File: INSTALL

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	THIS IS INCREASINLY OUT OF DATE, ONE OF THESE DAYS THIS
	MUST BE REPLACED WITH THE TEXT FROM  doc/manual/zmanual.ps,
	ESPECIALLY THE CHAPTER 2 -- INSTALL.


Installation procedure:

0.	Consider joining ZMailer user-community email list.
	The place to meet the Gurus, in case you have problems..
	See the "Overview"-file.


1.	Cornerstone of everything in busy Internet email routing
	is a well-working DNS server, and modern resolver library.

	If you use the BIND nameserver, you should be using (or install)
	a recent version, at least BIND 4.8.

	At this package there is also bundled resolver from  bind-4.9.4,
	however it is a bit difficult at BSD systems ('cause those
	developers use BSD themselves, and make an assumption that
	everybody has their version of things...  On the other hand,
	those systems have reasonably modern resolvers, so no need to
	worry about it -- I hope.)

	A local cacheing (very least) nameserver does make A LOT of sense,
	and speeds things up considerably (trust me ;-) )
	For  /etc/resolv.conf,  place  'nameserver 127.0.0.1' before other
	addresses (if you have named/bind process running).


2.	If you are on an Ultrix system, replace the mkdep and mklibdep
	scripts in the bin directory with the versions provided in bin/Ultrix.
	(although you propably will not do dependency generation)

3.	This system uses several preferrably separate partitions for
	different things:
		Software binaries, and databases; MAILVAR MAILSHARE MAILBIN..
		The mailbox spool: MAILBOX ( /var/mail )
		The postoffice spool: POSTOFFICE ( /var/spool/postoffice )
		The log directory: LOGDIR ( /var/log/mail )

	We use GNU-autoconfig mechanism, however you may still need to
	touch on some files after that system has run thru:

	You MUST define   --prefix=  so that ZMailer components end up
	in reasonable places.  The MAILBIN (and MAILSHARE, and MAILVAR)
	variable values are derived from the  --prefix=, which can cause
	surprises if you do 'make install' with GNU autoconfig defaults...

	When choosing your prefix, do try to keep is fairly short, as
	there are a few scripts which catenate string-components of:
		"#! "+prefix+"/bin/router -f"
	and usually systems have a limit of 32 characters for that,
	which gives at most 15 characters for your prefix!

	Also, if the   /etc/zmailer.conf   -file exists, it is read
	to initialize several different environment paths (including
	MAILBIN, et.al.!)

	# ./configure --prefix=/opt/mail	\
		--with-postoffice=/var/spool/postoffice		\
		--with-mailbox=/var/mail			\
		--with-logdir=/var/log/mail			\
		--with-zmailer-conf=/etc/zmailer.conf

	Or an example from my development machine:

	$ ./configure --prefix=/opt/mail
	creating cache ./config.cache
	***
	*** You can set  ZCONFIG  environment variable to define
	*** the location of the (default) /etc/zmailer.conf -file
	*** (You can use also   --with-zconfig=  -parameter)
	***
	*** Consider also setting following parameters:
	***   --mandir=DIR     -- for man-pages
	***   --libdir=DIR     -- for libzmailer(3)
	***   --includedir=DIR -- for libzmailer(3)
	*** (They can be outside the --prefix=DIR -tree)
	***
	*** You can set CC, and CFLAGS  environment variables to
	*** choose the C-compiler, and its options, especially at
	*** systems where there are multiple choices to use...
	***
	...

	You can also go into a subdirectory, and configure and
	compile there: (But it may need GNU-make as system 'make'!)
		mkdir myhost ; cd myhost
		../configure ...
		make ...

	See if  SiteConfig  -file makes sense now, if not, you can tune
	most of the values with various "--with-*=" -keywords:
		./configure --help
	and those that you can't tune, you can edit at the   SiteConfig.in
	file.  (Redo the configure with new parameters, if it looks to be
	necessary.)

