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<div class="Section1">
<p><b><span style="font-size: 18pt;" lang="EN-GB">2.7 THE
CAD CONVERTER Z88X</span></b><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="font-size: 18pt;" lang="EN-GB">2.7.1
OVERVIEW Z88X</span></b><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">The CAD converter Z88X
works in two directions:<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">(I) You design your
component in a CAD system and generate Z88 data.</span></b><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> You cover in the CAD system your component
with a FE mesh or a super-structure following certain rules which
follow below,
and add if necessary boundary conditions and material information.
Then make
your CAD system generating a DXF file and start the CAD converter Z88X.
The Z88
entry files are produced by Z88X and you can start with the FE
analysis. <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Windows:</span></i></b><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Z88X, &gt; Type
Conversion &gt; 4 from Z88X.DXF to Z88I1.TXT</span></i><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> <br>
<i>Z88X, &gt; Type Conversion &gt; 5 from Z88X.DXF to Z88I* . TXT
(default)</i>
<br>
<i>Z88X, &gt; Type Conversion &gt; 6 from Z88X.DXF to Z88NI.TXT</i> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">... and &gt; Compute
&gt; Go</span></i><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><img src="e88x1.jpg" id="_x0000_i1025" height="380" width="520"></p>
<p><b><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">UNIX:</span></i></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">z88x -i1fx (Z88X.DXF to
Z88I1.TXT, "I1 from X")</span></i><span style="" lang="EN-GB"> <br>
<i>z88x -iafx ( Z88X.DXF to Z88I* . TXT, "I all from X", )</i> <br>
<i>z88x -nifx (Z88X.DXF to Z88NI.TXT, "NI from X")</i> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">... or use the Z88-Commander
with the proper option for Z88X</span></i><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">(II) Convert your Z88
entry files into CAD data.</span></b><span style="" lang="EN-GB"> This
is very interesting for Z88 data sets already existing, for
controls, for completions of the FE structure, but also for plotting
the FE
structure by CAD program.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Windows:</span></i></b><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Z88X, &gt; Type
Conversion &gt; 1 from Z88I1.TXT to Z88X.DXF</span></i><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> <br>
<i>Z88X, &gt; Type Conversion &gt; 2 from Z88I* . TXT to Z88X.DXF</i> <br>
<i>Z88X, &gt; Type Conversion &gt; 3 from Z88NI.TXT to Z88X.DXF</i> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">... and &gt; Compute
&gt; Go</span></i><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">UNIX:</span></i></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">z88x -i1tx (Z88I1.TXT to
Z88X.DXF, "I1 to X")</span></i><span style="" lang="EN-GB"> <br>
<i>z88x -iatx ( Z88I* . TXT to Z88X.DXF, "I all to X", )</i> <br>
<i>z88x -nitx (Z88NI.TXT to Z88X.DXF, "NI to X")</i> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">... or use the
Z88-Commander with the proper option for Z88X</span></i><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Since the converter is
completely compatible in both directions, you can execute the
possibilities I
and II in succession as you wish. You will not find any data loss!<br>
That makes a most interesting variant: <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">(III) Mixed Operation</span></b><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB">, e.g.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">- Component-and
super-structural layout done in CAD program <br>
- Conversion CAD ---&gt; Z88 <br>
- Meshing in Z88 <br>
- Conversion Z88 ---&gt; CAD <br>
- Complete FE structure in CAD e.g. with not-mesh generator capable
elements <br>
- Conversion CAD ---&gt; Z88 <br>
- Change e.g. material information in Z88 <br>
- Conversion Z88 --- &gt; CAD <br>
- Installation of the boundary conditions in CAD <br>
- Conversion CAD ---&gt; Z88 <br>
- FE analysis in Z88 <br>
- Etcetera<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Which CAD systems can
cooperate with Z88 ?</span></b><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Well, any CAD systems which
can import (read) and export (write) DXF files. However, we cannot
guarantee
any success as some of the CAD guys are changing their DXF definitions
from
month to month. Z88 V12 has been intensively tested together with the
different
AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT versions for Windows of Autodesk, and AutoDesk's
DXF
guidelines have been regarded as the inventor of the DXF interface,
according to
AC1009 and AC1012. <b style="">Choose AutoCAD R12
DXF, if in doubt!</b><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">The general philosophy
of a CAD - FEA data interchange:</span></b><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="FR">CAD files containe nondirectional
information. </span><span style="" lang="EN-GB">It is
only a wild collections of lines, points and texts, stored in the order
of its
production to make things worse. <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Basically, a FEA system
needs topological information which most CAD systems cannot supply.</span></b><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> The FEA system must know that these
and those lines form a finite element and that these and those points
are
included in this element. This could be made on principle if one would
design
in the CAD system in a quite firmly predefined order. Experiments
showed that,
indeed, this is possible for very simple components, but it will not
work for
complex components. And, yes, this is what one wants to do in practice:
FE
analysis on complex structures !<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">These difficulties are
known for a long time and appear at the data interchange of CAD - NC
data
likewise. As a proper work-around, integrated CAD - FEM systems do
exist which
are only to acquire at a very high price. <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Another attempt enlarges
(better: blows up) the CAD system by e.g. additional modules or macros
to such
an extend, that partly utilizable FEA data can be produced. This is
done frequently.
