File: sha1.c

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/**************************** sha1.c ****************************/
/******************** See RFC 4634 for details ******************/
/*
 *  Description:
 *      This file implements the Secure Hash Signature Standard
 *      algorithms as defined in the National Institute of Standards
 *      and Technology Federal Information Processing Standards
 *      Publication (FIPS PUB) 180-1 published on April 17, 1995, 180-2
 *      published on August 1, 2002, and the FIPS PUB 180-2 Change
 *      Notice published on February 28, 2004.
 *
 *      A combined document showing all algorithms is available at
 *              http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/
 *              fips180-2/fips180-2withchangenotice.pdf
 *
 *      The SHA-1 algorithm produces a 160-bit message digest for a
 *      given data stream.  It should take about 2**n steps to find a
 *      message with the same digest as a given message and
 *      2**(n/2) to find any two messages with the same digest,
 *      when n is the digest size in bits.  Therefore, this
 *      algorithm can serve as a means of providing a
 *      "fingerprint" for a message.
 *
 *  Portability Issues:
 *      SHA-1 is defined in terms of 32-bit "words".  This code
 *      uses <stdint.h> (included via "sha.h") to define 32 and 8
 *      bit unsigned integer types.  If your C compiler does not
 *      support 32 bit unsigned integers, this code is not
 *      appropriate.
 *
 *  Caveats:
 *      SHA-1 is designed to work with messages less than 2^64 bits
 *      long. This implementation uses SHA1Input() to hash the bits
 *      that are a multiple of the size of an 8-bit character, and then
 *      uses SHA1FinalBits() to hash the final few bits of the input.
 */

#include "sha.h"
#include "sha-private.h"

/*
 *  Define the SHA1 circular left shift macro
 */
#define SHA1_ROTL(bits,word) \
                (((word) << (bits)) | ((word) >> (32-(bits))))

/*
 * add "length" to the length
 */
static uint32_t addTemp;
#define SHA1AddLength(context, length)                     \
    (addTemp = (context)->Length_Low,                      \
     (context)->Corrupted =                                \
        (((context)->Length_Low += (length)) < addTemp) && \
        (++(context)->Length_High == 0) ? 1 : 0)

/* Local Function Prototypes */
static void SHA1Finalize (SHA1Context * context, uint8_t Pad_Byte);
static void SHA1PadMessage (SHA1Context *, uint8_t Pad_Byte);
static void SHA1ProcessMessageBlock (SHA1Context *);

/*
 *  SHA1Reset
 *
 *  Description:
 *      This function will initialize the SHA1Context in preparation
 *      for computing a new SHA1 message digest.
 *
 *  Parameters:
 *      context: [in/out]
 *          The context to reset.
 *
 *  Returns:
 *      sha Error Code.
 *
 */
int
SHA1Reset (SHA1Context * context)
{
  if (!context)
    return shaNull;

  context->Length_Low = 0;
  context->Length_High = 0;
  context->Message_Block_Index = 0;

  /* Initial Hash Values: FIPS-180-2 section 5.3.1 */
  context->Intermediate_Hash[0] = 0x67452301;
  context->Intermediate_Hash[1] = 0xEFCDAB89;
  context->Intermediate_Hash[2] = 0x98BADCFE;
  context->Intermediate_Hash[3] = 0x10325476;
  context->Intermediate_Hash[4] = 0xC3D2E1F0;

  context->Computed = 0;
  context->Corrupted = 0;

  return shaSuccess;
}

/*
 *  SHA1Input
 *
 *  Description:
 *      This function accepts an array of octets as the next portion
 *      of the message.
 *
 *  Parameters:
 *      context: [in/out]
 *          The SHA context to update
 *      message_array: [in]
 *          An array of characters representing the next portion of
 *          the message.
 *      length: [in]
 *          The length of the message in message_array
 *
 *  Returns:
 *      sha Error Code.
 *
 */
int
SHA1Input (SHA1Context * context,
	   const uint8_t * message_array, unsigned length)
{
  if (!length)
    return shaSuccess;

  if (!context || !message_array)
    return shaNull;

  if (context->Computed)
    {
      context->Corrupted = shaStateError;
      return shaStateError;
    }

  if (context->Corrupted)
    return context->Corrupted;

  while (length-- && !context->Corrupted)
    {
      context->Message_Block[context->Message_Block_Index++] =
	(*message_array & 0xFF);

      if (!SHA1AddLength (context, 8) &&
	  (context->Message_Block_Index == SHA1_Message_Block_Size))
	SHA1ProcessMessageBlock (context);