	Additional examples:

		CFLAGS="-O -g3 -std1" CC="cc -migrate" ./configure   \
			--prefix=/l/mail  --with-bundled-libresolv   \
			--with-system-malloc
		( DEC OSF/1 at nic.funet.fi  with DECs best compiler.. )

		CC="cc -O" ./configure --prefix=/opt/mail	\
			--with-bundled-libresolv
		( Sun Solaris 2.5  at mailhost.utu.fi, SunSoft CC )

		./configure --prefix=/opt/mail --with-bundled-libresolv \
			--with-gcc
		( Sun Solaris 2.5  at mailhost.utu.fi, gcc-2.7.2 )

		./configure --prefix=/l/mail
		( Linux-2.0.x/libc-5.4.2 at mea.cc.utu.fi, gcc-2.7.2 )

		./configure --prefix=/opt/mail --with-ipv6 \
				--with-ipv6-replacement-libc
		( DEC Alpha Linux 2.1.59 with glibc-2.0.5c;
		  RedHat/Alpha developement 22-Oct-1997 )


	Explanations about these configuration options are listed
	in file  doc/guides/configure


	DO NOTE:  In the  contrib/ directory there is ``whoson-*.tar.gz''
	server package which may be of interest to you in case you need
	to allow easy (to users) access for relaying to your users from
	where-ever they are traveling.  When that daemon is installed,
	and the pop/imap servers are patched to use it, a successfull
	message-store retrieve operation (login to do it) can open otherwise
	restricted relaying to user's IP address for a configurable time.

	When that package is installed into the system into one of several
	possible default locations, the ./configure of ZMailer will
	detect it, and add hooks for it into smtpserver's facilities.
	There exists also  --with-whoson=  option to tell the script
	about unusual locations..  (Like "/l" which means directories:
	"/l/include/", and "/l/lib/" for the header, and the client
	library respectively.)

4.	At the toplevel, run

		make

	or perhaps:

		make clean all

	which at first cleans everything, and then makes -- great if you
	changed some configuration parameters.

	This should compile everything, and leave a zmailer.Config file in
	the toplevel directory.  Nothing outside the source area will be
	touched at this point.

	(If your system ``make'' lets your shell ``SHELL''-environment
	 affect its own execution environment, it may be that non sh/ksh/zsh
	 users detect weird phenomena, and failures..  Beware!)


5.	If you are currently running a zmailer, kill off all mailer processes
	using

		zmailer kill

	and save the state of your system.  This includes any active
	contents of the postoffice, as well as database files and
	anything else in the installation areas you want to be sure
	to keep.  This is just paranoia, the installation should not
	overwrite precious files, and will save old versions of
	distribution files in "bak" subdirectories.

	The interface in between the commonly used sendmail, and ZMailer
	is a "compability program", which is to replace the /usr/lib/sendmail
	(aka /usr/sbin/sendmail on some systems).
	The system attempts to automate the replacement, but it MAY present
	a cry for help, if your system does not have functioning symlinks.
	Also if ``test -h $(SENDMAILPATH)'' does fault in mysterious ways,
	the reason may be that your system does not have symlinks...

	If you are currently running Sendmail, kill your SMTP server
	and drain the Sendmail queue.  There is no automatic method
	to requeue Sendmail messages under ZMailer.  If you later want
	to back out to Sendmail, all you need to do is move the former
	version of the sendmail (on /usr/lib/sendmail.bak, for example)
	binary back to /usr/lib/sendmail.
	(You may also need to do some magics with system startup scripts
	 in case you are running SysV-style init..  BSD /etc/rc.local
	 does need its own gymnastics too..)

	A sort of method to quickly handle your sendmail queue is to
	start ZMailer's smtp server, reconfigure the old sendmail to
	use smarthost, which happens to be at the same machine.
	(Or at an adjacent machine if you moved the queue, or ...)
	Anyway the point is to get the sendmail to send its queue
	via SMTP to the ZMailer.

6.	Once you are safe, run either:

		# make install

	(this installs all binaries and the default database files, which
	 still need editing! See below.)

