

# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
# ...South Australia...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
# at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...

# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
# #   The state of SOUTH AUSTRALIA....[ Courtesy of S.A. Dept of Labour ]
# #						[ Nov 1990 ]
# ...
# Zone	Australia/South		9:30	AS	%sST
# ...
# Rule	 AS	1971	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	 AS	1972	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	C
# Rule	 AS	1986	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	3:00	0	C
# Rule	 AS	1991	max	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	C

# From Bradley White (1992-03-11):
# Recent correspondence with a friend in Adelaide
# contained the following exchange:  "Due to the Adelaide Festival,
# South Australia delays setting back our clocks for a few weeks."

# From Robert Elz (1992-03-13):
# I heard that apparently (or at least, it appears that)
# South Aus will have an extra 3 weeks daylight saving every even
# numbered year (from 1990).  That's when the Adelaide Festival
# is on...

# From Robert Elz (1992-03-16, 00:57:07 +1000):
# DST didn't end in Adelaide today (yesterday)....
# But whether it's "4th Sunday" or "2nd last Sunday" I have no idea whatever...
# (it's just as likely to be "the Sunday we pick for this year"...).

# From Bradley White (1994-04-11):
# If Sun, 15 March, 1992 was at +1030 as kre asserts, but yet Sun, 20 March,
# 1994 was at +0930 as John Connolly's customer seems to assert, then I can
# only conclude that the actual rule is more complicated....

# From John Warburton (1994-10-07):
# The new Daylight Savings dates for South Australia ...
# was gazetted in the Government Hansard on Sep 26 1994....
# start on last Sunday in October and end in last sunday in March.

# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.

# Tasmania

# The rules for 1967 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
# via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
# #  The state of TASMANIA.. [Courtesy Tasmanian Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
# #					[ Nov 1990 ]

# From Bill Hart via Guy Harris (1991-10-10):
# Oh yes, the new daylight savings rules are uniquely tasmanian, we have
# 6 weeks a year now when we are out of sync with the rest of Australia
# (but nothing new about that).

# From Alex Livingston (1999-10-04):
# I heard on the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) radio news on the
# (long) weekend that Tasmania, which usually goes its own way in this regard,
# has decided to join with most of NSW, the ACT, and most of Victoria
# (Australia) and start daylight saving on the last Sunday in August in 2000
# instead of the first Sunday in October.

# Sim Alam (2000-07-03) reported a legal citation for the 2000/2001 rules:
# http://www.thelaw.tas.gov.au/fragview/42++1968+GS3A@EN+2000070300

# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.

# Victoria

# The rules for 1971 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
# via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
# #   The state of VICTORIA.. [ Courtesy of Vic. Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
# #						[ Nov 1990 ]

# From Scott Harrington (2001-08-29):
# On KQED's "City Arts and Lectures" program last night I heard an
# interesting story about daylight savings time.  Dr. John Heilbron was
# discussing his book "The Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar
# Observatories"[1], and in particular the Shrine of Remembrance[2] located
# in Melbourne, Australia.
#
# Apparently the shrine's main purpose is a beam of sunlight which
# illuminates a special spot on the floor at the 11th hour of the 11th day
# of the 11th month (Remembrance Day) every year in memory of Australia's
# fallen WWI soldiers.  And if you go there on Nov. 11, at 11am local time,
# you will indeed see the sunbeam illuminate the special spot at the
# expected time.
#
# However, that is only because of some special mirror contraption that had
# to be employed, since due to daylight savings time, the true solar time of
# the remembrance moment occurs one hour later (or earlier?).  Perhaps
# someone with more information on this jury-rig can tell us more.
#
# [1] http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/HEISUN.html
# [2] http://www.shrine.org.au

# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.

# New South Wales

# From Arthur David Olson:
# New South Wales and subjurisdictions have their own ideas of a fun time.
# Based on law library research by John Mackin,
# who notes:
#	In Australia, time is not legislated federally, but rather by the
#	individual states.  Thus, while such terms as "Eastern Standard Time"
#	[I mean, of course, Australian EST, not any other kind] are in common
#	use, _they have NO REAL MEANING_, as they are not defined in the
#	legislation.  This is very important to understand.
#	I have researched New South Wales time only...