It bears the disadvantage that it neither works well for all CAD
programs nor
works quite exactly even for the same products of one CAD program
manufacturer.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Another attempt does
nothing in the CAD system. The FEA system, however, contains a kind of
mini- or
semi-CAD system, in order to process or rework the raw and totally
useless CAD
data into FEA data, but only by massive support of the operator. The
disadvantage is here, that the operator must master two CAD systems,
and the
integrated semi-CAD system has not got the performance and power of the
real
CAD system. <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">At Z88 these
difficulties are solved as follows:</span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;" lang="EN-GB">1: FROM
CAD SYSTEM TO Z88:</span></b><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><u><span style="" lang="EN-GB">1.1 in the CAD
system:</span></u></b><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Remark: This point case
1.1 will be explained in greater detail in chapter 2.7.2. This is a
summary.</span></i><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">(1) Design your component.
Order and layers as you like.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">(2) Define the FEA
structure or the super structure by lines and points. Any order and
layers,
therefore unproblematic and fast. <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">(3) Number the nodes with
the TEXT function on the layer Z88KNR. Any order, therefore
unproblematic and
fast.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">(4) Write the element
information with the TEXT function on the layer Z88EIO. Any order,
therefore
unproblematic and fast.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">(5) Outline each element
with the LINE function on the layer Z88NET. The only section with firm
work
rules and orders (because of the topological information). <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">(6) Write general
information, material information and control information for the
stress
processor Z88D on the Layer Z88GEN. <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">(7) Define the boundary
conditions on the layer Z88RBD.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">(8) Define the surface and
pressure loads on the layer Z88FLA.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">(9) Export or store your
3-D model or 2-D drawing under the name Z88X.DXF.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><u><span style="" lang="EN-GB">1.2 in Z88: Starts
the CAD converter Z88X</span></u></b><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">You can choose depending on
your input data whether <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<ul type="disc" style="margin-top: 0cm;">
  <li style="text-align: justify;" class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB">A mesh generator file Z88NI.TXT or<o:p></o:p></span></i></li>
  <li style="text-align: justify;" class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB">A file of the general structure data Z88I1.TXT or<o:p></o:p></span></i></li>
  <li style="text-align: justify;" class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB">A complete Z88 data set with Z88I1.TXT,
Z88I2.TXT, Z88I3.TXT<span style="">&nbsp; </span>and Z88I5.TXT (if
needed)</span></i><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></li>
</ul>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">is produced. Everything
else runs automatically.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><u><span style="" lang="EN-GB">1.3 in Z88: Starts
other Z88 modules</span></u></b><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Check output files produced
by Z88X once more with the Filechecker Z88V.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Run the FEM analysis by
starting the different Z88 modules at your choice:<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><a href="e88n.htm"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">*
Mesh Generator Z88N</span></i></a><span style="" lang="EN-GB"> <br>
</span><a href="e88o.htm"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">*
Plot Program Z88O</span></i></a><span style="" lang="EN-GB">
<br>
</span><a href="e88f.htm"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">*
Direct Cholesky Solver Z88F</span></i></a><span style="" lang="EN-GB"> <br>
</span><a href="e88ite.htm"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">* Sparse
Matrix Iteration Solver Z88I1/Z88I2</span></i></a><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> <br>
<a href="e88ite.htm" style="font-style: italic;">* Sparse Matrix Solver
with Fill-In Z88I1/Z88PAR</a></span><br>
<a href="e88d.htm"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">*
Stress Processor Z88D</span></i></a><span style="" lang="EN-GB"> <br>
</span><a href="e88e.htm"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">*
Nodal Force Processor Z88E</span></i></a><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;" lang="EN-GB">2: FROM
Z88 TO CAD PROGRAM</span></b><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><u><span style="" lang="EN-GB">2.1 in Z88: Input
files Z88xx.TXT</span></u></b><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">You have produced the input
files<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><a href="e88ni.htm"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">*
Mesh generator file Z88NI.TXT</span></i></a><i><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> or</span></i><span style="" lang="EN-GB"> <br>
<i>* File of the </i></span><i><a href="e88i1.htm"><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB">general structure data Z88I1.TXT</span></a></i><i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> or</span></i><span style="" lang="EN-GB"> <br>
<i>* complete Z88 data set with </i></span><i><a href="e88i1.htm"><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB">Z88I1.TXT</span></a></i><i><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB">, </span><a href="e88i2.htm"><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Z88I2.TXT</span></a></i><i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> , </span><a href="e88i3.htm"><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB">Z88I3.TXT</span></a></i><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">
and <a href="e88i5.htm">Z88I5.TXT</a>
(if needed)</span></i><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">either by an </span><a href="e88ia.htm"><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB">editor, a
word processing program, EXCEL</span></a><span style="" lang="EN-GB">
or an own routine or by modifying data files that came from the CAD
converter Z88X.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><u><span style="" lang="EN-GB">2.2 in Z88: Launch
CAD converter Z88X</span></u></b><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Define which Z88 input
files shall be converted. The DXF-file produced by Z88X is Z88X.DXF. If
the
input files contained polar- or cylindrical coordinates, they are
converted
into cartesian coordinates.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><u><span style="" lang="EN-GB">2.3 in the CAD system:</span></u></b><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Import the DXF file
Z88X.DXF. Save the loaded model or drawing under a valid CAD name (e.g.
