File: usb_modeswitch.c

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usb-modeswitch 1.1.4-2
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/*
  Mode switching tool for controlling flip flop (multiple device) USB gear
  Version 1.1.4, 2010/08/21

  Copyright (C) 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Josua Dietze (mail to "usb_admin" at the
  domain from the README; please do not post the complete address to the Net!
  Or write a personal message through the forum to "Josh")

  Command line parsing, decent usage/config output/handling, bugfixes and advanced
  options added by:
    Joakim Wennergren (jokedst) (gmail.com)

  TargetClass parameter implementation to support new Option devices/firmware:
    Paul Hardwick (http://www.pharscape.org)

  Created with initial help from:
    "usbsnoop2libusb.pl" by Timo Lindfors (http://iki.fi/lindi/usb/usbsnoop2libusb.pl)

  Config file parsing stuff borrowed from:
    Guillaume Dargaud (http://www.gdargaud.net/Hack/SourceCode.html)

  Hexstr2bin function borrowed from:
    Jouni Malinen (http://hostap.epitest.fi/wpa_supplicant, from "common.c")

  Other contributions: see README

  Device information contributors are named in the "usb_modeswitch.setup" file.

  This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
  it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
  the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
  (at your option) any later version.

  This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
  but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
  GNU General Public License for more details:

  http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.txt

*/

/* Recommended tab size: 4 */

#define VERSION "1.1.4"

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <signal.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <getopt.h>
#include <syslog.h>

#include <usb.h>
#include "usb_modeswitch.h"

#define LINE_DIM 1024
#define BUF_SIZE 4096
#define DESCR_MAX 129

#define SEARCH_DEFAULT 0
#define SEARCH_TARGET 1

#define SHOW_PROGRESS if (show_progress) printf

//int write_bulk(int endpoint, char *message, int length);
//int read_bulk(int endpoint, char *buffer, int length);

//int find_first_bulk_output_endpoint(struct usb_device *dev);
//int find_first_bulk_input_endpoint(struct usb_device *dev);

char *TempPP=NULL;

struct usb_device *dev;
struct usb_dev_handle *devh;

int DefaultVendor=0, DefaultProduct=0, TargetVendor=0, TargetProduct=0, TargetClass=0;
int MessageEndpoint=0, ResponseEndpoint=0, defaultClass=0, MessageDelay=0;
int targetDeviceCount=0;
int devnum=-1, busnum=-1;
int ret;

char DetachStorageOnly=0, HuaweiMode=0, SierraMode=0, SonyMode=0, GCTMode=0;
char verbose=0, show_progress=1, ResetUSB=0, CheckSuccess=0, config_read=0;
char NeedResponse=0, NoDriverLoading=0, InquireDevice=1, sysmode=0;

char imanufact[DESCR_MAX], iproduct[DESCR_MAX], iserial[DESCR_MAX];

char MessageContent[LINE_DIM];
char MessageContent2[LINE_DIM];
char MessageContent3[LINE_DIM];
char TargetProductList[LINE_DIM];
char ByteString[LINE_DIM/2];
char buffer[BUF_SIZE];

/* Settable Interface and Configuration (for debugging mostly) (jmw) */
int Interface = 0, Configuration = -1, AltSetting = -1;


static struct option long_options[] = {
	{"help",				no_argument, 0, 'h'},
	{"version",				no_argument, 0, 'e'},
	{"default-vendor",		required_argument, 0, 'v'},
	{"default-product",		required_argument, 0, 'p'},
	{"target-vendor",		required_argument, 0, 'V'},
	{"target-product",		required_argument, 0, 'P'},
	{"target-class",		required_argument, 0, 'C'},
	{"message-endpoint",	required_argument, 0, 'm'},
	{"message-content",		required_argument, 0, 'M'},
	{"message-content2",	required_argument, 0, '2'},
	{"message-content3",	required_argument, 0, '3'},
	{"message-delay",		required_argument, 0, 'w'},
	{"response-endpoint",	required_argument, 0, 'r'},
	{"detach-only",			no_argument, 0, 'd'},
	{"huawei-mode",			no_argument, 0, 'H'},
	{"sierra-mode",			no_argument, 0, 'S'},
	{"sony-mode",			no_argument, 0, 'O'},
	{"gct-mode",			no_argument, 0, 'G'},
	{"need-response",		no_argument, 0, 'n'},
	{"reset-usb",			no_argument, 0, 'R'},
	{"config-file",			required_argument, 0, 'c'},
	{"verbose",				no_argument, 0, 'W'},
	{"quiet",				no_argument, 0, 'Q'},
	{"sysmode",				no_argument, 0, 'D'},
	{"no-inquire",			no_argument, 0, 'I'},
	{"check-success",		required_argument, 0, 's'},
	{"interface",			required_argument, 0, 'i'},
	{"configuration",		required_argument, 0, 'u'},
	{"altsetting",			required_argument, 0, 'a'},
	{0, 0, 0, 0}
};


void readConfigFile(const char *configFilename)
{
	if (verbose) printf("Reading config file: %s\n", configFilename);
	ParseParamHex(configFilename, TargetVendor);
	ParseParamHex(configFilename, TargetProduct);
	ParseParamString(configFilename, TargetProductList);
	ParseParamHex(configFilename, TargetClass);
	ParseParamHex(configFilename, DefaultVendor);
	ParseParamHex(configFilename, DefaultProduct);
	ParseParamBool(configFilename, DetachStorageOnly);
	ParseParamBool(configFilename, HuaweiMode);
	ParseParamBool(configFilename, SierraMode);
	ParseParamBool(configFilename, SonyMode);
	ParseParamBool(configFilename, GCTMode);
	ParseParamBool(configFilename, NoDriverLoading);
	ParseParamHex(configFilename, MessageEndpoint);
	ParseParamString(configFilename, MessageContent);
	ParseParamString(configFilename, MessageContent2);
	ParseParamString(configFilename, MessageContent3);
	ParseParamInt(configFilename, MessageDelay);
	ParseParamHex(configFilename, NeedResponse);
	ParseParamHex(configFilename, ResponseEndpoint);
	ParseParamHex(configFilename, ResetUSB);
	ParseParamHex(configFilename, InquireDevice);
	ParseParamInt(configFilename, CheckSuccess);
	ParseParamHex(configFilename, Interface);
	ParseParamHex(configFilename, Configuration);
	ParseParamHex(configFilename, AltSetting);