# From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-26):
# DST will start in NSW on the last Sunday of August, rather than the usual
# October in 2000.  See: Matthew Moore,
# Two months more daylight saving, Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26).
# http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html

# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27):
# See the following official NSW source:
# Daylight Saving in New South Wales.
# http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ
#
# Narrabri Shire (NSW) council has announced it will ignore the extension of
# daylight saving next year.  See:
# Narrabri Council to ignore daylight saving
# http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm
# (1999-07-22).  For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens.
#
# Victoria will following NSW.  See:
# Vic to extend daylight saving (1999-07-28)
# http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm
#
# However, South Australia rejected the DST request.  See:
# South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request (1999-07-19)
# http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm
#
# Queensland also will not observe DST for the Olympics.  See:
# Qld says no to daylight savings for Olympics
# http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm
# (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying
# "Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time
# I voted for it, my wife voted against it and she said to me it's all very
# well for you, you don't have to worry about getting the children out of
# bed, getting them to school, getting them to sleep at night.
# I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules."
#
# Broken Hill will stick with South Australian time in 2000.  See:
# Broken Hill to be behind the times (1999-07-21)
# http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm

# IATA SSIM (1998-09) says that the spring 2000 change for Australian
# Capital Territory, New South Wales except Lord Howe Island and Broken
# Hill, and Victoria will be August 27, presumably due to the Sydney Olympics.

# From Eric Ulevik, referring to Sydney's Sun Herald (2000-08-13), page 29:
# The Queensland Premier Peter Beattie is encouraging northern NSW
# towns to use Queensland time.

# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.

# Yancowinna

# From John Mackin (1989-01-04):
# 'Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna.

# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
# # YANCOWINNA..  [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ]
# #					[ Dec 1990 ]
# ...
# # Yancowinna uses Central Standard Time, despite [its] location on the
# # New South Wales side of the S.A. border. Most business and social dealings
# # are with CST zones, therefore CST is legislated by local government
# # although the switch to Summer Time occurs in line with N.S.W. There have
# # been years when this did not apply, but the historical data is not
# # presently available.
# Zone	Australia/Yancowinna	9:30	 AY	%sST
# ...
# Rule	 AY	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	 AY	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	3:00	0	C
# [followed by other Rules]

# Lord Howe Island

# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
# LHI...		[ Courtesy of Pauline Van Winsen ]
#					[ Dec 1990 ]
# Lord Howe Island is located off the New South Wales coast, and is half an
# hour ahead of NSW time.

# From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-01-27):
# Lord Howe Island summer time in 2000/2001 will commence on the same
# date as the rest of NSW (i.e. 2000-08-27).  For your information the
# Lord Howe Island Board (controlling authority for the Island) is
# seeking the community's views on various options for summer time
# arrangements on the Island, e.g. advance clocks by 1 full hour
# instead of only 30 minutes.  [Dependent] on the wishes of residents
# the Board may approach the NSW government to change the existing
# arrangements.  The starting date for summer time on the Island will
# however always coincide with the rest of NSW.

# From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-10-25):
# Lord Howe Island advances clocks by 30 minutes during DST in NSW and retards
# clocks by 30 minutes when DST finishes. Since DST was most recently
# introduced in NSW, the "changeover" time on the Island has been 02:00 as
# shown on clocks on LHI. I guess this means that for 30 minutes at the start
# of DST, LHI is actually 1 hour ahead of the rest of NSW.

# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# For Lord Howe dates we use Shanks & Pottenger through 1989, and
# Lonergan thereafter.  For times we use Lonergan.

# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.

# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-28):
# According to the official press release, South Australia's extended daylight
# saving period will continue with the same rules as used during the 2008-2009
# summer (southern hemisphere).
#
# From
# http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf
# The extended daylight saving period that South Australia has been trialling
# for over the last year is now set to be ongoing.
# Daylight saving will continue to start on the first Sunday in October each
# year and finish on the first Sunday in April the following year.
# Industrial Relations Minister, Paul Caica, says this provides South Australia
# with a consistent half hour time difference with NSW, Victoria, Tasmania and
# the ACT for all 52 weeks of the year...
#
# We have a wrap-up here:
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html
###############################################################################

# New Zealand

# From Mark Davies (1990-10-03):
# the 1989/90 year was a trial of an extended "daylight saving" period.
# This trial was deemed successful and the extended period adopted for
# subsequent years (with the addition of a further week at the start).
# source - phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office.

# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
# # The Country of New Zealand   (Australia's east island -) Gee they hate that!
# #				   or is Australia the west island of N.Z.
# #	[ courtesy of Geoff Tribble.. Auckland N.Z. ]
# #				[ Nov 1990 ]
# ...
# Rule	NZ      1974    1988	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	NZ	1989	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	NZ      1975    1989	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	S
# Rule	NZ	1990	max	-	Mar	lastSun	3:00	0	S
# ...
# Zone	NZ			12:00	NZ		NZ%sT	# New Zealand
# Zone	NZ-CHAT			12:45	-		NZ-CHAT # Chatham Island

# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
# The chosen rules use the Davies October 8 values for the start of DST in 1989
# rather than the October 1 value.

# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19);
# Shank & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
# Robert Uzgalis writes that the New Zealand Daylight
# Savings Time Order in Council dated 1990-06-18 specifies 2:00 standard
# time on both the first Sunday in October and the third Sunday in March.
# As with Australia, we'll assume the tradition is 2:00s, not 2:00.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# The Department of Internal Affairs (DIA) maintains a brief history,
# as does Carol Squires; see tz-link.htm for the full references.
# Use these sources in preference to Shanks & Pottenger.
#
# For Chatham, IATA SSIM (1991/1999) gives the NZ rules but with
# transitions at 2:45 local standard time; this confirms that Chatham
# is always exactly 45 minutes ahead of Auckland.

# From Colin Sharples (2007-04-30):
# DST will now start on the last Sunday in September, and end on the
# first Sunday in April.  The changes take effect this year, meaning
# that DST will begin on 2007-09-30 2008-04-06.
# http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Services-Daylight-Saving-Daylight-saving-to-be-extended

# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-14):
# Chatham Island time was formally standardized on 1957-01-01 by
# New Zealand's Standard Time Amendment Act 1956 (1956-10-26).
# http://www.austlii.edu.au/nz/legis/hist_act/staa19561956n100244.pdf
# According to Google Books snippet view, a speaker in the New Zealand
# parliamentary debates in 1956 said "Clause 78 makes provision for standard
# time in the Chatham Islands.  The time there is 45 minutes in advance of New
# Zealand time.  I understand that is the time they keep locally, anyhow."
# For now, assume this practice goes back to the introduction of standard time
# in New Zealand, as this would make Chatham Islands time almost exactly match
# LMT back when New Zealand was at UTC+11:30; also, assume Chatham Islands did
# not observe New Zealand's prewar DST.

###############################################################################


# Fiji

# Howse writes (p 153) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji
# enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on Antipodean Time
# instead of the American system (which was one day behind).

# From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
# Fiji will introduce DST effective 0200 local time, 1998-11-01
# until 0300 local time 1999-02-28.  Each year the DST period will
# be from the first Sunday in November until the last Sunday in February.

# From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08):
# IATA SSIM (1999-09) says DST ends 0100 local time.  Go with McDow.

# From the BBC World Service in
# http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/205226.stm (1998-10-31 16:03 UTC):
# The Fijian government says the main reasons for the time change is to
# improve productivity and reduce road accidents.... [T]he move is also
# intended to boost Fiji's ability to attract tourists to witness the dawning
# of the new millennium.

# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/press/2000_09/2000_09_13-05.shtml (2000-09-13)
# reports that Fiji has discontinued DST.


# Kiribati

# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati
# "declared it the same day [throughout] the country as of Jan. 1, 1995"
# as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century.


# Kwajalein

# In comp.risks 14.87 (26 August 1993), Peter Neumann writes:
# I wonder what happened in Kwajalein, where there was NO Friday,
# 1993-08-20.  Thursday night at midnight Kwajalein switched sides with
# respect to the International Date Line, to rejoin its fellow islands,
# going from 11:59 p.m. Thursday to 12:00 m. Saturday in a blink.


# N Mariana Is, Guam

# Howse writes (p 153) "The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
# Philippines and the Ladrones from America," and implies that the Ladrones
# (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.
# For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines;
# see Asia/Manila.

# US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UTC+10 the official standard time,
# under the name "Chamorro Standard Time".  There is no official abbreviation,
# but Congressman Robert A. Underwood, author of the bill that became law,
# wrote in a press release (2000-12-27) that he will seek the use of "ChST".


# Micronesia

# Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16),
# "I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that 'Truk'
# (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10."
#
# Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UTC+10 to UTC+11
# on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now.

# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):
# The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in
# The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information (1999-01-26)
# http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html
# that Truk and Yap are UTC+10, and Ponape and Kosrae are UTC+11.
# We don't know when Kosrae switched from UTC+12; assume January 1 for now.


# Midway

# From Charles T O'Connor, KMTH DJ (1956),
# quoted in the KTMH section of the Radio Heritage Collection
# <http://radiodx.com/spdxr/KMTH.htm> (2002-12-31):
# For the past two months we've been on what is known as Daylight
# Saving Time.  This time has put us on air at 5am in the morning,
# your time down there in New Zealand.  Starting September 2, 1956
# we'll again go back to Standard Time.  This'll mean that we'll go to
# air at 6am your time.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
# We don't know the date of that quote, but we'll guess they
# started DST on June 3.  Possibly DST was observed other years
# in Midway, but we have no record of it.

# Norfolk

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2015-09-23):
# Norfolk Island will change ... from +1130 to +1100:
# https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2015L01483/Explanatory%20Statement/Text
# ... at 12.30 am (by legal time in New South Wales) on 4 October 2015.
# http://www.norfolkisland.gov.nf/nia/MediaRelease/Media%20Release%20Norfolk%20Island%20Standard%20Time%20Change.pdf

# From Paul Eggert (2015-09-23):
# Transitions before 2015 are from timeanddate.com, which consulted
# the Norfolk Island Museum and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's
# Norfolk Island station, and found no record of Norfolk observing DST
# other than in 1974/5.  See:
# http://www.timeanddate.com/time/australia/norfolk-island.html

# Pitcairn

# From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
# A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998
# with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time.  The Proclamation is as follows.
#
#	The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be
#	Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known
#	as Pitcairn Standard Time.
#
# ... I have also seen Pitcairn listed as UTC minus 9 hours in several
# references, and can only assume that this was an error in interpretation
# somehow in light of this proclamation.

# From Rives McDow (1999-11-09):
# The Proclamation regarding Pitcairn time came into effect on 27 April 1998
# ... at midnight.

# From Howie Phelps (1999-11-10), who talked to a Pitcairner via shortwave:
# Betty Christian told me yesterday that their local time is the same as
# Pacific Standard Time. They used to be 1/2 hour different from us here in
# Sacramento but it was changed a couple of years ago.


# (Western) Samoa and American Samoa

# Howse writes (p 153, citing p 10 of the 1883-11-18 New York Herald)
# that in 1879 the King of Samoa decided to change
# "the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system,
# ordaining - by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery - that
# the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year."

# Although Shanks & Pottenger says they both switched to UTC-11:30
# in 1911, and to UTC-11 in 1950. many earlier sources give UTC-11
# for American Samoa, e.g., the US National Bureau of Standards
# circular "Standard Time Throughout the World", 1932.
# Assume American Samoa switched to UTC-11 in 1911, not 1950,
# and that after 1950 they agreed until (western) Samoa skipped a
# day in 2011.  Assume also that the Samoas follow the US and New
# Zealand's "ST"/"DT" style of daylight-saving abbreviations.

# Tonga

# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that "Tonga has been plotting
# to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time."
# Since Kiribati has moved the Date Line it's not clear what Tonga will do.

# Don Mundell writes in the 1997-02-20 Tonga Chronicle
# How Tonga became 'The Land where Time Begins':
# http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm
#
# Until 1941 Tonga maintained a standard time 50 minutes ahead of NZST
# 12 hours and 20 minutes ahead of GMT.  When New Zealand adjusted its
# standard time in 1940s, Tonga had the choice of subtracting from its
# local time to come on the same standard time as New Zealand or of
# advancing its time to maintain the differential of 13 degrees
# (approximately 50 minutes ahead of New Zealand time).
#
# Because His Majesty King Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince
# Tungī, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time
# begins, the Legislative Assembly approved the latter change.
#
# But some of the older, more conservative members from the outer
# islands objected. "If at midnight on Dec. 31, we move ahead 40
# minutes, as your Royal Highness wishes, what becomes of the 40
# minutes we have lost?"
#
# The Crown Prince, presented an unanswerable argument: "Remember that
# on the World Day of Prayer, you would be the first people on Earth
# to say your prayers in the morning."

# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# Shanks & Pottenger say the transition was on 1968-10-01; go with Mundell.