at
AutoCAD name.DWG) and work with the drawing. You can switch off and
switch on
the different Z88-layers as you like. <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="font-size: 18pt;" lang="EN-GB">2.7.2
Z88X IN DETAIL</span></b><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Proceed in the following
steps and reserve the following layers </span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Z88GEN: </span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB">Layer for general information (1st
input group in the mesh generator input file </span><a href="e88ni.htm"><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB">Z88NI.TXT</span></a><span style="" lang="EN-GB">
and general structure data file </span><a href="e88i1.htm"><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB">Z88I1.TXT</span></a><span style="" lang="EN-GB">).
Include further the material
information (4th input group in the mesh generator input file Z88NI.TXT
and
general structure data file Z88I1.TXT). Add, if necessary, the data of
the
stress parameter </span><a href="e88i3.htm"><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Z88I3.TXT</span></a><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB">.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Z88KNR:</span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> Layer including the node numbers.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Z88EIO: </span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB">Layer including the element
information like element type and in the case of mesh generator input
file
Z88NI.TXT control information for the mesh generator.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Z88NET: </span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB">Layer containing the mesh which was
drawn or outlined in defined order.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Z88RBD:</span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> Layer containing the contents of
the boundary conditions file </span><a href="e88i2.htm"><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB">Z88I2.TXT</span></a><span style="" lang="EN-GB">.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p style="text-align: justify;" class="MsoNormal"><b style=""><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB">Z88FLA:</span></b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">
Layer containing the surface and pressure loads as defined for <a
 href="e88i5.htm">Z88I5.TXT</a><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">A further layer,<b> Z88PKT</b>,
is produced by Z88X if you convert from Z88 to CAD. It shows all nodes
with a
point marker so that one better recognizes the nodes. For the reverse
step,
from CAD to Z88, it is completely insignificant. <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">1st step:</span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> Design your component in the CAD
system as usual. You do not need to maintain a definite order and you
can use
any layers. It is highly recommended to put symbols on one layer, edges
on
another layer, dimensions on a third layer, invisible lines and center
lines on
a forth layer and so on. This enables you to remove all unnecessary
information
in the next step.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">2nd step:</span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> Plan your mesh subdivision, that
means suitable finite element types and their distribution. Subdivide
the FE
structure or the super structure into elements by lines, insert <b>all</b>
points
which are not yet existing (for example intersection points or
end-points of
lines are usable). Any order and layer. However, it is recommended not
to use
the Z88-layers like Z88NET, Z88GEN, Z88PKT, Z88KNR, Z88EIO and Z88RBD.
Better
define any new layer for this or use already available layers from step
1.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">3rd step:</span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> Define the Z88-Layer Z88KNR and
make it the active layer. Catch or trap every FE node, which were
already
defined in the 1st step by your construction or have been completed in
the 2nd
step, and number them. Write to every node <b>P blank node-number</b>
e.g. <i>P
33</i>, with the TEXT function of the CAD program. Be very careful to
snap
exactly the node and attach the number exactly to the node's location.
Take
your time ! With the snap modes of AutoCAD (intersection point,
end-point,
point etc.) this works well. Choose any order of the work consequence
as you
like, you can well number the node 1 (<i>P 1</i>), then the node 99 (<i>P
99</i>)
and then node 21 (<i>P21</i>). However, the numbering of the nodes must
make
sense and must be meaningfull for a FE analysis. <i>You</i> define
which node
in node 99 and which other node reads 21. Bad node numbering can cause
heavy
(but not really necessary) storage needs and computing times. Consult a
good
FEA book for this aspects.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">4th step:</span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> Define the Layer Z88EIO and make it
the active layer. Write the element information with the TEXT function
anywhere
(of course, it looks nicer with the element infos placed in middle of
the
respective finite element or super element). The order of the work
consequence
is up to you. You can describe element 1 first, step to the attaching
element
17 and then proceed with element 8. However, your element choice and
description must make sense for a FE analysis. The following
information have
to be written:<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">For all finite element
types from 1 to 20 (not 16 and 17):</span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">FE Element number
Element type</span></i><span style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Write into one line,
separate each item by at least one blank. <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Example: An Isoparametric
Serendipity Plane Stress Element No.7 is supposed to get the element
no. 23.
Write e.g. into the middle of the element with the TEXT function <i>FE
23 7</i>
<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">For super-elements
2-dimensional No. 7, 8, 11, 12 and 20</span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">SE<br>
Element number<br>
Super-element type<br>
Type of the finite elements to be produced by meshing<br>
Subdivision in local x direction<br>
Type of subdivision in local x direction<br>
Subdivision in local y direction<br>
Type of subdivision in local y direction</span></i><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Write into one line,
separate each item by at least one blank. <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Example: Sudivide an
Isoparametric Serendipity Plane Stress Element with 12 nodes ( Element
type 11)
used as super-element into finite elements of type 7, i.e.
Isoparametric
Serendipity Plane Stress Elements with 8 nodes (Element type 7).