      message_array++;
    }

  return shaSuccess;
}

/*
 * SHA1FinalBits
 *
 * Description:
 *   This function will add in any final bits of the message.
 *
 * Parameters:
 *   context: [in/out]
 *     The SHA context to update
 *   message_bits: [in]
 *     The final bits of the message, in the upper portion of the
 *     byte. (Use 0b###00000 instead of 0b00000### to input the
 *     three bits ###.)
 *   length: [in]
 *     The number of bits in message_bits, between 1 and 7.
 *
 * Returns:
 *   sha Error Code.
 */
int
SHA1FinalBits (SHA1Context * context, const uint8_t message_bits,
	       unsigned int length)
{
  uint8_t masks[8] = {
    /* 0 0b00000000 */ 0x00, /* 1 0b10000000 */ 0x80,
    /* 2 0b11000000 */ 0xC0, /* 3 0b11100000 */ 0xE0,
    /* 4 0b11110000 */ 0xF0, /* 5 0b11111000 */ 0xF8,
    /* 6 0b11111100 */ 0xFC, /* 7 0b11111110 */ 0xFE
  };
  uint8_t markbit[8] = {
    /* 0 0b10000000 */ 0x80, /* 1 0b01000000 */ 0x40,
    /* 2 0b00100000 */ 0x20, /* 3 0b00010000 */ 0x10,
    /* 4 0b00001000 */ 0x08, /* 5 0b00000100 */ 0x04,
    /* 6 0b00000010 */ 0x02, /* 7 0b00000001 */ 0x01
  };

  if (!length)
    return shaSuccess;

  if (!context)
    return shaNull;

  if (context->Computed || (length >= 8) || (length == 0))
    {
      context->Corrupted = shaStateError;
      return shaStateError;
    }

  if (context->Corrupted)
    return context->Corrupted;

  SHA1AddLength (context, length);
  SHA1Finalize (context,
		(uint8_t) ((message_bits & masks[length]) | markbit[length]));

  return shaSuccess;
}

/*
 * SHA1Result
 *
 * Description:
 *   This function will return the 160-bit message digest into the
 *   Message_Digest array provided by the caller.
 *   NOTE: The first octet of hash is stored in the 0th element,
 *      the last octet of hash in the 19th element.
 *
 * Parameters:
 *   context: [in/out]
 *     The context to use to calculate the SHA-1 hash.
 *   Message_Digest: [out]
 *     Where the digest is returned.
 *
 * Returns:
 *   sha Error Code.
 *
 */
int
SHA1Result (SHA1Context * context, uint8_t Message_Digest[SHA1HashSize])
{
  int i;

  if (!context || !Message_Digest)
    return shaNull;

  if (context->Corrupted)
    return context->Corrupted;

  if (!context->Computed)
    SHA1Finalize (context, 0x80);

  for (i = 0; i < SHA1HashSize; ++i)
    Message_Digest[i] = (uint8_t) (context->Intermediate_Hash[i >> 2]
				   >> 8 * (3 - (i & 0x03)));

  return shaSuccess;
}

/*
 * SHA1Finalize
 *
 * Description:
 *   This helper function finishes off the digest calculations.
 *
 * Parameters:
 *   context: [in/out]
 *     The SHA context to update
 *   Pad_Byte: [in]
 *     The last byte to add to the digest before the 0-padding
 *     and length. This will contain the last bits of the message
 *     followed by another single bit. If the message was an
 *     exact multiple of 8-bits long, Pad_Byte will be 0x80.
 *
 * Returns:
 *   sha Error Code.
 *
 */
static void
SHA1Finalize (SHA1Context * context, uint8_t Pad_Byte)
{
  int i;
  SHA1PadMessage (context, Pad_Byte);
  /* message may be sensitive, clear it out */
  for (i = 0; i < SHA1_Message_Block_Size; ++i)
    context->Message_Block[i] = 0;
  context->Length_Low = 0;	/* and clear length */
  context->Length_High = 0;
  context->Computed = 1;
}

/*
 * SHA1PadMessage
 *
 * Description:
 *   According to the standard, the message must be padded to an
 *   even 512 bits. The first padding bit must be a '1'. The last
 *   64 bits represent the length of the original message. All bits
 *   in between should be 0. This helper function will pad the
 *   message according to those rules by filling the Message_Block
 *   array accordingly. When it returns, it can be assumed that the
 *   message digest has been computed.
 *
 * Parameters:
 *   context: [in/out]
 *     The context to pad
 *   Pad_Byte: [in]
 *     The last byte to add to the digest before the 0-padding
 *     and length. This will contain the last bits of the message
 *     followed by another single bit. If the message was an
 *     exact multiple of 8-bits long, Pad_Byte will be 0x80.
 *
 * Returns:
 *   Nothing.
 */
static void
SHA1PadMessage (SHA1Context * context, uint8_t Pad_Byte)
{
  /*
   * Check to see if the current message block is too small to hold
   * the initial padding bits and length. If so, we will pad the
   * block, process it, and then continue padding into a second
   * block.
   */
  if (context->Message_Block_Index >= (SHA1_Message_Block_Size - 8))
    {
      context->Message_Block[context->Message_Block_Index++] = Pad_Byte;
      while (context->Message_Block_Index < SHA1_Message_Block_Size)
	context->Message_Block[context->Message_Block_Index++] = 0;