# From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-03):
# Tonga's director of tourism, who is also secretary of the National Millennium
# Committee, has a plan to get Tonga back in front.
# He has proposed a one-off move to tropical daylight saving for Tonga from
# October to March, which has won approval in principle from the Tongan
# Government.

# From Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
# * Tonga will introduce DST in November
#
# I was given this link by John Letts:
# http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm
#
# I have not been able to find exact dates for the transition in November
# yet. By reading this article it seems like Fiji will be 14 hours ahead
# of UTC as well, but as far as I know Fiji will only be 13 hours ahead
# (12 + 1 hour DST).

# From Arthur David Olson (1999-09-20):
# According to <http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html>:
# "Daylight Savings Time will take effect on Oct. 2 through April 15, 2000
# and annually thereafter from the first Saturday in October through the
# third Saturday of April.  Under the system approved by Privy Council on
# Sept. 10, clocks must be turned ahead one hour on the opening day and
# set back an hour on the closing date."
# Alas, no indication of the time of day.

# From Rives McDow (1999-10-06):
# Tonga started its Daylight Saving on Saturday morning October 2nd at 0200am.
# Daylight Saving ends on April 16 at 0300am which is Sunday morning.

# From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-31):
# Back in March I found a notice on the website http://www.tongaonline.com
# that Tonga changed back to standard time one month early, on March 19
# instead of the original reported date April 16. Unfortunately, the article
# is no longer available on the site, and I did not make a copy of the
# text, and I have forgotten to report it here.
# (Original URL was <http://www.tongaonline.com/news/march162000.htm>)

# From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):
# Tonga is observing DST as of 2000-11-04 and will stop on 2001-01-27.

# From Sione Moala-Mafi (2001-09-20) via Rives McDow:
# At 2:00am on the first Sunday of November, the standard time in the Kingdom
# shall be moved forward by one hour to 3:00am.  At 2:00am on the last Sunday
# of January the standard time in the Kingdom shall be moved backward by one
# hour to 1:00am.

# From Pulu 'Anau (2002-11-05):
# The law was for 3 years, supposedly to get renewed.  It wasn't.


# Wake

# From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup,
# US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02):
#
# Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] - ...  The time was all the
# more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the
# International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays.  Furthermore, we
# discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time
# making calculation of time in Washington difficult if not almost
# impossible.
#
# http://www.trumanlibrary.org/wake/meeting.htm

# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
# We have no other report of DST in Wake Island, so omit this info for now.

###############################################################################

# The International Date Line

# From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03):
#
# The International Date Line is not defined by any international standard,
# convention, or treaty.  Mapmakers are free to draw it as they please.
# Reputable mapmakers will simply ensure that every point of land appears on
# the correct side of the IDL, according to the date legally observed there.
#
# When Kiribati adopted a uniform date in 1995, thereby moving the Phoenix and
# Line Islands to the west side of the IDL (or, if you prefer, moving the IDL
# to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most
# mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati.  Even that line
# has a rather arbitrary nature.  The straight-line boundaries between Pacific
# island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international
# convention, but are not legally binding national borders.... The date is
# governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some
# places as late as fourteen hours later than UTC.  And, since the IDL is not
# an international standard, there are some places on the high seas where the
# correct date is ambiguous.

# From Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_zone> (2005-08-31):
# Before 1920, all ships kept local apparent time on the high seas by setting
# their clocks at night or at the morning sight so that, given the ship's
# speed and direction, it would be 12 o'clock when the Sun crossed the ship's
# meridian (12 o'clock = local apparent noon).  During 1917, at the
# Anglo-French Conference on Time-keeping at Sea, it was recommended that all
# ships, both military and civilian, should adopt hourly standard time zones
# on the high seas.  Whenever a ship was within the territorial waters of any
# nation it would use that nation's standard time.  The captain was permitted
# to change his ship's clocks at a time of his choice following his ship's
# entry into another zone time - he often chose midnight.  These zones were
# adopted by all major fleets between 1920 and 1925 but not by many
# independent merchant ships until World War II.

# From Paul Eggert, using references suggested by Oscar van Vlijmen
# (2005-03-20):
#
# The American Practical Navigator (2002)
# http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_apn_sections.html?rid=187
# talks only about the 180-degree meridian with respect to ships in
# international waters; it ignores the international date line.