Subdivide in
local x direction three times equidistantly and subdivide in local y
direction
5 times ascending geometrically. The super element is supposed to have
the
number 31. Write e.g. into the middle of the element with the TEXT
function: <i>SE
31 11 7 3 E 5 L</i> (e or E for equidistant is equivalent)<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">For super-elements
3-dimensional Hexahedrons No.10</span></b><span style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">SE<br>
Element number<br>
Super-element type<br>
Type of the finite elements to be produced by meshing<br>
Subdivision in local x direction<br>
Type of subdivision in local x direction<br>
Subdivision in local y direction<br>
Type of subdivision in local y direction<br>
Subdivision in local z direction<br>
Type of subdivision in local z direction</span></i><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Write into one line,
separate each item by at least one blank. <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Example: Subdivide an
Isoparametric Serendipity Hexahedron with 20 nodes (Element type 10) as
super element
into finite elements of the type Isoparametric Hexahedrons with 8 nodes
(Element type 1). Subdivide equidistantly three times in local x
direction, 5
times ascending geometrically in local y direction and subdivide
equidistantly
4 times in local z direction. The super element is supposed to have the
number
19. Write e.g. into the middle of the element with the TEXT function: <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">SE 19 10 1 3 E 5 L 4 E</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> (e or E for equidistant is
equivalent) <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">5th step:</span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> Define the Layer Z88NET and make it
the active layer You need concentration for this step, because a firm
and rigid
work consequence must now be kept because of the topological
information. One
of the most important information, the coincidence, is defined in this
step,
that means which elements are defined or outlined by which nodes.
Choose a
proper color which differates well from the colors used till now and
remove all
superfluous information by switching off unused layers. <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Select the LINE command and
select the proper snap options e.g. points, intersection points and, if
necessary, end-points.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Start at the first element.
For Z88 the first element is the element with which you start now, that
means
the one which you have chosen for your first element (<i>SE 1 or FE 1</i>).
Select the node you want to be the first node of this element (this can
be e.g.
globally the node 150) and draw a line to the node which shall be the
second
node of this element (this can be e.g. globally the node 67). From
there, draw
a line to the third node of this element (this can be e.g. globally the
node
45). Connect all required nodes with lines and draw at last a line to
the
starting point, the first node, then quit the LINE function.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Then you do the same with
the second element. Remember: <b>You determine with this order which
of the
elements will be the real second element now</b>. In the previous 4th
step you
have only defined what kind of element the second element is. You
determine
here <b>how</b> the element is defined topologically.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">The third element follows
and so on. If you should make a mistake at the outlining of an element
then
delete all previous lines of this element (e.g. with an UNDO function)
and
start again at the first point of the questionable element. But if you
notice
now just outlining element 17 that you have made a mistake at element 9
, then
you must delete all lines of the elements 9 to 17 and restart with
element 9.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">For your comfort, you
must keep the following outline orders which partly differ from the
orders
shown at the element descriptions when entering the coincidence by
hand. Z88X
then sorts internally correctly.</span></b><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Example: The coincidence
for the </span><a href="e88e7.htm"><span style="" lang="EN-GB">element
type 7</span></a><span style="" lang="EN-GB">
is as follows in the element description : First the corner nodes, then
the
middle nodes, reads 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8. The coincidence list must look
like this
in the Z88 input files. However, for Z88X' use for comfortably
outlining the
elements the order is 1-5-2-6-3-7-4-8-1 (left picture) respectively
A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-A (right picture): <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><img src="g88x01.gif" id="_x0000_i1026" height="160" width="487"
 border="0"></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Following the CAD
outline orders for all elements but No. 16 and No.17 (because these
tetrahedrons can only machine- generated, nearly impossible by hand):</span></b><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><a href="e88e7.htm"><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;" lang="EN-GB">Element
No.7</span></a><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;" lang="EN-GB"> and </span><span
 style="font-size: 13.5pt;"><a href="e88e20.htm"><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB">No.20</span></a></span><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;"> <span
 lang="EN-GB">:1 - 5 - 2 -
6 - 3 - 7 - 4 - 8 - 1</span></span><span style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><img src="g88x02.gif" id="_x0000_i1027" height="181" width="230"
 border="0"></p>
<p><a href="e88e8.htm"><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;">Element No.8:</span></a><span
 style="font-size: 13.5pt;"> 1 - 5 - 2 - 6 - 3 - 7 - 4 - 8 - 1</span> </p>
<p><img src="g88x03.gif" id="_x0000_i1028" height="208" width="266"
 border="0"></p>
<p><a href="e88e11.htm"><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;">Element No.11:</span></a><span
 style="font-size: 13.5pt;"> 1 - 5 - 6 - 2 - 7 - 8 - 3 - 9 - 10 - 4 -
11 - 12 - 1</span>
</p>
<p><img src="g88x04.gif" id="_x0000_i1029" height="225" width="285"
 border="0"></p>