	/* TargetProductList has priority over TargetProduct */
	if (strlen(TargetProductList))
	{
		TargetProduct = 0;
		SHOW_PROGRESS("Warning: TargetProductList overrides TargetProduct!\n");
	}

	config_read = 1;
}


void printConfig()
{
	if ( DefaultVendor )
		printf ("DefaultVendor=  0x%04x\n",			DefaultVendor);
	else
		printf ("DefaultVendor=  not set\n");
	if ( DefaultProduct )
		printf ("DefaultProduct= 0x%04x\n",			DefaultProduct);
	else
		printf ("DefaultProduct= not set\n");
	if ( TargetVendor )
		printf ("TargetVendor=   0x%04x\n",		TargetVendor);
	else
		printf ("TargetVendor=   not set\n");
	if ( TargetProduct )
		printf ("TargetProduct=  0x%04x\n",		TargetProduct);
	else
		printf ("TargetProduct=  not set\n");
	if ( TargetClass )
		printf ("TargetClass=    0x%02x\n",		TargetClass);
	else
		printf ("TargetClass=    not set\n");
	printf ("TargetProductList=\"%s\"\n",		TargetProductList);
	printf ("\nDetachStorageOnly=%i\n",	(int)DetachStorageOnly);
	printf ("HuaweiMode=%i\n",			(int)HuaweiMode);
	printf ("SierraMode=%i\n",			(int)SierraMode);
	printf ("SonyMode=%i\n",			(int)SonyMode);
	printf ("GCTMode=%i\n",			(int)GCTMode);
	if ( MessageEndpoint )
		printf ("MessageEndpoint=0x%02x\n",	MessageEndpoint);
	else
		printf ("MessageEndpoint=  not set\n");
	printf ("MessageContent=\"%s\"\n",	MessageContent);
	if ( strlen(MessageContent2) )
		printf ("MessageContent2=\"%s\"\n",	MessageContent2);
	if ( strlen(MessageContent3) )
		printf ("MessageContent3=\"%s\"\n",	MessageContent3);
	printf ("NeedResponse=%i\n",		(int)NeedResponse);
	if ( ResponseEndpoint )
		printf ("ResponseEndpoint=0x%02x\n",	ResponseEndpoint);
	else
		printf ("ResponseEndpoint= not set\n");
	printf ("Interface=0x%02x\n",			Interface);
	if ( Configuration > -1 )
		printf ("Configuration=0x%02x\n",	Configuration);
	if ( AltSetting > -1 )
		printf ("AltSetting=0x%02x\n",	AltSetting);
	if ( InquireDevice )
		printf ("\nInquireDevice enabled (default)\n");
	else
		printf ("\nInquireDevice disabled\n");
	if ( CheckSuccess )
		printf ("Success check enabled, max. wait time %d seconds\n", CheckSuccess);
	else
		printf ("Success check disabled\n");
	if ( sysmode )
		printf ("System integration mode enabled\n");
	else
		printf ("System integration mode disabled\n");
	printf ("\n");
}


int readArguments(int argc, char **argv)
{
	int c, option_index = 0, count=0;
	if (argc==1)
	{
		printHelp();
		printVersion();
		exit(1);
	}

	while (1)
	{
		c = getopt_long (argc, argv, "heWQDndHSOGRIv:p:V:P:C:m:M:2:3:w:r:c:i:u:a:s:",
						long_options, &option_index);

		/* Detect the end of the options. */
		if (c == -1)
			break;
		count++;
		switch (c)
		{
			case 'R': ResetUSB = 1; break;
			case 'v': DefaultVendor = strtol(optarg, NULL, 16); break;
			case 'p': DefaultProduct = strtol(optarg, NULL, 16); break;
			case 'V': TargetVendor = strtol(optarg, NULL, 16); break;
			case 'P': TargetProduct = strtol(optarg, NULL, 16); break;
			case 'C': TargetClass = strtol(optarg, NULL, 16); break;
			case 'm': MessageEndpoint = strtol(optarg, NULL, 16); break;
			case 'M': strcpy(MessageContent, optarg); break;
			case '2': strcpy(MessageContent2, optarg); break;
			case '3': strcpy(MessageContent3, optarg); break;
			case 'w': MessageDelay = strtol(optarg, NULL, 10); count--; break;
			case 'n': NeedResponse = 1; break;
			case 'r': ResponseEndpoint = strtol(optarg, NULL, 16); break;
			case 'd': DetachStorageOnly = 1; break;
			case 'H': HuaweiMode = 1; break;
			case 'S': SierraMode = 1; break;
			case 'O': SonyMode = 1; break;
			case 'G': GCTMode = 1; break;
			case 'c': readConfigFile(optarg); break;
			case 'W': verbose = 1; show_progress = 1; count--; break;
			case 'Q': show_progress = 0; verbose = 0; count--; break;
			case 'D': sysmode = 1; count--; break;
			case 's': CheckSuccess = strtol(optarg, NULL, 10); count--; break;
			case 'I': InquireDevice = 0; break;

			case 'i': Interface = strtol(optarg, NULL, 16); break;
			case 'u': Configuration = strtol(optarg, NULL, 16); break;
			case 'a': AltSetting = strtol(optarg, NULL, 16); break;

			case 'e':
				printVersion();
				exit(0);
				break;
			case 'h':
				printVersion();
				printHelp();
				exit(0);
				break;

			default: /* Unsupported - error message has already been printed */
				printf ("\n");
				printHelp();
				exit(1);
		}
	}

	return count;
}


int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
	int numDefaults = 0, specialMode = 0, sonySuccess = 0;

	/* Make sure we have empty strings even if not set by config */
	TargetProductList[0] = '\0';
	MessageContent[0] = '\0';
	MessageContent2[0] = '\0';
	MessageContent3[0] = '\0';


	signal(SIGTERM, release_usb_device);
	/*
	 * Parameter parsing, USB preparation/diagnosis, plausibility checks
	 */

	/* Check command arguments, use params instead of config file when given */
	switch (readArguments(argc, argv)) {
		case 0:						/* no argument or -W, -q or -s */
			break;
		default:					/* one or more arguments except -W, -q or -s */
			if (!config_read)		/* if arguments contain -c, the config file was already processed */
				if (verbose) printf("Taking all parameters from the command line\n\n");
	}

	if (verbose)
		printVersion();

	if (verbose)
		printConfig();