	... or if you just want to have the new BINARIES without touching
	at your configurations (MAILSHARE/cf/*.cf) and reply forms
	(MAILSHARE/forms/*) files:

		# make install-bin

	All programs are stored into  $MAILBIN/, and $MAILBIN/ta/, and
	possible older binaries are saved into "bak" subdirectories.

	This step should be non-destructive (anything replaced will be
	saved in a 'bak' directory, and for some customizable files, if
	they exist new versions won't replace them).

	Final variant of "install" commands is:

		# make install-cf

	which will install just the various cf files (MAILSHARE/cf/*.cf,
	and MAILSHARE/*.conf) BUT WILL NOT OVERWRITE EXISTING ONES!


	If this is not a from-scratch installation, be aware that the
	install procedure will NOT replace some of the files in MAILSHARE
	with the equivalents from the distribution.  Specifically, the
	$MAILSHARE/cf/*, $MAILVAR/db/aliases, $MAILVAR/db/routes, and
	$MAILVAR/db/localnames files are never replaced if they already
	exist.  The $MAILSHARE/forms/* files are always replaced, but the
	old files will be saved in a 'bak' directory.


    ==> $MAILSHARE/router.cf

	You must now pick a toplevel router configuration file.  The
	default is provided in proto/cf/SMTP+UUCP.cf (by now copied to
	$MAILSHARE/cf/SMTP+UUCP.cf).  You need to create $MAILSHARE/router.cf.
	The simplest method is to make it symbolic link to, or copy of,
	the cf/SMTP+UUCP.cf file.
	Some real-life samples of ``router.cf'' are at the proto/ directory.


	Go into the man directory, and install the manual pages by hand:

		cd man ; make install

	or in case the default guessing didn't get it right:

		cd man ; make install MANDIR=/our/manpages


	You can also install into alternate tree (this to assist package
	builders), although you need to prepare the directory tree at first.
	For example:

		prefix=/var/tmp/build make install

	However this does not create the intermediate directories leading
	from $prefix to various trees, like $POSTOFFICE, $MAILVAR, $MAILBIN,
	$MAILSHARE, $MAILLOG, etc.


7.	If you are using the default configuration setup, the router.cf file
	expects to find a /etc/mail.conf file containing three variable
	definitions;

    ==> /etc/mail.conf

		# Where am I?
		orgdomain=domain
		# Who am I?
		hostname=host.subdomain.$orgdomain
		# Who do I claim to be?
		mydomain=subdomain.$orgdomain

	For example:

		orgdomain=toronto.edu
		hostname=relay.cs.$orgdomain
		mydomain=cs.$orgdomain

	Create /etc/mail.conf with appropriate contents.  If you are a
	multi-host site, determining these things can be automated according
	to your local policies and conventions.  See the files specific to
	the University of Toronto (UT*.cf) for examples of this.

	Location of this file is written in  $MAILSHARE/router.cf,  at which
	you can alter it..  Into $MAILSHARE/mail.conf -- for example.


    ==> /etc/group : zmailer -group

	The default configuration also expects to find names of trusted users
	listed at  /etc/group -entry:  zmailer.  Users (unames) listed there
	will be able to claim any addresses at the message headers, etc.
	(See $MAILSHARE/cf/trusted.cf  for its usage there.)
	The usual MINIMAL set is:  root,daemon,uucp
	(Note: At some machines 'daemon' is called 'daemons'; it MUST be on
	 that group for the smtpserver to work properly!)

	If you have multiple incoming UUCICO with different uids (not all
	using 'uucp' user), you may want to add all those into the zmailer
	group.

    ==>	SECURITY ITEM: Those users at zmailer-group MUST NOT contain 'nobody' !
	(The 'nobody' is used to prevent externally given inputs from being
	 able to execute arbitary programs at the system, or from writing to
	 arbitary files..)