<p><a href="e88e12.htm"><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;">Element No.12:</span></a><span
 style="font-size: 13.5pt;"> 1 - 5 - 6 - 2 - 7 - 8 - 3 - 9 - 10 - 4 -
11 - 12 - 1</span>
</p>
<p><img src="g88x05.gif" id="_x0000_i1030" height="257" width="333"
 border="0"></p>
<p><u><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;" lang="EN-GB">Element
No. </span></u><u><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;"><a href="e88e2.htm"><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB">2</span></a></span></u><u><span
 style="font-size: 13.5pt;" lang="EN-GB">, </span></u><u><span
 style="font-size: 13.5pt;"><a href="e88e4.htm"><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB">4</span></a></span></u><u><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;"
 lang="EN-GB">, </span></u><u><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;"><a
 href="e88e5.htm"><span style="" lang="EN-GB">5</span></a></span></u><u><span
 style="font-size: 13.5pt;" lang="EN-GB">, </span></u><u><span
 style="font-size: 13.5pt;"><a href="e88e9.htm"><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB">9</span></a></span></u><u><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;"
 lang="EN-GB">, </span></u><u><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;"><a
 href="e88e13.htm"><span style="" lang="EN-GB">13</span></a></span></u><u><span
 style="font-size: 13.5pt;" lang="EN-GB">:</span></u><span
 style="font-size: 13.5pt;" lang="EN-GB"> Line from node 1
to node 2</span><span style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><img src="g88x06.gif" id="_x0000_i1031" height="155" width="219"
 border="0"></p>
<p><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;" lang="EN-GB">Element </span><span
 style="font-size: 13.5pt;"><a href="e88e3.htm"><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB">No.3</span></a></span><span style="" lang="EN-GB">,
</span><a href="e88e14.htm"><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;"
 lang="EN-GB">14</span></a><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;" lang="EN-GB">,
</span><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;"><a href="e88e15.htm"><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB">15</span></a></span><span
 style="font-size: 13.5pt;" lang="EN-GB"> and </span><span
 style="font-size: 13.5pt;"><a href="e88e18.htm"><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB">18</span></a></span><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;"
 lang="EN-GB"> :1 - 4 - 2 - 5 - 3 - 6 - 1</span><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><img src="g88x07.gif" id="_x0000_i1032" height="191" width="247"
 border="0"></p>
<p><a href="e88e6.htm"><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;">Element No.6:</span></a><span
 style="font-size: 13.5pt;"> 1 - 2 - 3 - 1</span> </p>
<p><img src="g88x08.gif" id="_x0000_i1033" height="194" width="222"
 border="0"></p>
<p><a href="e88e19.htm"><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;">Element No.19:</span></a><span
 style="font-size: 13.5pt; color: black;"> 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 -
8 - 9 -10 -
11 - 12 - 13 - 14 - 15 - 16 - 1</span> </p>
<p><img src="g88x2.gif" id="_x0000_i1034" height="441" width="480"
 border="0"></p>
<p><img src="g88x3.gif" id="_x0000_i1035" height="441" width="480"
 border="0"></p>
<p><a href="e88e1.htm"><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;" lang="EN-GB">Element
No.1:</span></a><span style=""> <span lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;" lang="EN-GB">Upper
plane: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 1, quit LINE function <br>
Lower plane: 5 - 6 -7 - 8 - 5, quit LINE function<br>
1 - 5, quit LINE function<br>
2 - 6, quit LINE function<br>
3 - 7, quit LINE function<br>
4 - 8, quit LINE function</span><span style="" lang="EN-GB">
<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><img src="g88x09.gif" id="_x0000_i1036" height="183" width="270"
 border="0"></p>
<p><a href="e88e10.htm"><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;" lang="EN-GB">Element
No.10:</span></a><span style=""> <span lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;" lang="EN-GB">Upper
plane: 1 - 9 - 2 - 10 - 3 - 11 - 4 -12 - 1, quit LINE function<br>
Lower plane: 5 - 13 - 6 - 14 - 7 - 15 - 8 - 16 - 5, quit LINE function<br>
1 - 17 - 5, quit LINE function<br>
2 - 18 - 6, quit LINE function<br>
3 - 19 - 7, quit LINE function<br>
4 - 20 - 8, quit LINE function</span><span style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><img src="g88x10.gif" id="_x0000_i1037" height="221" width="290"
 border="0"></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">6th step:</span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> Define the layer Z88GEN and switch
it active. Write with the TEXT function into a free space (well into
any place
of your drawing):<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">6.1 general information,</span></b><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> i.e. the first input group of the
general structure data Z88I1.TXT or the mesh generator file Z88NI.TXT, <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">In case of </span><a href="e88i1.htm"><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB">Z88I1.TXT</span></a></b><b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> (i.e. FE mesh):</span></b><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Z88I1.TXT<br>
Dimension of the structure<br>
Number of nodes<br>
Number of finite elements<br>
Number of degrees of freedom DOF<br>
Number of material information lines<br>
Coordinate flag (0 or 1)<br>
Beam flag (0 or 1)<br>
Plate flag (0 or 1)<br>
Surface and pressure load flag (0 or 1)</span></i><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Write into one line,
separate each item by at least one blank. <b>Definitely write in the
layer
Z88GEN.</b> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Example:</span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> 3-dimensional FE structure with 150
nodes, 89 finite elements, 450 degrees of freedom, 5 material
information
lines. Input with cartesian coordinates, structure contains neither
beams No.2
nor beams No.13. Thus <i>Z88I1.TXT 3 150 89 450 5 0 0 0 0</i> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">In case of </span><a href="e88ni.htm"><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB">Z88NI.TXT</span></a></b><b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> (i.e. super structure):</span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Z88NI.TXT<br>