	/* libusb initialization */
	usb_init();

	if (verbose)
		usb_set_debug(15);

	usb_find_busses();
	usb_find_devices();

	/* Plausibility checks. The default IDs are mandatory */
	if (!(DefaultVendor && DefaultProduct)) {
		SHOW_PROGRESS("No default vendor/product ID given. Aborting.\n\n");
		exit(1);
	}
	if (strlen(MessageContent)) {
		if (strlen(MessageContent) % 2 != 0) {
			fprintf(stderr, "Error: MessageContent hex string has uneven length. Aborting.\n\n");
			exit(1);
		}
		if ( hexstr2bin(MessageContent, ByteString, strlen(MessageContent)/2) == -1) {
			fprintf(stderr, "Error: MessageContent %s\n is not a hex string. Aborting.\n\n", MessageContent);
			exit(1);
		}
	}
	SHOW_PROGRESS("\n");

	if (show_progress)
		if (CheckSuccess && !(TargetVendor || TargetProduct || strlen(TargetProductList)) && !TargetClass)
			printf("Note: target parameter missing; success check limited\n");

	/* Count existing target devices, remember for success check */
	if (TargetVendor || TargetClass) {
		SHOW_PROGRESS("Looking for target devices ...\n");
		search_devices(&targetDeviceCount, TargetVendor, TargetProduct, TargetProductList, TargetClass, SEARCH_TARGET);
		if (targetDeviceCount) {
			SHOW_PROGRESS(" Found devices in target mode or class (%d)\n", targetDeviceCount);
		} else
			SHOW_PROGRESS(" No devices in target mode or class found\n");
	}

	/* Count default devices, get the last one found */
	SHOW_PROGRESS("Looking for default devices ...\n");
	dev = search_devices(&numDefaults, DefaultVendor, DefaultProduct, "\0", TargetClass, SEARCH_DEFAULT);
	if (numDefaults) {
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" Found devices in default mode or class (%d)\n", numDefaults);
	} else {
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" No devices in default mode or class found. Nothing to do. Bye.\n\n");
		exit(0);
	}
	if (dev != NULL) {
		devnum = dev->devnum;
		busnum = (int)strtol(dev->bus->dirname,NULL,10);
		SHOW_PROGRESS("Accessing device %03d on bus %03d ...\n", devnum, busnum);
		devh = usb_open(dev);
	} else {
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" No default device found. Is it connected? Bye.\n\n");
		exit(0);
	}

	/* Get class of default device/interface */
	defaultClass = dev->descriptor.bDeviceClass;
	if (defaultClass == 0)
		defaultClass = dev->config[0].interface[0].altsetting[0].bInterfaceClass;
	else 
		if (dev->config[0].interface[0].altsetting[0].bInterfaceClass == 8 && defaultClass != 8) {
			/* Weird device with default class other than 0 and differing interface class */
			SHOW_PROGRESS("Ambiguous Class/InterfaceClass: 0x%02x/0x08\n", defaultClass);
			defaultClass = 8;
		}

	/* Check or get endpoints */
	if (strlen(MessageContent) || InquireDevice) {
		if (!MessageEndpoint)
			MessageEndpoint = find_first_bulk_output_endpoint(dev);
		if (!MessageEndpoint) {
			fprintf(stderr,"Error: message endpoint not given or found. Aborting.\n\n");
			exit(1);
		}
		if (!ResponseEndpoint)
			ResponseEndpoint = find_first_bulk_input_endpoint(dev);
		if (!ResponseEndpoint) {
			fprintf(stderr,"Error: response endpoint not given or found. Aborting.\n\n");
			exit(1);
		}
		SHOW_PROGRESS("Using endpoints 0x%02x (out) and 0x%02x (in)\n", MessageEndpoint, ResponseEndpoint);
	}

	if (MessageEndpoint && ResponseEndpoint) {
		SHOW_PROGRESS("Using endpoints 0x%02x (out) and 0x%02x (in)\n", MessageEndpoint, ResponseEndpoint);
	} else
		if (InquireDevice && defaultClass == 0x08) {
			SHOW_PROGRESS("Endpoints not found, skipping SCSI inquiry\n");
			InquireDevice = 0;
		}

	if (InquireDevice && show_progress) {
		if (defaultClass == 0x08) {
			SHOW_PROGRESS("Inquiring device details; driver will be detached ...\n");
			detachDriver();
			if (deviceInquire() >= 0)
				InquireDevice = 2;
		} else
			SHOW_PROGRESS("Not a storage device, skipping SCSI inquiry\n");
	}

	deviceDescription();
	if (show_progress) {
		printf("\nUSB description data (for identification)\n");
		printf("-------------------------\n");
		printf("Manufacturer: %s\n", imanufact);
		printf("     Product: %s\n", iproduct);
		printf("  Serial No.: %s\n", iserial);
		printf("-------------------------\n");
	}

	/* Some scenarios are exclusive, so check for unwanted combinations */
	specialMode = DetachStorageOnly + HuaweiMode + SierraMode + SonyMode;
	if ( specialMode > 1 ) {
		SHOW_PROGRESS("Invalid mode combination. Check your configuration. Aborting.\n\n");
		exit(1);
	}

	if ( !specialMode && !strlen(MessageContent) && AltSetting == -1 && Configuration == -1 )
		SHOW_PROGRESS("Warning: no switching method given.\n");

	/*
	 * The switching actions
	 */

	if (sysmode) {
		openlog("usb_modeswitch", 0, LOG_SYSLOG);
		syslog(LOG_NOTICE, "switching %04x:%04x (%s: %s)", DefaultVendor, DefaultProduct, imanufact, iproduct);
	}

	if (DetachStorageOnly) {
		SHOW_PROGRESS("Only detaching storage driver for switching ...\n");
		if (InquireDevice == 2) {
			SHOW_PROGRESS(" Any driver was already detached for inquiry\n");
		} else {
			ret = detachDriver();
			if (ret == 2)
				SHOW_PROGRESS(" You may want to remove the storage driver manually\n");
		}
	}

	if (HuaweiMode) {
		switchHuaweiMode();
	}
	if (SierraMode) {
		switchSierraMode();
	}
	if (GCTMode) {
		detachDriver();
		switchGCTMode();
	}
	if (SonyMode) {
		if (CheckSuccess)
			SHOW_PROGRESS("Note: ignoring CheckSuccess. Separate checks for Sony mode\n");
		CheckSuccess = 0; /* separate and implied success control */
		sonySuccess = switchSonyMode();
	}