      SHA1ProcessMessageBlock (context);
    }
  else
    context->Message_Block[context->Message_Block_Index++] = Pad_Byte;

  while (context->Message_Block_Index < (SHA1_Message_Block_Size - 8))
    context->Message_Block[context->Message_Block_Index++] = 0;

  /*
   * Store the message length as the last 8 octets
   */
  context->Message_Block[56] = (uint8_t) (context->Length_High >> 24);
  context->Message_Block[57] = (uint8_t) (context->Length_High >> 16);
  context->Message_Block[58] = (uint8_t) (context->Length_High >> 8);
  context->Message_Block[59] = (uint8_t) (context->Length_High);
  context->Message_Block[60] = (uint8_t) (context->Length_Low >> 24);
  context->Message_Block[61] = (uint8_t) (context->Length_Low >> 16);
  context->Message_Block[62] = (uint8_t) (context->Length_Low >> 8);
  context->Message_Block[63] = (uint8_t) (context->Length_Low);

  SHA1ProcessMessageBlock (context);
}

/*
 * SHA1ProcessMessageBlock
 *
 * Description:
 *   This helper function will process the next 512 bits of the
 *   message stored in the Message_Block array.
 *
 * Parameters:
 *   None.
 *
 * Returns:
 *   Nothing.
 *
 * Comments:
 *   Many of the variable names in this code, especially the
 *   single character names, were used because those were the
 *   names used in the publication.
 */
static void
SHA1ProcessMessageBlock (SHA1Context * context)
{
  /* Constants defined in FIPS-180-2, section 4.2.1 */
  const uint32_t K[4] = {
    0x5A827999, 0x6ED9EBA1, 0x8F1BBCDC, 0xCA62C1D6
  };
  int t;			/* Loop counter */
  uint32_t temp;		/* Temporary word value */
  uint32_t W[80];		/* Word sequence */
  uint32_t A, B, C, D, E;	/* Word buffers */

  /*
   * Initialize the first 16 words in the array W
   */
  for (t = 0; t < 16; t++)
    {
      W[t] = ((uint32_t) context->Message_Block[t * 4]) << 24;
      W[t] |= ((uint32_t) context->Message_Block[t * 4 + 1]) << 16;
      W[t] |= ((uint32_t) context->Message_Block[t * 4 + 2]) << 8;
      W[t] |= ((uint32_t) context->Message_Block[t * 4 + 3]);
    }
  for (t = 16; t < 80; t++)
    W[t] = SHA1_ROTL (1, W[t - 3] ^ W[t - 8] ^ W[t - 14] ^ W[t - 16]);

  A = context->Intermediate_Hash[0];
  B = context->Intermediate_Hash[1];
  C = context->Intermediate_Hash[2];
  D = context->Intermediate_Hash[3];
  E = context->Intermediate_Hash[4];

  for (t = 0; t < 20; t++)
    {
      temp = SHA1_ROTL (5, A) + SHA_Ch (B, C, D) + E + W[t] + K[0];
      E = D;
      D = C;
      C = SHA1_ROTL (30, B);
      B = A;
      A = temp;
    }

  for (t = 20; t < 40; t++)
    {
      temp = SHA1_ROTL (5, A) + SHA_Parity (B, C, D) + E + W[t] + K[1];
      E = D;
      D = C;
      C = SHA1_ROTL (30, B);
      B = A;
      A = temp;
    }

  for (t = 40; t < 60; t++)
    {
      temp = SHA1_ROTL (5, A) + SHA_Maj (B, C, D) + E + W[t] + K[2];
      E = D;
      D = C;
      C = SHA1_ROTL (30, B);
      B = A;
      A = temp;
    }

  for (t = 60; t < 80; t++)
    {
      temp = SHA1_ROTL (5, A) + SHA_Parity (B, C, D) + E + W[t] + K[3];
      E = D;
      D = C;
      C = SHA1_ROTL (30, B);
      B = A;
      A = temp;
    }

  context->Intermediate_Hash[0] += A;
  context->Intermediate_Hash[1] += B;
  context->Intermediate_Hash[2] += C;
  context->Intermediate_Hash[3] += D;
  context->Intermediate_Hash[4] += E;

  context->Message_Block_Index = 0;
}