Dimension of the structure<br>
Number of nodes<br>
Number of super element<br>
Number of degrees of freedom DOF<br>
Number of material information lines<br>
Coordinate flag (0 or 1)<br>
Beam flag (must here be 0!)<br>
Plate flag (0 or 1)<br>
Surface and pressure load flag (0 or 1)<br>
Trap radius header flag (most 0)</span></i><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Write into one line,
separate each item by at least one blank. <b>Definitely</b> <b>write
in the
layer Z88GEN.</b><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Example:</span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> 2-dimensional super-structure with
37 nodes, 7 super elements, 74 degrees of freedom, one material
information
line. Cartesian coordinates, no beams (anyway forbidden in the mesh
generator
file), no plates, use default for trap radius. Thus <i>Z88NI.TXT 2 37
7 74 1 0
0 0 0 0</i> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">6.2 Material information
lines: </span></b><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">For every </span><a href="e88i1.htm"><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB">material
information</span></a><span style="" lang="EN-GB"> one
separate line:<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">MAT<br>
Number of the material information<br>
This material information starts with <u>element no. abc</u>
inclusively<br>
This material information ends with <u>element no. xyz</u> inclusively<br>
Young's Modulus<br>
Poisson's Ratio<br>
Integration order (from 1 to 4)<br>
Cross section value (e.g. for plane stress elements thickness, for
trusses
cross section area)</span></i><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><i><u><span style="" lang="EN-GB">... And if beams (but
not plates !) are defined in addition: </span></u></i><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Second moment of inertia
yy (bending around yy axis)<br>
Max. distance from neutral axis yy<br>
Second moment of inertia zz (bending around zz axis)<br>
Max. distance from neutral axis zz<br>
Second moment of area (torsion)<br>
Second modulus (torsion)</span></i><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><i><u><span style="" lang="EN-GB">... And if plates
(but not beams !) are defined in addition: </span></u></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">area load</span></i><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Write into one line,
separate each item by at least one blank. <b>Make sure to</b> <b>write
in the
layer Z88GEN.</b><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Example:</span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> The structure has 34 super elements
type 7 with varying thickness: Elements 1 to 11 have thickness 10 mm,
elements
12 to 28 have 15 mm and elements 29 to 34 have 18 mm. Material steel.
Integration order shall be 2.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">MAT 1 1 11 206000. 0.3 2
10.<br>
MAT 2 12 28 206000. 0.3 2 15.<br>
MAT 3 29 34 206000. 0.3 2 18.</span></i><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">6.3 Stress parameters: </span></b><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">The input line of the
stress parameter file </span><a href="e88i3.htm"><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB">Z88I3.TXT</span></a><span style=""> <span lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p>
<p><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Z88I3.TXT<br>
Integration order (0 to 4)<br>
KFLAG (0 or 1)<br>
Von Mises stresses (0 or 1)</span></i><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Write into one line,
separate each item by at least one blank. <b>Make sure to</b> <b>write
in the
layer Z88GEN.</b><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Example:</span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> The structure uses finite elements
type 7. The stress calculation is supposed to be carried out in 3*3
Gauss
points per element, stresses are supposed to be calculated in addition
radially
and tangentially. Compute von Mises stresses, too. Thus <i>Z88I3.TXT 3
1 1</i><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">7th step:</span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> Define the Layer Z88RBD and
activate it. Write with the TEXT function into a free space (well into
any
place of your drawing):<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">7.1 number of the
boundary conditions</span></b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">,
i.e. the first input group of the boundary condition file </span><a
 href="e88i2.htm"><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Z88I2.TXT</span></a><span
 style=""> <span lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p>
<p><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Z88I2.TXT Number of the
boundary conditions</span></i><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Write into one line,
separate each item by at least one blank. <b>Make sure to</b> <b>write
in the
layer Z88RBD.</b><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Example: </span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB">The structure has 10 boundary
conditions, e.g. two loads and eight constraints i.e. support
reactions. Thus <i>Z88I2.TXT
10</i><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">7.2 Boundary conditions</span></b><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB">, the second input group of the
boundary condition file </span><a href="e88i2.htm"><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB">Z88I2.TXT</span></a><span style=""> <span lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p>
<p><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">RBD<br>
Number of the boundary condition<br>
node number<br>
Degree of freedom<br>
Header flag force/displacement (1 or 2)<br>
Value</span></i><span style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Write into one line,
separate each item by at least one blank. <b>Make sure to</b> <b>write
in the
layer Z88RBD.</b><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Example:</span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> The structure shall be a truss-
framework. Node 1 shall be fixed in Y and Z, node 2 fixed in X and Z.