	if (strlen(MessageContent) && MessageEndpoint) {
		if (specialMode == 0) {
			if (InquireDevice != 2)
				detachDriver();
			switchSendMessage();
		} else
			SHOW_PROGRESS("Warning: ignoring MessageContent. Can't combine with special mode\n");
	}

	if (Configuration != -1) {
		switchConfiguration ();
	}

	if (AltSetting != -1) {
		switchAltSetting();
	}

	if (ResetUSB) {
		resetUSB();
	}

	if (CheckSuccess) {
		if (checkSuccess()) {
			if (sysmode) {
				if (NoDriverLoading)
					printf("ok:\n");
				else
					printf("ok:%04x:%04x\n", TargetVendor, TargetProduct);
			}
		} else
			if (sysmode)
				printf("fail:\n");
	} else {
		if (SonyMode)
			if (sonySuccess) {
				if (sysmode) {
					syslog(LOG_NOTICE, "switched S.E. MD400 to modem mode");
					printf("ok:\n"); /* ACM device, no driver action */
				}
				SHOW_PROGRESS("-> device should be stable now. Bye.\n\n");
			} else {
				if (sysmode)
					printf("fail:\n");
				SHOW_PROGRESS("-> switching was probably not completed. Bye.\n\n");
			}
		else
			SHOW_PROGRESS("-> Run lsusb to note any changes. Bye.\n\n");
	}

	if (sysmode)
		closelog();
	if (devh)
		usb_close(devh);
	exit(0);
}


/* Get descriptor strings if available (identification details) */
void deviceDescription ()
{
	int ret;
	char* c;
	memset (imanufact, ' ', DESCR_MAX);
	memset (iproduct, ' ', DESCR_MAX);
	memset (iserial, ' ', DESCR_MAX);

	if (dev->descriptor.iManufacturer) {
		ret = usb_get_string_simple(devh, dev->descriptor.iManufacturer, imanufact, DESCR_MAX);
		if (ret < 0)
			fprintf(stderr, "Error: could not get description string \"manufacturer\"\n");
	} else
		strcpy(imanufact, "not provided");
	c = strstr(imanufact, "    ");
	if (c)
		memset((void*)c, '\0', 1);

	if (dev->descriptor.iProduct) {
		ret = usb_get_string_simple(devh, dev->descriptor.iProduct, iproduct, DESCR_MAX);
		if (ret < 0)
			fprintf(stderr, "Error: could not get description string \"product\"\n");
	} else
		strcpy(iproduct, "not provided");
	c = strstr(iproduct, "    ");
	if (c)
		memset((void*)c, '\0', 1);

	if (dev->descriptor.iSerialNumber) {
		ret = usb_get_string_simple(devh, dev->descriptor.iSerialNumber, iserial, DESCR_MAX);
		if (ret < 0)
			fprintf(stderr, "Error: could not get description string \"serial number\"\n");
	} else
		strcpy(iserial, "not provided");
	c = strstr(iserial, "    ");
	if (c)
		memset((void*)c, '\0', 1);

}

/* Print result of SCSI command INQUIRY (identification details) */
int deviceInquire ()
{
	const unsigned char inquire_msg[] = {
	  0x55, 0x53, 0x42, 0x43, 0x12, 0x34, 0x56, 0x78,
	  0x24, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x80, 0x00, 0x06, 0x12,
	  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x24, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
	  0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00
	};
	char *command;
	char data[36];
	int i, ret;

	command = malloc(31);
	if (command == NULL) {
		ret = 1;
		goto out;
	}

	memcpy(command, inquire_msg, sizeof (inquire_msg));

	ret = usb_claim_interface(devh, Interface);
	if (ret != 0) {
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" Could not claim interface (error %d). Skipping device inquiry\n", ret);
		goto out;
	}
	usb_clear_halt(devh, MessageEndpoint);

	ret = usb_bulk_write(devh, MessageEndpoint, (char *)command, 31, 0);
	if (ret < 0) {
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" Could not send INQUIRY message (error %d)\n", ret);
		goto out;
	}

	ret = usb_bulk_read(devh, ResponseEndpoint, data, 36, 0);
	if (ret < 0) {
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" Could not get INQUIRY response (error %d)\n", ret);
		goto out;
	}

	i = usb_bulk_read(devh, ResponseEndpoint, command, 13, 0);

	printf("\nSCSI inquiry data (for identification)\n");
	printf("-------------------------\n");

	printf("  Vendor String: ");
	for (i = 8; i < 16; i++) printf("%c",data[i]);
	printf("\n");

	printf("   Model String: ");
	for (i = 16; i < 32; i++) printf("%c",data[i]);
	printf("\n");

	printf("Revision String: ");
	for (i = 32; i < 36; i++) printf("%c",data[i]);

	printf("\n-------------------------\n");

out:
	if (strlen(MessageContent) == 0)
		usb_clear_halt(devh, MessageEndpoint);
		usb_release_interface(devh, Interface);
	free(command);
	return ret;
}


void resetUSB ()
{
	int success;
	int bpoint = 0;

	if (show_progress) {
		printf("Resetting usb device ");
		fflush(stdout);
	}

	sleep( 1 );
	do {
		success = usb_reset(devh);
		if ( ((bpoint % 10) == 0) && show_progress ) {
			printf(".");
			fflush(stdout);
		}
		bpoint++;
		if (bpoint > 100)
			success = 1;
	} while (success < 0);

	if ( success ) {
		SHOW_PROGRESS("\n Reset failed. Can be ignored if device switched OK.\n");
	} else
		SHOW_PROGRESS("\n OK, device was reset\n");
}


int switchSendMessage ()
{
	int ret;

	/* May be activated in future versions */
//	if (MessageContent2[0] != '\0' || MessageContent3[0] != '\0')
//		NeedResponse = 1;