	At this point, you should be able to start the router process in
	interactive mode.  Run:

		$MAILBIN/router -i

	or

		/usr/lib/sendmail -bt

	You should see something like:

		ZMailer router (2.99.49p9 #4: Wed Jul 23 01:24:37 EET DST 1997)
		  mea@mea:/home/mea/src/zmailer-2.99.49p5/router
		Copyright 1992 Rayan S. Zachariassen
		Copyright 1992-1997 Matti Aarnio

		z#

	If there are errors in the configuration file, you will be told here.

	The 'z#' is the interactive prompt for root.

	It is unlikely you can do anything useful before setting up the
	data files, so get out of this by hitting EOF, or type 'exit'.


8.	Now you should merge, replace, or check the default database and
	forms files with your previous setup.

	Pay particular attention to the following items:

   ==>	You may want to add a symbolic link from some directory in your path
	to $MAILBIN/zmailer, if you don't already have this.  I put this link
	into /usr/local/sbin.

   ==>	$MAILVAR/db/aliases file:

	The provided skeleton aliases file on purpose contains syntax errors,
	so you are reminded to change the contents.

	The aliases database is rebuilt using the $MAILBIN/newaliases script.
	This can be invoked in several ways: directly as a command if you
	have /usr/ucb/newaliases symlinked properly, or by "zmailer newaliases"
	or "sendmail -bi" if the ZMailer sendmail replacement is installed.

	Choose one of the following methods to rebuild the database:

	# $MAILBIN/newaliases
	# $MAILBIN/zmailer newaliases
	# /usr/lib/sendmail -bi
	# ln -s /usr/lib/sendmail /usr/ucb/newaliases ; /usr/ucb/newaliases

	If there are errors, correct them in the $MAILVAR/db/aliases file
	and repeat the command until the alias database has been initialized.
	The final message should look something like:

		319 aliases, longest 209 bytes, 16695 bytes total

	See also IETF's RFC 2142: "Mailbox Names for Common Services, Roles and
	Functions", for other suggestable aliases you may need.


   ==>	$MAILVAR/db/localnames file:

	Add the hostnames you want ZMailer to do local delivery for, to the
	$MAILVAR/db/localnames file.  Due to my own belief in Murphy,
	I usually add partially qualified domain names and nicknames in
	addition to canonicalized names.  If you want to do local delivery
	for mail clients, put their names in here too.  You may use pathalias-
	style .domain names in this file, to indicate everything under some
	subdomain.

	With the sample config files for mea's Zmailer-2.98, and latter
	this "localnames" is actually a mapping of those various names to
	the desired forms of the canonic name, thus an example:

	astro.utu.fi		astro.utu.fi
	oj287			astro.utu.fi
	oj287.astro.utu.fi	oj287.astro.utu.fi
	oj287.utu.fi		astro.utu.fi
	sirius			sirius.utu.fi
	sirius.astro.utu.fi	sirius.utu.fi
	sirius.utu.fi		sirius.utu.fi

	REMEMBER: ALL NAMES THAT THE HOST MAY EVER HAVE NEED TO BE LISTED
		  IN HERE!  It reminds you of them, and makes sure a message
		  destined into the host really is accepted.

	Compile this into runtime binary database with command:
		zmailer new-localnames
	(fall-back method is sequential rescan of the text file)

	Actually in certain cases the router is able to deduce some of
	the names, however smtpserver anti-relay policy compiler will
	not be able to do so, and needs this data badly!

  ==>	$MAILVAR/db/routes file:

	Add any UUCP neighbours or other special cases to this file.  For
	example (remember to keep the entries sorted):

	.toronto.ca			error!err.wrongname
	.toronto.cdn			error!err.wrongname
	alberta				uucp!alberta
	atina				smtp![140.191.2.2]
	calgary				smtp!cs-sun-fsa.cpsc.ucalgary.ca
	icnucevm.bitnet			smtp!icnucevm.cnuce.cnr.it

	Compile this into runtime binary database with command:
		zmailer new-routes
	(fall-back method is sequential rescan of the text file)

   ==>	$MAILVAR/db/fqdnaliases file:

	The fqdnaliases database is for mapping fully-qualified user
	addresses to others -- for example you machine has a set of
	domain-names for it to consider local, but you want to have
	separate people to be postmasters for each of them:
		postmaster@domain1: person1
		postmaster@domain2: person2
		postmaster@domain3: person3

	This facility is always in stand-by -- just add the file, and
	you have it.