Nodes 7
and 8 have a load of 30,000 N each in Z direction, pointing down. Node
19 is
fixed in X and Z and node 20 is fixed in Y and Z. Thus <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<table style="" cellpadding="0" border="1" class="MsoNormalTable">
  <tbody>
    <tr style="">
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 39pt;" width="52">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">RBD</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">1</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">1</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">2</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">2</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 59.25pt;" width="79">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">0</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
    </tr>
    <tr style="">
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 39pt;" width="52">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">RBD</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">2</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">1</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">3</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">2</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 59.25pt;" width="79">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">0</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
    </tr>
    <tr style="">
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 39pt;" width="52">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">RBD</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">3</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">2</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">1</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">2</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 59.25pt;" width="79">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">0</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
    </tr>
    <tr style="">
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 39pt;" width="52">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">RBD</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">4</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">2</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">3</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">2</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 59.25pt;" width="79">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">0</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
    </tr>
    <tr style="">
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 39pt;" width="52">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">RBD</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">5</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">7</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">3</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">1</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 59.25pt;" width="79">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">-30000</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
    </tr>
    <tr style="">
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 39pt;" width="52">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">RBD</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">6</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">8</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">3</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">1</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 59.25pt;" width="79">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">-30000</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
    </tr>
    <tr style="">
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 39pt;" width="52">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">RBD</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">7</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">19</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">1</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">2</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 59.25pt;" width="79">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">0</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
    </tr>
    <tr style="">
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 39pt;" width="52">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">RBD</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">8</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">19</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">3</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">2</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 59.25pt;" width="79">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">0</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
    </tr>
    <tr style="">
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 39pt;" width="52">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">RBD</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">9</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">20</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">2</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">2</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 59.25pt;" width="79">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">0</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
    </tr>
    <tr style="">
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 39pt;" width="52">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">RBD</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">10</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">20</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">3</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 28.5pt;" width="38">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">2</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
      <td style="padding: 0.75pt; width: 59.25pt;" width="79">
      <p class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">0</span></i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
      </td>
    </tr>
  </tbody>
</table>
<p style="text-align: justify;" class="MsoNormal"><b style=""><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p>
<p style="text-align: justify;" class="MsoNormal"><b style=""><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB">8th step:</span></b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">
if
surface and pressure loads are defined: create the layer <b style="">Z88FLA</b>
and activate it. <span style="">&nbsp;</span>Write
with the TEXT function into a free space (well into any place of your
drawing):<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">8.1 Number
of surface and pressure loads<o:p></o:p></span></b></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span style="" lang="EN-GB">i.e. the
first input group of the surface and pressure loads file Z88I5.TXT<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Z88I5.TXT<span
 style="">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>number
of surface and pressure loads<o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt;" lang="EN-GB"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
<p style="text-align: justify;" class="MsoNormal"><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB">Write into one line, separate each
item by at least one blank. <b style="">Make sure to</b>
<b style="">write in the layer Z88FLA.<o:p></o:p></b></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Example: The
structure features 12 surface loads. Thus: <i style="">Z88I5.TXT<span
 style="">&nbsp; </span>12<o:p></o:p></i></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">8.2 Surface
and pressure loads<o:p></o:p></span></b></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span style="" lang="EN-GB">i.e. the second
input group of the surface and pressure loads file Z88I5.TXT<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB">FLA number
of the surface and pressure load</span></i><!--[if supportFields]><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='mso-element:field-begin'></span></i><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='mso-ansi-language:
EN-GB'> XE &quot;Randbedingung&quot; </span></i><![endif]--><!--[if supportFields]><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='mso-element:field-end'></span></i><![endif]--><i
 style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><u><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p><span
 style="text-decoration: none;">&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><u><span style="" lang="EN-GB">The following
entries depend from the element type
with surface and pressure load:<o:p></o:p></span></u></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><b style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><b style=""><span style="font-family: Symbol;"><span
 style="">&gt;&gt;</span></span></b><b style=""><span style=""> <span
 lang="EN-GB">Plain stress element No.7 and 14 and Torus elements No.8
and 15:<o:p></o:p></span></span></b></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Element
number with surface load<o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Pressure,
positive if poiting towards the edge <o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Tangential
shear, positive in local r-direction<o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB">3 nodes of