	SHOW_PROGRESS("Setting up communication with interface %d ...\n", Interface);
	if (InquireDevice != 2) {
		ret = usb_claim_interface(devh, Interface);
		if (ret != 0) {
			SHOW_PROGRESS(" Could not claim interface (error %d). Skipping message sending\n", ret);
			return 0;
		}
	}
	usb_clear_halt(devh, MessageEndpoint);
	SHOW_PROGRESS("Using endpoint 0x%02x for message sending ...\n", MessageEndpoint);
	if (show_progress)
		fflush(stdout);

	if ( sendMessage(MessageContent, 1) )
		goto skip;

	if (NeedResponse) {
		SHOW_PROGRESS("Reading the response to the message (CSW) ...\n");
		ret = read_bulk(ResponseEndpoint, ByteString, 0x200);
		if (ret < 0)
			goto skip;
	}

	if (strlen(MessageContent2)) {
		if (MessageDelay) {
			usb_release_interface(devh, Interface);
			SHOW_PROGRESS("Delaying next message transfer for %d ms\n", MessageDelay);
			usleep(MessageDelay*1000);
			ret = usb_claim_interface(devh, Interface);
			if (ret != 0) {
				SHOW_PROGRESS(" Could not reclaim interface\n");
				goto skip;
			}
		}
		if ( sendMessage(MessageContent2, 2) )
			goto skip;

		if (NeedResponse) {
			SHOW_PROGRESS("Reading the response to message 2 ...\n");
			ret = read_bulk(ResponseEndpoint, ByteString, 0x200);
			if (ret < 0)
				goto skip;
		}
	}

	if (strlen(MessageContent3)) {
		if (MessageDelay) {
			usb_release_interface(devh, Interface);
			SHOW_PROGRESS("Delaying next message transfer for %d ms\n", MessageDelay);
			usleep(MessageDelay*1000);
			ret = usb_claim_interface(devh, Interface);
			if (ret != 0) {
				SHOW_PROGRESS(" Could not reclaim interface\n");
				goto skip;
			}
		}
		if ( sendMessage(MessageContent3, 3) )
			goto skip;
		if (NeedResponse) {
			SHOW_PROGRESS("Reading the response to message 3 ...\n");
			ret = read_bulk(ResponseEndpoint, ByteString, 0x200);
			if (ret < 0)
				goto skip;
		}
	}

	SHOW_PROGRESS("Resetting response endpoint 0x%02x\n", ResponseEndpoint);
	ret = usb_clear_halt(devh, ResponseEndpoint);
	if (ret)
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" Error resetting endpoint: %d\n", ret);
	SHOW_PROGRESS("Resetting message endpoint 0x%02x\n", MessageEndpoint);
	ret = usb_clear_halt(devh, MessageEndpoint);
	if (ret)
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" Error resetting endpoint: %d\n", ret);
	ret = usb_release_interface(devh, Interface);
	if (ret)
		goto skip;
	return 1;

skip:
	SHOW_PROGRESS(" Device is gone, skipping any further commands\n");
	usb_close(devh);
	devh = 0;
	return 2;
}

#define SWITCH_CONFIG_MAXTRIES   5

int switchConfiguration ()
{
	int count = SWITCH_CONFIG_MAXTRIES; 
	int ret;

	SHOW_PROGRESS("Changing configuration to %i ...\n", Configuration);
	while (((ret = usb_set_configuration(devh, Configuration)) < 0) && --count) { 
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" Device is busy, trying to detach kernel driver\n"); 
		detachDriver(); 
	} 
	if (ret == 0 ) {
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" OK, configuration set\n");
		return 1;
	}
	SHOW_PROGRESS(" Setting the configuration returned error %d. Trying to continue\n", ret);
	return 0;
}


int switchAltSetting ()
{
	int ret;

	SHOW_PROGRESS("Changing to alt setting %i ...\n", AltSetting);
	ret = usb_claim_interface(devh, Interface);
	ret = usb_set_altinterface(devh, AltSetting);
	usb_release_interface(devh, Interface);
	if (ret != 0) {
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" Changing to alt setting returned error %d. Trying to continue\n", ret);
		return 0;
	} else {
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" OK, changed to alt setting\n");
		return 1;
	}
}


void switchHuaweiMode ()
{
	int ret;

	SHOW_PROGRESS("Sending Huawei control message ...\n");
	ret = usb_control_msg(devh, USB_TYPE_STANDARD + USB_RECIP_DEVICE, USB_REQ_SET_FEATURE, 00000001, 0, buffer, 0, 1000);
	if (ret != 0) {
		fprintf(stderr, "Error: sending Huawei control message failed (error %d). Aborting.\n\n", ret);
		exit(1);
	} else
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" OK, Huawei control message sent\n");
}


void switchSierraMode ()
{
	int ret;

	SHOW_PROGRESS("Trying to send Sierra control message\n");
	ret = usb_control_msg(devh, 0x40, 0x0b, 00000001, 0, buffer, 0, 1000);
	if (ret != 0) {
		fprintf(stderr, "Error: sending Sierra control message failed (error %d). Aborting.\n\n", ret);
	    exit(1);
	} else
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" OK, Sierra control message sent\n");
}


void switchGCTMode ()
{
	int ret;

	ret = usb_claim_interface(devh, Interface);
	if (ret != 0) {
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" Could not claim interface (error %d). Skipping GCT sequence \n", ret);
		return;
	}

	SHOW_PROGRESS("Sending GCT control message 1 ...\n");
	ret = usb_control_msg(devh, 0xa1, 0xa0, 0, Interface, buffer, 1, 1000);
	SHOW_PROGRESS("Sending GCT control message 2 ...\n");
	ret = usb_control_msg(devh, 0xa1, 0xfe, 0, Interface, buffer, 1, 1000);
	SHOW_PROGRESS(" OK, GCT control messages sent\n");
	usb_release_interface(devh, Interface);
}


int switchSonyMode ()
{
	int i, found, ret;
	detachDriver();

	if (CheckSuccess) {
		printf("Note: CheckSuccess pointless with Sony mode, disabling\n");
		CheckSuccess = 0;
	}

	SHOW_PROGRESS("Trying to send Sony control message\n");
	ret = usb_control_msg(devh, 0xc0, 0x11, 2, 0, buffer, 3, 100);
	if (ret < 0) {
		fprintf(stderr, "Error: sending Sony control message failed (error %d). Aborting.\n\n", ret);
		exit(1);
	} else
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" OK, control message sent, waiting for device to return ...\n");

	usb_close(devh);
	devh = 0;