	You may even handle just a few users for each of those domains, and
	then have routes entry (see above) to declare something suitable:
		.domain1	error!nosuchuser
	which combined with the fqdnalias-method will let <postmaster@domain1>
	to exist, and report error on all others...

	The fqdnaliases database is rebuilt using the $MAILBIN/newfqdnaliases
	script.  This can be invoked in several ways: directly as a command
	by executing  $MAILBIN/newfqdnaliases, or by "zmailer newfqdnaliases".

	Compile this into runtime binary database with command:
		zmailer newfqdnaliases

	If there are errors, correct them in the $MAILVAR/db/fqdnaliases file
	and repeat the command until the alias database has been initialized.
	The final message looks similar to that of the ordinary aliases case.

9.	If your hostname and UUCP node name are not identical, put your
	UUCP node name in the file /etc/name.uucp (or /etc/uucpname).

	If you are on BITNET, put your BITNET node name in /etc/name.bitnet
	(or /usr/lib/urep/BITNETNAME).
	(And if you really need BITNET stuff, have a look at:
		ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/unix/networking/bitnet/ )


10.	At this point, you should be able to start the router again in
	interactive mode, and ask it to route addresses.  Try:

		/usr/lib/sendmail -bt

	at the prompt:

		z# router you

	should print out:

		(((local you you default_attributes)))

	Keep playing around with various addresses until you get a feel for it.

	Modify the configuration file if your setup requires it.


11.	Add the following line to /etc/services in the section for
	host-specific services:

	mailq		174/tcp			# Mailer transport queue


12.	The smtpserver can be configured to behave smartly in regards of
	relay-hijacks and (to some extent) spam email.

	To get it to work needs  $MAILSHARE/smtpserver.conf  file with
	proper values in it PLUS use of policy-builder.sh script.
	For more details see file:  doc/guides/smtp-policy

	TO BLOCK RELAY-HIJACKS, YOU MUST CONFIGURE AND RUN THE UTILITY
		policy-builder.sh

	Perhaps you need only to run that script, but running it is
	mandatory for things to work!

	The default  $MAILSHARE/smtpserver.conf  file REQUIRES use of
	the policy code, but you can disable that (and thus have wide-
	open doors for abuse -- but perhaps ok for intranet) stuff by
	commenting out line:  "PARAM policydb ..." in the file.

13.	At the start the scheduler reads  $MAILSHARE/scheduler.conf  file
	for the instructions about how to handle router produced files with
	recipient addresses.   Propably the default boiler-plate file is
	sufficient for you, but have a look at it anyway.
	You will need to tinker with it for example when you want to
	use 'Cyrus' server for local message store.
	(See doc/guides/ files)

14.	Add something like the following lines to bootup scripts (/etc/rc.local
	or /etc/rc2.d/S99local or similar):

	if [ -r /etc/zmailer.conf ]; then
	(
		. /etc/zmailer.conf
		if [ ${MAILSERVER-NONE} = NONE -a -x $MAILBIN/zmailer ]; then
			$MAILBIN/zmailer bootclean
			$MAILBIN/zmailer & (echo -n ' zmailer')	>/dev/console
		fi
	)
	fi

	For SysV-init environments, see:  utils/zmailer.init.sh

	You may want to comment out startup of the Sendmail daemon.


15.	Edit several of the canned error messages and programs (scripts)
	to reflect your local configuration:
		- $MAILSHARE/forms/ -files
		- $MAILBIN/ta/usenet  (injected message..)


16.	Read the notes on alias expansion in the file doc/guides/aliases and
	on mailing list maintenance in doc/guides/lists.