the loaded edge </span></i><!--[if supportFields]><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='mso-element:field-begin'></span></i><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='mso-ansi-language:
EN-GB'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>�</span>XE &quot;Verschiebung&quot; </span></i><![endif]--><!--[if supportFields]><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='mso-element:field-end'></span></i><![endif]--><!--[if supportFields]><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='mso-element:field-begin'></span></i><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='mso-ansi-language:
EN-GB'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>�</span>XE &quot;Verschiebung&quot; </span></i><![endif]--><!--[if supportFields]><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='mso-element:field-end'></span></i><![endif]--><i
 style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
<p class="TNChar"><b style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p>
<p class="TNChar"><b style=""><span
 style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;" lang="EN-GB">Example:
</span></b><span
 style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;" lang="EN-GB">The
plain stress element 97 is the third element with surface
load. The load should be applied onto the edge defined by the corner
nodes 5 and
13 and by the mid node<span style="">&nbsp; </span>51. One surface
load is applied normally to the edge with 100 N/mm and the other
surface load
is applied tangentially and positive in local r direction with 300 N/mm
(defined
by the two corner nodes). Thus:<span style="">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><i
 style="">FLA<span style="">&nbsp;
</span>3<span style="">&nbsp; </span>97<span style="">&nbsp; </span>100.<span
 style="">&nbsp;&nbsp;
</span>300.<span style="">&nbsp; </span>5<span style="">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>13<span
 style="">&nbsp;&nbsp;
</span>51<o:p></o:p></i></span></p>
<p class="T0Char"><i style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><b><span style="font-family: Symbol;"><span
 style="">&gt;&gt;</span></span></b><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">
Hexahedron No.1:<o:p></o:p></span></b></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Element
number with surface and pressure load<o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Pressure,
positive if poiting towards the
surface <o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Tangential
shear, positive in local r direction<o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Tangential
shear, positive in local s direction<o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB">4 nodes of
the loaded surface </span></i><!--[if supportFields]><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='mso-element:field-begin'></span></i><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='mso-ansi-language:
EN-GB'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>�</span>XE &quot;Verschiebung&quot; </span></i><![endif]--><!--[if supportFields]><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='mso-element:field-end'></span></i><![endif]--><!--[if supportFields]><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='mso-element:field-begin'></span></i><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='mso-ansi-language:
EN-GB'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>�</span>XE &quot;Verschiebung&quot; </span></i><![endif]--><!--[if supportFields]><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='mso-element:field-end'></span></i><![endif]--><i
 style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
<h6><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></h6>
<p style="text-align: justify;" class="MsoNormal"><b style=""><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB">Example:</span></b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">
The hexahedron 356<span style="">&nbsp; </span>is the 34th element
with surface loads. The
load should be applied onto the surface defined by the corner nodes 51,
34, 99
und 12 .The first surface load is pressure with 100 N/mm. The second
surface
load is applied tangentially and positive in local r direction with 200
N/mm. The
third surface load is applied tangentially and positive in local s
direction
with 300 N/mm . Thus<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB">FLA<span
 style="">&nbsp;
</span>34<span style="">&nbsp; </span>356<span style="">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>100.<span
 style="">&nbsp;&nbsp;
</span>200.<span style="">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>300.<span style="">&nbsp;&nbsp;
</span>51<span style="">&nbsp;&nbsp;
</span>34<span style="">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>99<span style="">&nbsp;&nbsp;
</span>12<o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><b><span style="font-family: Symbol;"><span
 style="">&gt;&gt;</span></span></b><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">
Hexahedron No.10:<o:p></o:p></span></b></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Element
number with surface and pressure load<o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Pressure,
positive if poiting towards the
surface <o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Tangential
shear, positive in local r direction<o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Tangential
shear, positive in local s direction<o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB">4 nodes of
the loaded surface<br>
&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><!--[if supportFields]><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span
style='mso-element:field-begin'></span></i><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span
lang=EN-GB style='mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'>�</span>XE &quot;Verschiebung&quot; </span></i><![endif]--><!--[if supportFields]><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='mso-element:field-end'></span></i><![endif]--><!--[if supportFields]><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='mso-element:field-begin'></span></i><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='mso-ansi-language:
EN-GB'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>�</span>XE &quot;Verschiebung&quot; </span></i><![endif]--><!--[if supportFields]><i
style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='mso-element:field-end'></span></i><![endif]--><i
 style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><b><span style="font-family: Symbol;"><span
 style="">&gt;&gt;</span></span></b><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">
Plate elements No.18, 19 and 20:<o:p></o:p></span></b></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Element
number with pressure load<o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><i style=""><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Pressure,
positive if poiting towards the
surface <o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span style="" lang="EN-GB">(It is
easier to enter the pressure loads for plate elements directly into
Z88I1.TXT
than via Z88I5.TXT)<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
<p style="text-align: justify;" class="MsoNormal"><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB">Separate each item by at least one
blank. <b style="">Make sure to</b> <b style="">write in the layer
Z88FLA.<o:p></o:p></b></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">9th step:</span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> Export (store) your model or drawing
under the name Z88X.DXF in the DXF file format. For precision of
decimal
positions take the default value which the CAD program suggests. Take
care that
you export directly into the Z88-directory or you must copy the file
Z88X.DXF
by hand into the Z88-directory, because the CAD converter Z88X expects
the
input and output files in the same directory, where Z88X is located. <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="" lang="EN-GB">You may launch the CAD
converter Z88X then.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Note:</span></b><span style=""
 lang="EN-GB"> If you want to convert Z88 text
files as Z88X.DXF to CAD, you can choose the text size which applies to
all
texts like node numbers, element numbers etc. This is very important
from time
to time because there is no possibility in e.g. AutoCAD to change the
text size
globally afterward. From time to time you must make some trys untill
you have
found the suitable text size for the respective Z88 file. Simply call
Z88X once
more with another text size.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Windows:</span></i></b><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> <i>In Z88X: File &gt; Textsize</i> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><i><span style="" lang="EN-GB">UNIX:</span></i></b><i><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> z88x -i1tx | -iatx | -nitx | -i1fx
| -iafx | -nifx -ts number</span></i><span style="" lang="EN-GB"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><b><span style="" lang="EN-GB">Caution, valuable note:</span></b><span
 style="" lang="EN-GB"> Use the Z88X keywords <b>"P
number, FE values, SE values, MAT, RBD, Z88NI.TXT, Z88I1.TXT, Z88I2.TXT
and
Z88I3.TXT"</b> only where they are really needed. Take care that they
do
not appear in other drawing items ! Otherwise Z88X cannot interpret the
DXF
file properly and will flag error messages! <o:p></o:p></span></p>
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