	/* Now waiting for the device to reappear */
	devnum=-1;
	busnum=-1;
	i=0;
	dev = 0;
	while ( dev == 0 && i < 30 ) {
		if ( i > 5 ) {
			usb_find_busses();
			usb_find_devices();
			dev = search_devices(&found, DefaultVendor, DefaultProduct, "\0", TargetClass, SEARCH_TARGET);
		}
		if ( dev != 0 )
			break;
		sleep(1);
		if (show_progress) {
			printf("#");
			fflush(stdout);
		}
		i++;
	}
	SHOW_PROGRESS("\n After %d seconds:",i);
	if ( dev ) {
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" device came back, proceeding\n");
		devh = usb_open( dev );
		if (devh == 0) {
			fprintf(stderr, "Error: could not get handle on device\n");
			return 0;
		}
	} else {
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" device still gone, cancelling\n");
		return 0;
	}

	sleep(1);

	SHOW_PROGRESS("Sending Sony control message again ...\n");
	ret = usb_control_msg(devh, 0xc0, 0x11, 2, 0, buffer, 3, 100);
	if (ret < 0) {
		fprintf(stderr, "Error: sending Sony control message (2) failed (error %d)\n", ret);
		return 0;
	}
	SHOW_PROGRESS(" OK, control message sent\n");
	return 1;
}


/* Detach driver either as the main action or as preparation for other
 * switching methods
 */
int detachDriver()
{
	int ret;

#ifndef LIBUSB_HAS_GET_DRIVER_NP
	printf(" Cant't do driver detection and detaching on this platform.\n");
	return 2;
#endif

	SHOW_PROGRESS("Looking for active driver ...\n");
	ret = usb_get_driver_np(devh, Interface, buffer, BUF_SIZE);
	if (ret != 0) {
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" No driver found. Either detached before or never attached\n");
		return 1;
	}
	SHOW_PROGRESS(" OK, driver found (\"%s\")\n", buffer);
	if (DetachStorageOnly && strcmp(buffer,"usb-storage")) {
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" Warning: driver is not usb-storage\n");
	}

#ifndef LIBUSB_HAS_DETACH_KERNEL_DRIVER_NP
	SHOW_PROGRESS(" Can't do driver detaching on this platform\n");
	return 2;
#endif


	ret = usb_detach_kernel_driver_np(devh, Interface);
	if (ret == 0) {
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" OK, driver \"%s\" detached\n", buffer);
	} else
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" Driver \"%s\" detach failed with error %d. Trying to continue\n", buffer, ret);
	return 1;
}


int sendMessage(char* message, int count)
{
	int message_length, ret;

	if (strlen(message) % 2 != 0) {
		fprintf(stderr, "Error: MessageContent %d hex string has uneven length. Skipping ...\n", count);
		return 1;
	}
	message_length = strlen(message) / 2;
	if ( hexstr2bin(message, ByteString, message_length) == -1) {
		fprintf(stderr, "Error: MessageContent %d %s\n is not a hex string. Skipping ...\n", count, MessageContent);
		return 1;
	}
	SHOW_PROGRESS("Trying to send message %d to endpoint 0x%02x ...\n", count, MessageEndpoint);
	fflush(stdout);
	ret = write_bulk(MessageEndpoint, ByteString, message_length);
	if (ret == -19)
		return 1;

	return 0;
}


int checkSuccess()
{
	int i=0, ret;
	int newTargetCount, success=0;

	SHOW_PROGRESS("\nChecking for mode switch (max. %d times, once per second) ...\n", CheckSuccess);
	sleep(1);

	/* if target ID is not given but target class is, assign default as target;
	 * it will be needed for sysmode output
	 */
	if (!TargetVendor && TargetClass) {
		TargetVendor = DefaultVendor;
		TargetProduct = DefaultProduct;
	}

	if (devh) // devh is 0 if device vanished during command transmission
		for (i=0; i < CheckSuccess; i++) {

			/* Test if default device still can be accessed; positive result does
			 * not necessarily mean failure
			 */
			SHOW_PROGRESS(" Waiting for original device to vanish ...\n");

			ret = usb_claim_interface(devh, Interface);
			if (ret < 0) {
				SHOW_PROGRESS(" Original device can't be accessed anymore. Good.\n");
				if (i == CheckSuccess-1)
					SHOW_PROGRESS(" If you want target checking, increase 'CheckSuccess' value.\n");
				usb_close(devh);
				devh = 0;
				break;
			} else
				usb_release_interface(devh, Interface);

			if (i == CheckSuccess-1) {
				SHOW_PROGRESS(" Original device still present after the timeout\n\nMode switch most likely failed. Bye.\n\n");
			} else
				sleep(1);
		}
	else
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" Original device is gone already, not checking\n");


	if ( TargetVendor && (TargetProduct || strlen(TargetProductList)) )

		/* Recount target devices (compare with previous count) if target data is given.
		 * Target device on the same bus with higher device number is returned,
		 * description is read for syslog message
		 */
		for (i=i; i < CheckSuccess; i++) {
			SHOW_PROGRESS(" Searching for target devices ...\n");
			usb_find_devices();
			dev = search_devices(&newTargetCount, TargetVendor, TargetProduct, TargetProductList, TargetClass, SEARCH_TARGET);
			if (dev && (newTargetCount > targetDeviceCount)) {
				devh = usb_open(dev);
				deviceDescription();
				usb_close(devh);
				devh = 0;
				if (verbose) {
					printf("\nFound target device %03d on bus %03d\n", \
					dev->devnum, (int)strtol(dev->bus->dirname,NULL,10));
					printf("\nTarget device description data\n");
					printf("-------------------------\n");
					printf("Manufacturer: %s\n", imanufact);
					printf("     Product: %s\n", iproduct);
					printf("  Serial No.: %s\n", iserial);
					printf("-------------------------\n");
				}
				SHOW_PROGRESS(" Found correct target device\n\nMode switch succeeded. Bye.\n\n");
				success = 2;
				break;
			}
			if (i == CheckSuccess-1) {
				SHOW_PROGRESS(" No new devices in target mode or class found\n\nMode switch has failed. Bye.\n\n");
			} else
				sleep(1);
		}
	else
		/* No target data given, rely on the vanished device */
		if (!devh) {
			SHOW_PROGRESS(" (For a better success check provide target IDs or class)\n");
			SHOW_PROGRESS(" Original device vanished after switching\n\nMode switch most likely succeeded. Bye.\n\n");
			success = 1;
		}

	switch (success) {
		case 2: 
			if (sysmode)
				syslog(LOG_NOTICE, "switched to %04x:%04x (%s: %s)", TargetVendor, TargetProduct, imanufact, iproduct);
			success = 1;
			break;
		case 1:
			if (sysmode)
				syslog(LOG_NOTICE, "device seems to have switched");
		default:
			;
	}
	if (sysmode)
		closelog();

	return success;