17.	Start ZMailer:

		$MAILBIN/zmailer


18.	Keep an eye on the log files ($LOGDIR/{router,scheduler}),
	the $POSTOFFICE/postman directory for malformed message files,
	and $POSTOFFICE/deferred in case of resource problems.


19.	Add the following entry (or equivalent) to your crontab:

		28 0,8,16 * * * . /etc/zmailer.conf ; $MAILBIN/zmailer resubmit

	This will resubmit messages that have been deferred with no
	useful processing possible at time of deferral.  Adjust the
	resubmission interval to suit your environment.

	You may also want to regularly clean out the $POSTOFFICE/public
	and $POSTOFFICE/postman directories:

		7 4 * * * . /etc/zmailer.conf ; $MAILBIN/zmailer cleanup

	You may want to hardwire the location of the zmailer script.


20.	Once satisfied that things appear to work, you may want to trim down
	logging: there are 4 kinds of logging to deal with:

	- router logs, usually kept in $LOGDIR/router.  This is the stdout
	  and stderr output of the router daemon.  If you wish to turn it off,
	  invoke router with a "-L/dev/null" option, i.e. change the zmailer
	  script.  Alternatively, modify the log() function in the
	  configuration file, or its invocations.
	*** NOTE, THIS IS INCORRECT INFO, see  $MAILSHARE/cf/standard.cf for
	*** routine   dribble(),  and especially its invocations!

	- scheduler logs, usually kept in $LOGDIR/scheduler.  Same as router.

	- general mail logs, usually kept in syslog files, depending on how
	  you have configured the syslog utility (/etc/syslog.conf).  All
	  ZMailer programs log using the LOG_MAIL facility code for normal
	  messages.  You can deal with this specifically in your syslog
	  configuration file on systems with a 4.3bsd-based syslog.  The
	  following reflects the recommended configuration on SunOS 4.0:

		mail.crit		/var/log/syslog
		mail.debug		/var/log/mail

	  For pre-4.3bsd-based syslogs, you may want the syslog log file
	  to be just for important messages (e.g. LOG_NOTICE and higher
	  priority), and have a separate file for informational messages
	  (LOG_DEBUG and up).

	- By default, the postmaster will receive a copy of all bounced
	  mail; this can be turned off selectively by simply editing the
	  various canned forms used to create the error messages.  These
	  forms are located in the FORMSDIR (proto/forms in the distribution,
	  or $MAILSHARE/forms when installed).  You should review these
	  in any case to make sure the text is appropriate for your site.


	Sources have a utility script which may form basis of your ZMailer
	log rotation script:  utils/rotate-logs.sh


Installation on clients:

The following files/programs are needed on clients:

	/etc/zmailer.conf	- the MAILSERVER variable may be set to the
				  mail server host's name.  This is not
				  required as 'mailq' will usually be able
				  to discover this by itself.

	/usr/lib/sendmail	- to submit mail

	mailq			- should be installed in the site's local
				  bin so people can query the mail server.
				  (remember to update /etc/services)

	$POSTOFFICE		- this directory from the server should 
				  be mounted and writable.

NFS:	(Mostly at client machines, but also at servers..)

	If you for some obscure reason are mounting MAILBOXes
	and/or POSTOFFICE hierarchies via NFS, do it with
	options to disable various attribute caches:

			actimeo=0
	alias:		noac

	The best advice is to NOT to mount anything over NFS,
	but some people can't be persuaded...
	Lots of things are done where file attributes play important
	role, and they are extremely important to be in sync!
	(Sure, the 'noac' slows down the system, but avoids errors
	 caused by bad caches..)

	If you are mounting people's home directories ( .forward et.al. )
	via NFS, consider the same rule!


Often if the mail-folder directory is shared, also (depending upon the system):
	/usr/mail
	/usr/spool/mail
	/var/mail
	/var/spool/mail


(Rayan Zachariasen 1988-1990, Matti Aarnio 1993-1998)