}


int write_bulk(int endpoint, char *message, int length)
{
	int ret;
	ret = usb_bulk_write(devh, endpoint, message, length, 100);
	if (ret >= 0 ) {
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" OK, message successfully sent\n");
	} else
		if (ret == -19) {
			SHOW_PROGRESS(" Device seems to have vanished right after sending. Good.\n");
		} else
			SHOW_PROGRESS(" Sending the message returned error %d. Trying to continue\n", ret);
	return ret;

}

int read_bulk(int endpoint, char *buffer, int length)
{
	int ret;
	ret = usb_bulk_read(devh, endpoint, buffer, length, 100);
	usb_bulk_read(devh, endpoint, buffer, 13, 100);
	if (ret >= 0 ) {
		SHOW_PROGRESS(" OK, response successfully read (%d bytes).\n", ret);
	} else
		if (ret == -19) {
			SHOW_PROGRESS(" Device seems to have vanished after reading. Good.\n");
		} else
			SHOW_PROGRESS(" Response reading got error %d, can probably be ignored\n", ret);
	return ret;

}

void release_usb_device(int dummy) {
	SHOW_PROGRESS("Program cancelled by system. Bye.\n\n");
	if (devh) {
		usb_release_interface(devh, Interface);
		usb_close(devh);
	}
	if (sysmode)
		closelog();
	exit(0);

}


/* Iterates over busses and devices, counts the ones with the given
 * ID/class and returns the last one of them
*/
struct usb_device* search_devices( int *numFound, int vendor, int product, char* productList, int targetClass, int mode)
{
	struct usb_bus *bus;
	char *listcopy, *token, buffer[2];
	int devClass;
	struct usb_device* right_dev = NULL;

	/* only target class given, target vendor and product assumed unchanged */
	if ( targetClass && !(vendor || product) ) {
		vendor = DefaultVendor;
		product = DefaultProduct;
	}
	*numFound = 0;

	/* Sanity check */
	if (!vendor || (!product && productList == '\0') )
		return NULL;
		
	if (productList != '\0')
		listcopy = malloc(strlen(productList)+1);

	for (bus = usb_get_busses(); bus; bus = bus->next) {
		struct usb_device *dev;
		for (dev = bus->devices; dev; dev = dev->next) {
			if (verbose)
				printf ("  searching devices, found USB ID %04x:%04x\n", dev->descriptor.idVendor, dev->descriptor.idProduct);
			if (dev->descriptor.idVendor != vendor)
				continue;
			if (verbose)
				printf ("   found matching vendor ID\n");
			// product list given
			if ( strlen(productList) ) {
				strcpy(listcopy, productList);
				token = strtok(listcopy, ",");
				while (token != NULL) {
					if (strlen(token) != 4) {
						SHOW_PROGRESS("Error: entry in product ID list has wrong length: %s. Ignoring\n", token);
						goto NextToken;
					}
					if ( hexstr2bin(token, buffer, strlen(token)/2) == -1) {
						SHOW_PROGRESS("Error: entry in product ID list is not a hex string: %s. Ignoring\n", token);
						goto NextToken;
					}
					product = 0;
					product += (unsigned char)buffer[0];
					product <<= 8;
					product += (unsigned char)buffer[1];
					if (product == dev->descriptor.idProduct) {
						if (verbose)
							printf ("   found matching product ID from list\n");
						(*numFound)++;
						if (busnum == -1)
							right_dev = dev;
						else
							if (dev->devnum >= devnum && (int)strtol(dev->bus->dirname,NULL,10) == busnum) {
								right_dev = dev;
								TargetProduct = dev->descriptor.idProduct;
								break;
							}
					}

					NextToken:
					token = strtok(NULL, ",");
				}
			/* Product ID is given */
			} else
				if (product == dev->descriptor.idProduct) {
					if (verbose)
						printf ("   found matching product ID\n");
					if (targetClass == 0) {
						(*numFound)++;
						right_dev = dev;
						if (verbose)
							printf ("   adding device\n");
					} else {
						devClass = dev->descriptor.bDeviceClass;
						if (devClass == 0)
							devClass = dev->config[0].interface[0].altsetting[0].bInterfaceClass;
						else
							/* Check for some quirky devices */
							if (devClass != dev->config[0].interface[0].altsetting[0].bInterfaceClass)
								devClass = dev->config[0].interface[0].altsetting[0].bInterfaceClass;
						if (devClass == targetClass) {
							if (verbose)
								printf ("   target class %02x matching\n", targetClass);
							if (mode == SEARCH_TARGET) {
								(*numFound)++;
								right_dev = dev;
								if (verbose)
									printf ("   adding device\n");
							} else
								if (verbose)
									printf ("   not adding device as default\n");
						} else {
							if (verbose)
								printf ("   target class %02x not matching\n", targetClass);
							if (mode == SEARCH_DEFAULT) {
								(*numFound)++;
								right_dev = dev;
								if (verbose)
									printf ("   adding device as default\n");
							}
						}
					}
					/* hack: if busnum has other than init value, we are called from
					 * successCheck() and do probe for plausible new devnum/busnum
					 */
					if (busnum != -1)
						if (dev->devnum < devnum || (int)strtol(dev->bus->dirname,NULL,10) != busnum) {
							if (verbose)
								printf ("   busnum/devnum indicates an unrelated device\n");
							right_dev = NULL;
						}
				}
		}
	}
	if (productList != NULL)
		free(listcopy);
	return right_dev;
}


#define USB_DIR_OUT 0x00
#define USB_DIR_IN  0x80

/* Autodetect bulk endpoints (ab) */

int find_first_bulk_output_endpoint(struct usb_device *dev)
{
	int i;
	struct usb_interface_descriptor *alt = &(dev->config[0].interface[0].altsetting[0]);
	struct usb_endpoint_descriptor *ep;

	for(i=0;i < alt->bNumEndpoints;i++) {
		ep=&(alt->endpoint[i]);
		if( ( (ep->bmAttributes & USB_ENDPOINT_TYPE_MASK) == USB_ENDPOINT_TYPE_BULK) &&
		    ( (ep->bEndpointAddress & USB_ENDPOINT_DIR_MASK) == USB_DIR_OUT ) ) {
			return ep->bEndpointAddress;
		}
	}

	return 0;
}


int find_first_bulk_input_endpoint(struct usb_device *dev)
{
	int i;
	struct usb_interface_descriptor *alt = &(dev->config[0].interface[0].altsetting[0]);
	struct usb_endpoint_descriptor *ep;

	for(i=0;i < alt->bNumEndpoints;i++) {
		ep=&(alt->endpoint[i]);
		if( ( (ep->bmAttributes & USB_ENDPOINT_TYPE_MASK) == USB_ENDPOINT_TYPE_BULK) &&
		    ( (ep->bEndpointAddress & USB_ENDPOINT_DIR_MASK) == USB_DIR_IN ) ) {
			return ep->bEndpointAddress;
		}
	}

	return 0;
}



/* Parameter parsing */

char* ReadParseParam(const char* FileName, char *VariableName)
{
	static char Str[LINE_DIM];
	char *VarName, *Comment=NULL, *Equal=NULL;
	char *FirstQuote, *LastQuote, *P1, *P2;
	int Line=0, Len=0, Pos=0;
	FILE *file=fopen(FileName, "r");

	if (file==NULL) {
		fprintf(stderr, "Error: Could not find file %s\n\n", FileName);
		exit(1);
	}

	while (fgets(Str, LINE_DIM-1, file) != NULL) {
		Line++;
		Len=strlen(Str);
		if (Len==0) goto Next;
		if (Str[Len-1]=='\n' or Str[Len-1]=='\r') Str[--Len]='\0';
		Equal = strchr (Str, '=');			// search for equal sign
		Pos = strcspn (Str, ";#!");			// search for comment
		Comment = (Pos==Len) ? NULL : Str+Pos;
		if (Equal==NULL or ( Comment!=NULL and Comment<=Equal)) goto Next;	// Only comment
		*Equal++ = '\0';
		if (Comment!=NULL) *Comment='\0';

		// String
		FirstQuote=strchr (Equal, '"');		// search for double quote char
		LastQuote=strrchr (Equal, '"');
		if (FirstQuote!=NULL) {
			if (LastQuote==NULL) {
				fprintf(stderr, "Error reading parameter file %s line %d - Missing end quote.\n", FileName, Line);
				goto Next;
			}
			*FirstQuote=*LastQuote='\0';
			Equal=FirstQuote+1;
		}

		// removes leading/trailing spaces
		Pos=strspn (Str, " \t");
		if (Pos==strlen(Str)) {
			fprintf(stderr, "Error reading parameter file %s line %d - Missing variable name.\n", FileName, Line);
			goto Next;		// No function name
		}
		while ((P1=strrchr(Str, ' '))!=NULL or (P2=strrchr(Str, '\t'))!=NULL)
			if (P1!=NULL) *P1='\0';
			else if (P2!=NULL) *P2='\0';
		VarName=Str+Pos;

		Pos=strspn (Equal, " \t");
		if (Pos==strlen(Equal)) {
			fprintf(stderr, "Error reading parameter file %s line %d - Missing value.\n", FileName, Line);
			goto Next;		// No function name
		}
		Equal+=Pos;

		if (strcmp(VarName, VariableName)==0) {		// Found it
			fclose(file);
			return Equal;
		}
		Next:;
	}

	fclose(file);
	return NULL;
}


int hex2num(char c)
{
	if (c >= '0' && c <= '9')
	return c - '0';
	if (c >= 'a' && c <= 'f')
	return c - 'a' + 10;
	if (c >= 'A' && c <= 'F')
	return c - 'A' + 10;
	return -1;
}


int hex2byte(const char *hex)
{
	int a, b;
	a = hex2num(*hex++);
	if (a < 0)
		return -1;
	b = hex2num(*hex++);
	if (b < 0)
		return -1;
	return (a << 4) | b;
}

int hexstr2bin(const char *hex, char *buffer, int len)
{
	int i;
	int a;
	const char *ipos = hex;
	char *opos = buffer;

	for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
	a = hex2byte(ipos);
	if (a < 0)
		return -1;
	*opos++ = a;
	ipos += 2;
	}
	return 0;
}

void printVersion()
{
	char* version = VERSION;
	printf(" * usb_modeswitch: handle USB devices with multiple modes\n");
	printf(" * Version %s (C) Josua Dietze 2010\n", version);
	printf(" * Based on libusb0 (0.1.12 and above)\n\n");
	printf(" ! PLEASE REPORT NEW CONFIGURATIONS !\n\n");
}

void printHelp()
{
	printf ("Usage: usb_modeswitch [-hvpVPmMrdHn] [-c filename]\n\n");
	printf (" -h, --help                    this help\n");
	printf (" -e, --version                 print version information and exit\n");
	printf (" -v, --default-vendor NUM      vendor ID of original mode (mandatory)\n");
	printf (" -p, --default-product NUM     product ID of original mode (mandatory)\n");
	printf (" -V, --target-vendor NUM       target mode vendor ID (optional)\n");
	printf (" -P, --target-product NUM      target mode product ID (optional)\n");
	printf (" -C, --target-class NUM        target mode device class (optional)\n");
	printf (" -m, --message-endpoint NUM    direct the message transfer there (optional)\n");
	printf (" -M, --message-content <msg>   message to send (hex number as string)\n");
	printf (" -2 <msg>, -3 <msg>            additional messages to send (-n recommended)\n");
	printf (" -n, --need-response           read response to the message transfer (CSW)\n");
	printf (" -r, --response-endpoint NUM   read response from there (optional)\n");
	printf (" -d, --detach-only             detach the active driver, no further action\n");
	printf (" -H, --huawei-mode             apply a special procedure\n");
	printf (" -S, --sierra-mode             apply a special procedure\n");
	printf (" -O, --sony-mode               apply a special procedure\n");
	printf (" -G, --gct-mode                apply a special procedure\n");
	printf (" -R, --reset-usb               reset the device after all other actions\n");
	printf (" -Q, --quiet                   don't show progress or error messages\n");
	printf (" -W, --verbose                 print all settings and debug output\n");
	printf (" -D, --sysmode                 specific result and syslog message\n");
	printf (" -s, --success NUM             check switching result after NUM secs\n");
	printf (" -I, --no-inquire              do not get SCSI attributes (default on)\n\n");
	printf (" -c, --config-file <filename>  load configuration from file\n\n");
	printf (" -i, --interface NUM           select initial USB interface (default 0)\n");
	printf (" -u, --configuration NUM       select USB configuration\n");
	printf (" -a, --altsetting NUM          select alternative USB interface setting\n\n");
}